Автор неизвестен - The analysis of the lexico-semantic field magic actions - страница 1
Національний університет "Острозька академія "
THE ANALYSIS OF THE LEXICO-SEMANTIC FIELD "MAGIC ACTIONS"
The vocabulary of the English language is huge and unites almost half a million of words. Depending on the situation, period of time, place and even mood, people tend to use lexical units that are completely different [3:89]. Words in our language are not isolated. They are parts of separate groups and microsystems, and every word has its own place in these unities [1:210]. All words we use in our everyday communication are parts of the lexico-semantic system that includes variety of relations between its constituents and is opened for the appearance of new words [2:62].
As it was already mentioned, there is a wide range of relations that can exist between the members of the lexico-semantic system. In our research we have focused on the paradigmatic relations. Paradigmatic relations are those relations between words and word groups that are based on similarity or opposition of their meanings [2:265]. The largest paradigmatic unity is lexico-semantic field - a group of lexical units that
are united via the same meaning and correspond to the same fragment of reality . A lot of works are devoted to the description and analysis of this phenomenon. However, no researches were conducted to study the lexico-semantic field of magic actions.
After the detailed analysis of the lexical units that are used to name magic actions, 8 lexico-semantic groups that constitute lexico-semantic field were formed: MAGIC CREATURES; CHARMED OBJECTS; MAGIC WAYS OF TRAVELLING; MAGIC SCIENCES; THE GROUP OF GENERAL SPELLS; MAGIC INFLUENCE ON MIND; INGREDIENTS OF MAGIC POTIONS; SOCIAL GROUPS. Lexico-semantic field analyzed in our research is presented as a structure that consists of hyponyms and hyperonyms. Hyperonym is a general word that names a class of obj ects. Hyponym, in its turn, is a word that specifies the meaning of hyperonym via naming these objects [3:97]. Thus, we can make the conclusion the MAGIC ACTIONS is a hyperonym and the names of groups that form our lexico-semantic field are hyponyms.
Lexico-semantic group MAGIC CREATURES includes 33 lexical units that have the same meaning creature - a living thing, real or imaginary, that can move around, such as an animal [4:311].
"Many of the girls "ooooohed!" at the sight of the unicorn " . This sentence includes a name of such creature as unicorn - an animal like a white horse with long straight horn on its forehead [4:1475].
Another group of hyponyms is a set of 12 lexical units that name MAGIC SCIENCES. These units share the same meaning science -knowledge about the structure and behavior of natural and physical world, based on facts that you can prove [4:1189].
"My brother Charlie was always more of an outdoor type, so he went for Care of Magical Creatures " . Care of Magical Creatures is a magic science which teaches the ways of an appropriate behavior with magic creatures.
Lexico-semantic group CHARMED OBJECTS is one of the biggest groups, since it includes 25 units. All constituents of this unity name an object that is controlled or protected with a help of magic. An interesting fact is that the author widely uses personification while creating charmed objects.
"He wants a word with you about your embargo on flying carpets " . Flying carpet is an example of the lexical unit that names magic object.
The biggest group that was separated is the group of GENERAL SPELLS. It consists of 48 words and word-combinations that are divided
into 4 subgroups: General spells, Magic charms, Magic curses, Magic spells. Subgroup with a meaning General spells includes 16 lexical units that name either spells, curses or charms. The main peculiarity of the given subgroup is that its constituents denote general actions with spells or curses, but do not name them.
"It is my understanding that my predecessor not only performed illegal curses in front of you, he performed them on you " [5:243]. The author mentions the illegal curses, but does not name them.
The second group of hyponyms that makes the meaning of the hyponym GENERAL SPELLS more clear is a subgroup Magic charms. The dominant feature of the lexical units that constitute this group is that they are used to name charms - acts or words believed to have magic power [4:210]. The subgroup comprises 18 phrases that correspond to the same fragment of reality.
"We could have modified her memory? But Memory Charms can be broken by a powerful wizard, as I proved when I questioned her" . Judging from the example, one can understand that Memory Charms were used to modify the memory.
Next subgroup consists of lexical units with a meaning magic curse - a word or phrase that has a power to make something bad happen [4:325]. The following sentence proves this statement:
"He's got the Cruciatus Curse for causing pain, said Harry" [5:100]. The curse that is mentioned in the example was used to torture a person.
The last subgroup that constitutes this group comprises the lexical units with the meaning spell - words that are thought to have magic power or to make a piece of magic work [4:1293].
"I mean, obviously it's some kind of Invisibility Spell, but it's rather clever to have extended the field of invisibility beyond the boundaries of the charmed object" [5:540]. An Invisibility Spell was used to make an object invisible in order to protect it.
Lexico-semantic group SOCIAL GROUPS is represented by the hyponyms with the meaning social group - a group of people who have the same position in the society. It consists of 13 lexical units that are used to name the representatives of the magic society.
"There are some wizards - like Malfoy 's family - who think they 're better than anyone else because they're what people call pure-blood" . As one can understand pure-bloods were those wizards whose both parents were warlocks. Thus, they considered themselves to be better than anyone else in the magic society.
Lexico-semantic group INGREDIENTS OF MAGIC POTIONS is formed by 12 units that name different things that are used to prepare magic drinks. These can be animals, plants and even parts of the human body.
"You've used spiders in Potions loads of times " . Spiders can be often met in the magic world of fantasy. This word was included in the mentioned above group since spiders were widely used while preparing magic potions.
The next group that is included into the lexico-semantic field MAGIC ACTIONS consists of 8 units that are used to name MAGIC WAYS OF TRAVELLING. Let us consider the following example:
"Arnold Weasley, who was charged with possession of a flying car two years ago, was yesterday involved in a tussle with several Muggle law-keepers ("policemen ") over a number of highly aggressive dustbins" . In this sentence the author mentions a flying car as a means of traveling. It is obvious that the car was enchanted in order to make it fly.
The last group of lexical units that forms our lexico-semantic field is the group MAGIC INFLUENCE ON MIND that consists of 11 constituents that are divided into two separate subgroups with antonymic meaning: Acceptance of the influence and Resistance of the influence. Let us illustrate this relationship via the help of the following examples:
"The important point is that the Dark Lord is now aware that you are gaining an access to his thoughts and feelings " [5:533]. The phrase to gain an access to his thoughts and feelings means that under particular circumstances one can read somebody's mind which means that the person who is influenced by magic accepts the influence.
"He wishes me to teach you how to close your mind to the Dark Lord" [5:531]. The phrase to close your mind to the Dark Lordbelongs to the second subgroup since it means the resistance of the magic influence.
Having analyzed lexico-semantic field MAGIC ACTIONS, we can make the conclusion that it is a complex structure which is due to the variety of relations between its constituents. The semantic field consists of 162 lexical units that belong to the same fragment of reality and share the same semantic meaning - magic actions.
The meaning of the hyperonym MAGIC ACTIONS is clarified by 8 hyponyms: MAGIC CREATURES; CHARMED OBJECTS; MAGIC WAYS OF TRAVELLING; MAGIC SCIENCES; THE
GROUP OF GENERAL SPELLS; MAGIC INFLUENCE ON MIND; INGREDIENTS OF MAGIC POTIONS; SOCIAL GROUPS. The given semantic field vividly portrays the magic world and the relations between its different parts.
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