Автор неизвестен - The black sea ecological problems - страница 1

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MINISTRY OF ECOLOGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES OF UKRAINE STATE ECOLOGY INSPECTION OF THE BLACK SEA

UKRAINIAN SCIENTIFIC CENTER OF MARINE ECOLOGY

ODESSA BRANCH INSTITUTE OF BIOLOGY OF SOUTHERN SEAS

OF NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCE OF UKRAINE SHIPPING SAFETY INSPECTION

OF MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT OF UKRAINE EUROPEAN UNION FOR COASTAL CONSERVATION

ECOLOGICAL SAFETY DEPARTMENT OF THE CITY EXECUTIVE COMITTEE OF ODESSA

STATE CENTRE FOR SCIENTIFIC AND ECONOMIC INFORMATION OF ODESSA

International symposium

THE BLACK SEA ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

Black Sea   Strategic Action   Plan Implementations (1996 - 2000)

Odessa SCSEIO 2000

ББК 26.221 (922.8) Э40

УДК 551.46.9:628.5(262.5)

Друкується за рішенням Редакційно-видавничої Ради при Одеському ЦНТЕ1. Протокол № 6 від 24. 10. 2000 p.

Екологічні проблеми Чорного моря: 36. наук. ст. / ОЦНТЕІ; - Одеса: ОЦНТЕІ, 2000. - 405с.

Цей збірник наукових доповідей присвячень основним підсумкам виконання Стратегічного плану дій по реабілітації і охороні Чорного моря (1996-2000 pp.), підсумкового документа першого етапу виконання Міжнародної Чорноморської Екологічної Програми ООН. У цьому зв'язку надруковані матеріали відображають основні розділи Програми, а саме: швидке реагування при надзвичайних ситуаціях, моніторинг забруднення і стандарти якості навколишнього середовища, захист біологічної різноманітності, розробка загальної методології управління прибережною зоною моря, рибальство, освіта і громадська поінформованість в природоохоронній області. В статтях представлені результати раніше не надруковані результати наукових досліджень. Подані дані, їх інтерпретація і закінчення належать авторам повідомлень і ні в коєму разі не можуть бути приписані членам організаційного комітету, які склали даний збірник.

Збірник призначень для широкого кола спеціалістів у галузі біології і екології моря, океанографії, техногенної безпеки і охорони природи.

Відповідальні редактори: канд. біол. наук Б.Г. Олександров канд. хім. наук Б.М. Кац докт. геол.-мин. наук Т.А. Сафранов

The Black Sea ecological problems: Collected papers / SCSEIO, Odessa: SCSEIO, 2000.- 405 p.

Present issue is devoted to the main results of Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection (SAPRP) of the Black Sea (1996-2000) implementation. The SAPRP is a resulting document of the Black Sea Environmental Program (GEF/UN/UNDP) first step. The published materials have been reflected by the main Program sections: emergency response, pollution monitoring and environmental quality standards, protection of biodiversity, integrated coastal zone management, fisheries, environmental education and public awareness. These papers are the results of scientific research haven't been unpublished earlier. The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in papers, are in own property of the authors and should not battributed in any manner to the members of organization committee, which prepared this issue.

The issue was design for specialists in the field of marine biology and ecology, oceanology, technogenic safety and environmental protection.

Э

1903040000

ИНБЮМ   Ан УССР Одесский филиал

] БК 26.221(922.8)

' ДК 551.46.9:628.5(262.5)

ISBN 966-7635-08-2

©"Оклади*. '

Одеський центр науково-технічної і економічної інформації, 2000.

INTEGRAL EVALUATION OF THE TROPHIC STATUS OF THE DANUBE - BLACK SEA WATER BODIES

G.G. Minicheva, E.M. Rusnak, A.B. Zotov, M.N. Kosenko

Odessa Branch Institute of Biology of Southern Seas, National Academy   of Sciences   of Ukraine

The northwest coast of the Black Sea is characterized by a large number of the liman-estuary water bodies. The Danube Delta, the Lower Danubean Lakes, the River Dniester, and the Dnieper-Bug estuary-liman, as well as twelve other open, semi-closed and closed limans of the northern Black Sea Coast form a system of wetlands, which to a great extend influences the water quality, biodiversity and bioproductivity of the Ukrainian Black Sea shelf.

During the last decades the water bodies of the northern Black Sea coast have undergone significant anthropogenic changes due to active water-management activities in this area. As a result of the Danube-Dnieper Irrigation System construction, the lower Danubean Lakes have been transformed into regulatory water-reservoirs. The marine liman Sasyk has been separated from the sea and transformed into fresh-water reservoir and was used for irrigation of the adjoining areas. Large-scale activities have caused a number of ecological problems in this area that could not, but influence both the water bodies and adjoining land eco-systems, as well as marine coast.

To elaborate water management strategy that would allow to improve the ecological situation of the Danube-Black Sea area, it is necessary to renew the research activities, aimed at carrying out the up-to-date evaluation of the water bodies in the area in question.

Among many criteria that are taken into account while conducting ecological evaluation of the water eco-systems, the trophic status of the water body is the most integral and practical index, since it shows the level of the bioproductional process as well as quality of the aquatic envionmenrt. Moreover, it allows to make practical decisions in water management.

To define the present level of the eutrophication of some Danubean Lakes and to compare the results obtained with those characteristics of sea

167

limans, an integrated approach has been used. This approach allows to evaluate   simultaneously  the   whole   primary   production   link, including communities of pelagic (phytoplankton) and bottom (submerged macrophytesj j vegetation. The morpho-functional approach, that has been also applied,! allowed to evaluate the quality of the aquatic environment and trophic status of the water body taking into consideration the photosynthesis surface index.

The evaluation of the main parameters of the aquatic environment quality of the regulated fresh water lakes Sasyk and Yalpug, as well as the sea liman Alibei, have been carried out during the hottest period of the year, which is characterized by the maximal indexes of the production processes (table 1) The concentration of the chlorophyll "a" and phytoplankton biomass, as well as area of the vegetation surface which is being formed in m3 of water and per m2 of the bottom proves the fact that the production processes in the saline liman with the natural hydrology can exceed greatly those in fresh water bodies with the artificial water exchange. The results obtained while defining water quality and trophic indexes of the water bodies in question speak for integral evaluation, which considers not only highly dynamic physical and chemical indexes but also integral biological parameters. During evaluation the regulatory document was used, meant for defining water quality of the surface waters in Ukraine (Pomanenko, Zhukinskiy and all 1998) (table 2). Despite the fact that there is the difference observed between the categories of water quality, which has been defined with the help of different indexes (dissolved oxygen and plankton biomass), the relative gradation of the water bodies in question still can be traced. The most favorable situation as for eurotrophication is in Yalpug Lake, the Sasyk Liman comes after it. Alibei Liman can be referred to endangered ecological zones as for level of eurotrophication there.

The concept of the adjoining surfaces (Lebedev, 1986), allowed to reveal the pattern between morphological parameters of the water-body ("activeness of the environment" - S/V, which is the ratio between water body surface and water body volume) and their trophic level. This pattern is common for all Danube - Black Sea freshwater lakes and saline limans. The lower ratio S/V is the better quality of the aquatic environment is, as well as the lower the trophic level turns out to be. The trophic level in this case is defined according to the classification based on macrophytes surface index (Minicheva, 1998 b) (table 3). The better quality of the aquatic environment in Grigoryevsky Liman is explained by the fact that it is an open liman and the water exchange is quite intensive, due to wind tidal effect.

Table 1. Characteristics of the principal indexes of the aquatic environment quality in August 2000 in the Danubean Lakes Yalpug and Sasyk and in Liman Alibei

Aspects

Indexes

Water body

 

 

Yalpug

Sasyk

Alibei

Physical

and chemical

Salinity, %o

1,79* 2,38 **

1,63 2,80

32,4 35,5

 

Temperature, C°

25,2 28,2

28,2 30,5

28,7 30,0

 

Dissolved oxygen, m  0 2 .r

8.3_ 1T 7

7.5_ 10,9

5.5_ 8,0

 

С 0

Chlorophyll concentration «a», mg. m"

6.5

27,3

9.6

63,2

16,5 30,2

 

M с a

Pheophytin content, %

25,5 74

34,8 96

56

83

 

a о

Biomass, mg. Г

4.4 14,1

9.6

34,1

28,3

68,4

logic;

>,

Phytocoenosis surface index (algaesurface in m  of water)

4780

14198

15465 33075

18242 27354

0

И

The average index of

 

 

 

ffl

 

the phytocoenosis

95

118

203

 

»

surface (vegetation

2

surface per bottom m )

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0a

IN

О

Minimal specific surface, m .kg"

4,7

10,8

22,8

 

m s

Average specific surface, m .kg"

72,5

76,0

310

* average, ** maximum

The pattern defined allows to make conclusions for practical water management aimed at restoration of the quality of aquatic environment in the water bodies of Danube - Black Sea region:

- The quality of the aquatic environment and trophic level does not depend on saline composition of the water body.

- Coefficient of the "active environment" of the water body (S/V) can be used for defining the expected trophic status

- It is possible to improve the quality of the aquatic environment of the water bodies with a certain S/V coefficient by increasing water exchange.

Table 2. Evaluation of the aquatic environment quality in the lakes Yalpug, Sasyk and liman Alibei in compliance with the regulatory document "Technique for Ecological Evaluation of the Surface Water Quality According to Relevant categories" (Pomanenko, Zhukinskiy and all 1998)

ГаЫе 3.  interrelation between morphemic indexes of the water body and quality of the aquatic environment based on indexes  of macrophyte's surface

Water body

Depth, m

Coefficien

ts/v

Index of the macrophytes phytocoenosis surface, unit

Aquatic environment category

 

Average

Maximum

 

 

Trophic saprobness

Quality

Alibei Liman

1,2

2,5

0,776

203

Hypertrophic (a-polysaprobic)

Highly polluted

Lake Sasyk

1,9

3,3

0,529

118

Polytrophic (P-polysaprobic)

Polluted

Grigoryevsky Liman

2,0

6,0

0,439

68

Eutrophic (a-mezosaprobic)

Medium polluted

Lake Yalpug

2,6

6,0

0.346

95

Polytrophic (a'' -mezosaprobic)

Extremely polluted

Tiligulsky Liman

3,0

21,0

0,290

38

Mezotrophic (P'-mezosaprobic)

Pure enough

References

1. Lebedev V.I. The adjoining surfaces in the ocean - Moscow: M University, 1986. - 192 p.

2. Minicheva G. G. The foundation of morfofunctional forming of the marine phytobenthos. Thesis for a doctor's degree by 03.00.18 - hydrobiology Sevastopol, 1998 a. — 32 p.

3. Minicheva G.G. Using surface parameters of the benthic algae for express-diagnostic of the tropho-saprobiotic conditions of the coastal ecosystems//Algologia,     1998   b.-V8, N4.-P.412-427.

4. Pomanenko V.D., Zhukinskiy O.P., Oksiuk O.P. and all. Technique for Ecological Evaluation of the Surface Water Quality According to Relevant categories - Kiev: Simbol-T,   1998. -28p.

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