D A Lyubenov - Road safety estimation in bulgaria from 1990 to 2010 - страница 1
Lyubenov D.A., Marinov M.M., Kostadinov S.A., Gelkov Zg.R.
ROAD SAFETY ESTIMATION IN BULGARIA FROM 1990 TO 2010
In this paper are presented statistic trend in road traffic accidents and results for the road safety in Bulgaria from 1990 to 2010. The number of vehicles and inhabitants, number of killed, motorization rate, mortality index, accident rate and road safety index for the period are presented.
Key words: Road safety, Motorization rate, Mortality index, Road safety index.
Along with the positive role the country's economy, road transport has several downsides. The most serious among them are road traffic accidents. Changes in the economic and social sphere in the period in our country is reflected in a categorical way the state of traffic safety. The statistics show that there are substantial changes in the last six or seven years. Any accident resulting in socio-economic costs associated with medical care, loss of economic potential, pain and suffering, property damage, law costs, police costs, etc.
The aim of this work is to investigate accidents in Bulgaria for the period 1990 - 2010 and then be identified measures to improve road safety. To achieve this goal must decide the following tasks: collecting data on traffic accidents and other information for the period 1990 - 2010, specifying the indicators for evaluation, testing and evaluating the safety of traffic on the specified parameters, analyzing influence of individual factors on accident.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Existing until 1989 factors that affect the condition of the road safety as a result of general economic downturn, were added and new, which is particularly accentuated during the period . Among them is increased number of vehicles. During the period 1990-2010 has increased by about 1.6 million vehicles. This puts increasing demands on communication and organization of movement, lack of sufficient funds for maintenance and repair of roads and road facilities, travel accessories etc.
The comparative analysis of traffic safety is formulated as a systematic and comprehensive research, measuring and summarizing the impact of individual factors on road safety in their dynamic development. The comparison gives us a general idea and the basis for further in-depth research.
Fig. 1 presents data on the number in millions of vehicles and inhabitants of Bulgaria for the period 1990 -2010 [3,5]
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010
-Vehicles -Inhabitants Year
Fig. 1. Trend in number of vehicles and inhabitants, 1990 - 2010
The trend of continuous increase of vehicles are clear. For the period the vehicles have increased 1.72 times. 2006 was the deadline for re-registration of vehicles and its were de-registered 1 114 207 vehicles. For the period the population in Bulgaria has decreased by 1 164 401 people.
Fig. 2 presents data on the number of killed in road accidents for the period 1990 - 2010 in Bulgaria .
Number of Killed
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010
Fig. 2. Trend in road traffic accidents, 1990 - 2010
Fig. 2 shows that in 1990 the number of killed people in accidents was highest - 1 567, while the lowest was in 2010 - 775 people. Reduction of the number of killed people for the period is more than twice. For comparison it should be noted that in 1990 the number of accidents was 6478 and in 2010 - 6610, relatively close.
It should be noted that on general quantitative indicators of accidents have affected various economic factors. In 1991 there is a lack of fuel, which has led to a decline in the number of deaths in the previous year to 453, which is about 30%. In 1997, there has been a political and economic crisis that also led to a reduction in the number of people killed in road crashes. These factors are beneficial for the road safety situation. Although not fully achieved the goal set in the National Strategy to improve traffic safety, at the end of 2010. number of people killed in road accident in Bulgaria must be reduced to 700, the decrease was more than doubled in 2010 compared to 1990 Except for the period 2006-2008 there is a tendency for a sustainable reduction in the number of deaths in accident.
Fig. 3. shows the distribution of accidents in Bulgaria from 2006 to 2010 by main reason in percent. In the registration card crashes were recorded six reason of the accident .
□ Driver fault □ Technical failure □ Passenger fault
□ Pedestrian fault ■ Road conditions □ Others
Fig. 3. Distribution road traffic accidents by reason, %
As can be seen (Fig. 3), the largest is proportion of drivers violations of the occurrence of accidents and their consequences, followed by violations of pedestrians. It is noteworthy the low proportion of poor road conditions as a reason for the occurrence of accidents - 0.10% and technical failure of the vehicle - 0.8%. Important to determine the main cause of accidents, have the knowledge and skills of individuals who completed the registration card. For this type of accident, the card must be made within 24 hours. And in this period should be determined by the official cause of the accident.
It follows from the conclusion that specified in the registration card cause of the accident is not always true. Therefore, statistics that should be considered carefully.
The severity of the consequences of accidents can be presented to the relative index severity coefficient [1,
cs = l±L (1)
where F is fatalities in road accidents; I - injured in road accidents; A - is the number of road accidents in the country.
The indicator "mortality coefficient" can be calculated as a probability for death in road accidents:
Fig. 4 and 5 are presented data on rates of mortality and severity depending on the cause of the accident.
Driver fault Technical Passenger Pedestrian Road failure fault fault conditions
Fig. 4. Severity coefficient in road traffic accidents
Most serious are consequences (Fig. 4) by reasons for unsatisfactory road conditions - 1.62. As a reason for the occurrence of accidents technical failure has a small percentage, but the severity of the consequences due to technical failure are the second - 1.47. Apart from other reasons, which are generally unknown, the highest (Fig. 5) mortality is a pedestrian accident - 0.23 followed by those due to technical failure - 0.12. In the first type of this value is attributable to the vulnerability of pedestrians, while the accident due to technical failure explanation is that they are at a higher speed.
After Bulgaria's accession to the European Union, the question arises to compare of road safety in the Union. Objective assessment can be made using the following mathematical expression [1, 2, 4]:
SI = V MR2 + AR2 + MI2 (3)
where MR is a relationship between number of vehicles and the population, known as "Motorization rate";
AR - is a relationship between road traffic accidents and number of vehicles, known as "Accident rate"; MI - is a relationship between fatalities and injured persons in road traffic accidents, known as "Mortality
Fig. 5. Mortality coefficient in road traffic accidents
To received a balanced estimation the predominate partial estimations must be fron zero to one. By this way they received equal appearance in the integral estimation when compare countries. Motorization rate is calculate by:
MR = V/P, (4)
where V is the total number of vehicles (mopeds, motorcycles, cars, trucks and buses) at the end of the year; P - population at the end of that period. Accident rate can be calculate by the following equation:
AR = A/V.10-2, (5)
Where A is the number of road traffic accidents in the country, officially registered for the period. The mortality index in road traffic accidents can be calculate by the following equation:
MI = 10F/(F +1), (6)
where F is a fatalities in road traffic accidents; I - injured persons.
From the mean value for the indicators showed that the motorization rate increases continuously and this indicator in 2010 was 1.98 times higher than in 1990 motorization rate has almost doubled over the period. For reasons explained above in 2006 the motorization rate is lower than its predecessor.
The indicator for active safety - accident rate, which influences on the number of accidents has variable values over the years. Highest value of accident rate in 1992 is 0.29 (for obvious reasons, excluded values in 2006). The most favorable value is this indicator in 2010 - 0.17.
MR, AR, MI
0,0 n , , , , , , , , ,
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 — MR —AR —MI Year
Fig. 6. Motorization rate, Accident rate and Mortality index, 1990 - 2010
1,8 1,6 1,4 1,2 1,0 0,8
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010
Fig. 7. Road safety index, 1990 - 2010
The mortality index in accidents is relatively stable decreasing trend throughout the period - from 1.87 in 1990 to 0.87 in 2010.
The road safety index for the whole period is also sustainable downward trend. In 1990, this index had the highest value - 1.91, and lowest in 2005 - 1.01. Over the next four years from 2006 to 2009, this index increased, and in 2010 the road safety index dropped to 1.03.
From the analysis of statistic trend in road traffic accidents and results for the road safety in Bulgaria from 1990 to 2010 can determine the status of road safety in a region, and therefore conclusions about the country and then be identified and measures to improve road safety.
As a result of analysis of car accident and road safety in Bulgaria from 1990 to 2010, can be made the following conclusions:
1. Most number of killed in road traffic accidents was in 1990 - 1567 people. The smallest number of killed was in 2010 - 775 people. Except for the period 2006 - 2008 there is a tendency for a sustainable reduction in the number of killed in road traffic accidents, the reduction for the period is more than twice.
2. Most accidents occur on the fault of drivers. It is noteworthy the low proportion of bad road conditions as a reason for the occurrence of traffic accidents (0.10%) and technical failure of the vehicles (0.8%). Specified in the registration card cause of the accident is not always true. Therefore, statistics that should be considered carefully.
3. The highest severity of the consequences reasons for unsatisfactory road conditions - 1.62, followed by traffic accidents due to technical failure - 1.47. Apart from other reasons, which are generally unknown, the highest mortality is in a pedestrian accident - 0.23 followed by those due to technical failure - 0.12.
4. The data on the number of vehicles and population of Bulgaria for the period are clearly outlined trends for continuous increase of vehicles, for the period number of vehicles increase 1.72 times. During this period the population in Bulgaria has decreased by 1,164,400 people.
5. Road safety index from 1990 to 2010 has sustained downward trend.
The study was supported by contract № BG051PO001-3.3.04/28, "Support for the Scientific Staff Development in the Field of Engineering Research and Innovation". The project is funded with support from the Operational Program "Human Resources Development" 2007-2013, financed by the European Social Fund of the European Union.
1. Gelkov Zh.: "Comparative Road Safety Estimation". VII International Conference CAR'97. Pitesti, 1997.
2. Oppe, S.: "A Comparison of Some Statistical Techniques for Road Accident Analysis". Accid. Anal. And Prev., vol 24, N4, 1992.
3. Kostadinov S., D. Lyubenov, M. Marinov, M.Milchev.: ,ANALYS OF THE ROAD ACCIDENT DATA FROM 2005 TO 2010 IN BULGARIA". Ecologica. Belgrade, 2011.
4. Гелков Ж.Р., Д.Г. Симеонов.: "Сравнително оценяване на пътната безопасност". Сб. Доклади от IX научна конференция ТЕМПТ96, част І.
6. Симеонов Д., В. Пенчева.: Взаимодействие на видовете транспорт. Русенски университет. Русе. 2001.
В настоящей статье приведены данные о дорожно-транспортных происшествиях в Болгарии за период 1990 -2010 год. Указаны параметры для исследования и оценки безопасности дорожного движения. Проанализировано влияние отдельных факторов на дорожно-транспортные инциденты. Из анализа этих данных можно определить состояние безопасности дорожного движения в регионе или по всей стране и определить эффективные программы, направленные на улучшение безопасности дорожного движения. Использовано 5 литературных источников
Ключевые слова: безопасность, дорожно-транспортные происшествия.
У даній статті наведені дані про дорожньо-транспортні випадки в Болгарії за період 1990 - 2010 рік. Визначені параметри для дослідження і оцінки безпеки дорожнього руху. Проаналізовано вплив окремих факторів на дорожньо-транспортні інциденти. З аналізу цих даних можна оцінити стан безпеки дорожнього руху в регіоні або по всій країні і визначити ефективні програми, спрямовані на поліпшення безпеки дорожнього руху. Використано 5 літературних джерел
Ключові слова: безпека, дорожньо-транспортних випадках.
Doctor of Engineering, Asist. Professor, Department of Transport - University
----- ~~ ——D, — ----_^—
of Ruse, 8 Studentska Str., 7017 Ruse, Bulgaria.
Doctor of Engineering, Professor, Department of Transport - University of
Ruse, 8 Studentska Str.,7017 Ruse,Bulgaria.
PhD Student, Department of Transport - University of Ruse, 8 Studentska Str.,
7017 Ruse, Bulgaria.
Asist. Professor, Department of Transport - University of Ruse, 8 Studentska Str., 7017 Ruse, Bulgaria.
Assoc. prof. Velizara Pencheva, PhD