A R Ed Kin - The formation of the bio pharm aceutical cluster in the altai republic - страница 1

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THE   FORMATION   OF THE   BIO PHARM ACEUTICAL

CLUSTER   IN   THE  ALTAI REPUBLIC

udc 332.1 35 A . G lo tko

A . R ed kin

The analysis and development of the s c ie n tif ic a l ly - b a s e d offers and recommen­dations complex concerning the development of the biopharmaceutical cluster "Mountainous Altai", one of the growth points of pharmaceutical manufacturing in the R ussian Federation are carried out. The cluster structure, directions of its developm ent, th e p rim a ry g o a ls o f a re g io n a l in v e s tm e n t p o lic y in c lu s te r d e v e lo p m e n t, th e b a s ic indicators of realizing the cluster project are also considered. It is determ ined, that clusterization m ust be put into effect by the next directions: in the sphere of creation of innovations and "know-hows"; in the sphere of a transfer of innovations and "know-hows"; in the sphere of the developm ent of com m odity distribution infrastructure; in the sphere of interbranch interaction; in the sphere of protecting the econom ic interests and business reputation of the cluster participants, safety of consum ers. The m easures for realization  of th e clu ster in itiatives  in th e A ltai R epu blic are offered.

Key words: innovative development of the region, biopharmaceutical cluster, organizational and econom ic m echanism , developm ent of industrial potential of the territory, developm ent indicators.

ФОРМУВАННЯ  БІОФАРМАЦЕВТИЧНОГО КЛАСТЕРА В  РЕСПУБЛІЦІ АЛТАЙ

удк 3 3 2.1 3 5 Глотко А . В .

Р ед ь кін О . М .

Проведено аналіз і розробку комплексу науково обґрунтованих пропозицій і рекомендацій щодо розвитку біофармацевтичного кластера " Гірський Алтай ", що є однією із точок зростання фармацевтичного виробництва в Російській Федерації. Розглянуто структуру кластера,напрями його розвитку, основні завдання ре-гіональної інвестиційної політики розвитку кластера, основні індикатори реалізації кластерного проекту. Визначено, що кластеризація має відбуватися за такими пріоритетними напрямами: у сфері створення інновацій і " ноу - хау"; у сфері трансферу інновацій і " ноу - хау "; у сфері розвитку товаропровідної інфраструктури; у сфері міжгалузевої взаємодії; у сфері захисту економічних інтересів і ділової репутації учасників кластера, безпеки споживачів продукції. Запропонован o заходи щодо реалізації кластерних ініціатив  на території Республіки Алтай.

Ключові слова: інноваційний розвиток регіону, біофармацевтичний кластер, організаційно - економічний механізм, розвиток виробничого потенціалу території, індикатори розвитку.

ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ БИОФАРМАЦЕВТИЧЕСКОГО КЛАСТЕРА

В  РЕСПУБЛИКЕ АЛТАЙ

©   A . Glotko, A. Redkin, №   4(64), 2012удк 3 3 2.1 35

Глотко А . В . Р е д ь ки н А . М .

Проведены анализ и разработка комплекса научно обоснованных предложе -ний и рекомендаций по развитию биофармацевтического кластера" Горный Алтай", являющегося одной из точек роста фармацевтического производства в Россий-ской Федерации. Рассмотрены структура кластера, направления его развития, основные задачи региональной инвестиционной политики в развитии кластера, основные индикаторы реализации кластерного проекта. Определено, что кластеризация должна осуществляться по таким приоритетным направлениям: в сфере создания инноваций и "ноу - хау"; в сфере трансферта инноваций и " ноу -хау"; в сфере развития товаропроводящей инфраструктуры; в сфере межотраслевого взаимодействия; в сфере защиты экономических интересов и деловой репутации участников кластера, безопасности потребителей продукции. Предложены мероприятия по реализации кластерных инициатив на территории Республики Алтай.

Ключевые слова: инновационное развитие региона, биофармацевтический кластер, организационно - экономический механизм, развитие производственного потенциала территории, индикаторы развития.

The transition of the pharmaceutical industry to the innovative development model, an increase of its competitive­ness both in Russian, and in the foreign market, is now the major strategic problem of federal level. Thus the population s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d n o t o n ly w ith in e x p e n s iv e a n d q u a lita tiv e m edicines for treatm ent socially significant diseases, but also w ith th e in n o v a tiv e m e a n s m a d e in th e R u s s ia n F e d e r a tio n according to the highest standards.

One of the growth points of pharmaceutical industry in the country can and should be the Altai Republic project on the formation of the biopharmaceutical cluster. The testimony to this are world researches according to which pharma­ceutical industry possesses one of the steadiest potentials of functioning in the system of connected branches (clusterization potential).

The possibility of manufacturing various treating pro­ducts based on the use of natural raw materials, allows to enter easily the biopharmaceutical cluster, the strategic directions of the republic development: tourism and agri­culture. The biopharmaceutical cluster development will lift to u ris m d e v e lo p m e n t in th e A lta i R e p u b lic o n th e n ew qualitative level, will create additional workplaces for people living in a countryside (72 % of the population of the Altai Republic live in a countryside), and will also allow to use c a re fu lly th e e x tra c te d v e g e ta tiv e a n d a n im a l ra w m a te ria ls .

T o d a y th e re a re th e in v e s to rs in th e R e p u b lic , re a d y to put considerable m eans to the developm ent of biopharm a­c e u tic a l b ra n c h .

At the first stage it is necessary to prove an urgency of the biopharm aceutical cluster creation, to describe advanta-g e s o f th e re g io n a s a p la tfo rm fo r fo rm in g th e in n o v a tiv e workings out of m edicines, and also to shine the resource potential and natural-environmental conditions of the territory.

The M ountainous Altai has been a raw platform for m anufacture of biological m edicines for a long tim e already. H e re th e re is a c o n s id e ra b le q u a n tity o f w ild p la n ts w h ic h c a n be used in pharmaceutical branch (from 500 to 700 names). It is offered to develop biopharm aceutical cluster on the basis of the private-state partnership. The state in this case incurs the m aintenance of the private com panies with the necessary infrastructure, granting them privileges in the form of grants. The cluster idea is successfully com bined w ith the deve-lo p m e n t o f s p e c ia l e c o n o m ic z o n e s o f to u ris ts -re c re a tio n a l type "The Altai Valley".

During the organization of a cluster, the special a tte n tio n w ill b e g iv e n to in n o v a tiv e te c h n o lo g ie s . T h e s c ie n -tists of G orno-Altaisk State U niversity have been studying the herbs of surrounding territory for m any years. They have dev e lo p e d th e re c ip e s o f p re p a rin g m e d ic in e s o f v e g e ta tiv e and anim al origin, am ong them from antler production. At higher school there are also working-outs in the field of te c h n o lo g y o f m a in ta in in g th e h e a lth y h e rd o f m a ra ls . T h e scientists of the University have deduced the new - Altai-S ayansk breed of m arals.

The enterprises of Tomsk region, with which the R epublic has recently signed the cooperation agreem ent, will essentially help in realization of the new project. In this field m any innovative projects are run in special econom ic area of technical-instilling type.

T h e in te rb ra n c h c h a ra c te r o f th e q u e s tio n s fa c e d b y th e c lu s te r, fo rm s th e n u m b e r o f c o rre s p o n d in g p ro b le m s defining basic directions of cluster developm ent:

1. In the sphere of the innovations and "know-hows" c re a tio n :

w o rk in g o u t o f d e e p p ro c e s s in g p a n tle r te c h n o lo g ie s and medical-technical raw materials, bodies and sub products;

studying the influence of the antler m aral-breeding products on the human body;

active support of instilling activity from the part of scie ntific institutions and enterprises - the technological leaders.

2. In the sphere of innovations and "know-hows" transfer: c re a tio n o f th e tra n s fe r o f in n o v a tio n s s ys te m , th ro u g h

an easy approach of w orkers to the results of research and d e v e lo p m e n t, c o n s u lta tio n ;

w id e in tro d u c tio n o f n e w te c h n o lo g ie s o f d e e p processing the antler raw m aterials, bodies and subproducts.

3. In the sphere of development of commodity distribution infrastructure:

activization of the international cooperation concerning popularization of products m ade by the cluster enterprises;

th e c o m p le x o f m a rk e tin g a c tio n s fo r p o p u la riz a tio n o f the biologically-active additives made from non-polluted raw materials, received in the Republic territory, among various strata of society (also through active participation in fair-e x h ib itio n a c tiv ity ).

4. In the sphere of interbranch interaction:

development of the contracting system with manufac­turers and raw materials suppliers;

active cooperation of the cluster enterprises with the s a n a to riu m o rg a n iz a tio n s lo c a te d b o th in th e A lta i R e p u b lic territory, and in the territory of adjacent regions;

form ation of enterprises w ith the hi-tech infrastructure intended for realization of a full cycle m e d ic a l-re h a b ilita tio n , im proving, preventive and recreation-relaxation technologies (programs), based on the application of the newest medicines received by deep processing of antler raw m aterials, and also th e n e w e s t te c h n o lo g ie s w ith th e ir a p p lic a tio n in re g e n e ra tiv e medicine, improving courses, modern schemes of medical to u ris m a n d e c o to u ris m .

5 . I n th e s p h e re o f p ro te c tio n th e e c o n o m ic in te re s ts and business reputation of the cluster participants, safety of c o n s u m e rs :

brending actions on the certification and patent-licence protection of products m ade by the cluster enterp rises;

introduction of management systems at the enterprises and the production form ing, corresponding to IS O groups and GMP standards.

T o d a y in th e R e p u b lic th e re is a n u m b e r o f enterprises, engaged with cultivation and processing medical-technical raw materials and products of antler maral-breeding. So, now in the Republic there are 106 econonomical enterprises of various forms of ownership with the livestock of 52,372 m arals and 1 ,441 spotty deers. At the econom ical enterprises about 41 % of the livestock of m arals and deers of the Republic is concentrated in U s t-K o k s in s k iy area 20 % -in Shebalinskiy, 17 % - in Ust-Kanskiy, 15 % - in Ongudayskiy, 4 % - Mayminskiy, 3 % - Chemalskiy. Processing of medical-technical raw materials and products of antler maral-breeding in the Altai Republic is carried out by 11 enterprises.

The products of processing enterprises are realized to th e tra d in g a n d c h e m is t's n e tw o rk , to to u ris t b a s e s a n d re s t houses, sanatoria of the Altai R epublic and m any regions of th e R u s s ia n F e d e ra tio n .

The basic capacities of processing are concentrated in the territory of municipal union the "City of Gorno-Altaisk" in the Open Company "Republican Bee-Centre", Joint-Stock C om pany "Fito-PaM", institution "M ountain-Altai" of the Russian A g ra ria n A c a d e m y .

Directly in the Municipal Union Territory "The Mayminskiy Area" processing of medicinal raw materials and products of antler reindeer breeding is carried out by three enterprises: O pen Company "Narine", O pen Com pany "Biostimulus", Open Society "Karym". Open Company "Antler P ro je c t" is a ls o e n g a g e d in p ro d u c ts p ro c e s s in g . T h e a b o v e -mentioned enterprises have more than 90 % of operating c a p a c itie s o n p ro c e s s in g a n d s to ra g e o f re a d y -m a d e g o o d s , located in the Altai Republic territory.

However, the majority of the enterprises, processing medical-technical raw materials and products of maral-breeding, lose to the similar enterprises working in the Altai territory, and N ovosibirsk region because of insufficiency of ow n m eans for th e p ro d u c tio n d e v e lo p m e n t a n d a c tiv e a d v a n c e m e n t o f o w n p ro d u c ts in R u s s ia n a n d in te rn a tio n a l m a rk e ts .

F o r to d a y th e le v e l o f c o o p e ra tio n o f th e c lu s te r enterprises w ith the sanatorium organizations located both in the territory of the Altai Republic, and in the territory of adjacent regions for advancem ent of ow n products is low. O n e o f th e p e rs p e c tiv e d ire c tio n s o f s u c h c o o p e ra tio n is th e use of antler baths in treatm ent techniques. Nowadays the availability of cooking antler baths for regenerative treatm ent is extremely limited, as it is possible only in the territory of removed maral places of the Republics and only 1,5 - 2 months in a year (the period of cutting antlers). After the season te rm in a tio n th e re is a u n iq u e a lte rn a tiv e to n e w ly c u t a n tle rs -the biological activity of frozen or dried up antlers is considerably low er than the initial one and is being lost during long storage. T he m ajor factors constraining the developm ent of resort business in the Republic, are: the insufficient level of th e re s o rt d e v e lo p m e n t in fra s tru c tu re a n d lo w d e g re e o f patients service in the num ber of existing health resorts; the considerable reduction of research and industrial works in the field of studying and using natural medical resources, working out and introduction into practice the m odern process equipm ent, new techniques of diagnostics, treatm ent and im provem ent of patients in sanatorium conditions, etc.

Thus, it is required the creation of enterprises with hi-tech infrastructure intended for realization of a full cycle of m edical-im proving technologies (program s), based on the use o f th e n e w e s t m e d ic in e s re c e iv e d b y d e e p p ro c e s s in g o f antler and m edical-technical raw m aterials.

T h e o rg a n iz a tio n a l s tru c tu re s o n p a te n tin g o f re s e a rc h w orking-outs are also necessary, for the organization of works on standardization and certification of the cluster products, and also the structures w hich are engaged in m arketing activity, i.e. the advancement of the research working-out s' re s u lts , to th e p ro d u c tio n m a d e b y th e c lu s te r e n te rp ris e s .

Territorially the cluster will be located in the territory of three municipal unions: Gorno-Altaisk, Mayminskiy and Che-m alskiy areas. It is connected w ith the fact that the basic enterprises for m anufacturing the biopharm aceutical products are concentrated in this territory: Open Company "Narine", Open Society "Karym", Open Company "Biostimulus", Joint­S to c k C o m p a n y "F ito -P a M ", O p e n C o m p a n y "P la n t o f M ountainous Altai", O pen C ompany "N eopant-C hem al"; in Mayminskiy and Chemalskiy areas the largest projects of the Altai Republic in the field of tourism are realized by: "The Altai Valley", "Manzherok", the Tourist Complex "Altai Resort", T ourist C om plex "M aryin Island" and others; in G orno-Altaisk and M aym inskiy area the largest scientific organizations of th e R e p u b lic a re lo c a te d . T h e e n v iro n m e n ta l e s tim a tio n , w ork in g ou t th e tec h n iq u es of im p rovem en t en ter in to th e area o f th e ir s c ie n tific re s e a rc h e s o n th e b a s is o f n a tu ra l ra w m a te ria ls , m o n ito rin g a n d e s tim a tio n o f v e g e ta tiv e a n d a n im a l ra w m a te ria ls , in tro d u c in g th e o b je c ts o f th e p la n t a n d a n im a l life, etc.: "Gorno-Altaisk State University", "Mountain-Altai" of the Russian Agra rian Academy, the "Gorno-Altaisk Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture of the R ussian Academ y of Agricultural Sciences", "The Altai Regional Institute of E c o lo g y ".

T h e s tru c tu re o f th e b io p h a rm a c e u tic a l c lu s te r o f th e A lta i R e p u b lic s is p re s e n te d in th e fig u re . T h e re s e a rc h c e n tre of "Gorno-Altaisk State University" becomes the cluster kernel. Besides, the U niversity w ill provide a professional s ta ff training. At the m om ent there is a big scientific reserve fo r th e c e n tre o rg a n iz a tio n . T h e U n iv e rs ity c o n d u c ts c o n fe re n c e s . T h e re is a h ig h ly p ro fe s s io n a l p e rs o n n e l th e re . Corresponding experts are prepared, the scientific researchers are conducted. Their results are approved at the enterprises of biopharm aceutical m anufacture, patents have been re c e iv e d , th e re is a g o o d m a te ria l and te c h n ic a l b a s e .

The basic coordination body of the cluster's control will b e th e C o u n c il in c lu d in g re p re s e n ta tiv e s o f th e b a s ic o rg a -nizations - the cluster's participants. The cluster's C ouncil w ill b e   s e le c te d   a m o n g   th e   re p re s e n ta tiv e s   o f  th e   c lu s te r's

participants, for a period of three years, and its primary goal w ill b e th e d e fin itio n o f th e c lu s te r's d e v e lo p m e n t s tra te g y .

T h e c lu s te r's C o u n c il s tru c tu re s h o u ld in c lu d e tw o rep re s e n ta tiv e s fro m th e G o v e rn m e n t o f th e A lta i R e p u b lic and   one   representative   from   the   Municipal Union's

Administration in the territory of which the basic cluster's kernel w ill be based. T hese representatives w ithout elections, on representation of corresponding authorities' heads, will s im u lta n e o u s ly e n te r th e S tra te g ic c o m m itte e .

The scientific organizations:

1. "Mountain-Altai" of the Russian Agrarian Academy.

2. "Gorno-Altaisk S cien tific Research Ins titute of Agriculture of the Russian Academy of Agrarian

Sciences".

3. "The Altai regional Institute of Ecology".

4. The Altai botanical garden - branch "Central Siberian Botanical Garden".

5. "The Altai experim ental agriculture of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences"

Joint researches

1 . Technologies of cultivation of

introduced plants.

2. The seed m aterial.

3. Technologies of gathering, drying,

process in g of natural m edicinal raw mate rials .

4. Quotas on withdrawal of natural medicinal raw m aterials .

5. The inform ation on ecological para-m eters of environm ent: atm ospheres, w a te r o b je c ts , g ro u n d re s o u rc e s

"G orno-Altaisk

State U niv ersity " R esearch C entre

I

1. Individual s electio n

of techniques of the

w o rk i n g c a p a c ity

res tora tio n

2. Approbation of

im provem ent tec hn iques

T ouris ts -im proving

establishm ents:

1. Joint-Stock Company "The M ountain-S k iin g

com plex of "M anzherok".

2. O pen C om pany

"M aryin Island".

3. Joint-Stock Com pany

"Intourist-Barnaul" the

Tourist C om plex "Alta i

R esort".

4. O pen C om pany

"Pantkurort Altai"

1. Perform ance of the quantitative chem ical analysis within the lim its of production quality assurance.

2. Specifications and technical documentation working out (technological instructions, compounding etc.) for the

new kinds of biopharm aceutical production, cosmetic preparations and hygiene means.

3. W orking out the projects of Tim e Pharm aceutical Articles, Pharm aceutical Articles of the Enterprise, production schedules of manufactures and Standard technological docum ents of the enterprise for biopharm aceutical production

4. W orking out the base extracts, new preparations, com pounding, products.

6. D elivery of reports and the conclusions to quality and safety of investigated production (food and biop harm aceutical).

7. C ertification on GM P standards

A A

The enterprises of biopharm aceutical manufacture:

Open Company "Altaifarm" (Open Company "Pantvital").

Open C om pany "Narine".

Open S ociety "Karym".

Open C om pany "Biostimulus".

J oint-S tock C om pany "Fito-P aM ".

Open C om pany "Plants of M ountain Altai".

Open C om pany "Neopant-Chemal".

Regulating bodies: 1 . The M inistry of Economic Development and the Republic Altai investments

2. Adm inistration of M O "Mayminskiy area

P ro d u c tio n :

(biolog ic ally ac tiv e add itiv es, teas, s y ru p s , b a lm s ,

fo o d s tu ff w ith th e

set nutritious p ro p e rtie s , e tc . )

Fig. The structure of the biopharma

0 th e r p a rtic ip a n ts o f th e S tra te g ic c o m m itte e w ill b e put forw ard by the cluster's participants. E lections of the S tra te g ic c o m m itte e 's m e m b e rs a re c a rrie d o u t a t th e m e e tin g o f th e c lu s te r's p a rtic ip a n ts b y s im p le m a jo rity o f v o te s , a n d each of the cluster's participants should possess one voice.

T he form of w ork of th e c lus ter's C ouncil are the m eetings w hich w ill be held as required. The cluster's C ouncil m akes decisions by the m ajority of votes from the total numb e r o f m e m b e rs p re s e n t a t th e m e e tin g , a n d e a c h m em ber of the cluster's Council possesses one voice.

A lm o s t a ll o f th e e n te rp ris e s fo r m a n u fa c tu rin g biopharm aceutical products and the organization of a tourists -im p ro v in g d ire c tio n re fe r to s m a ll a n d m e d iu m b u s in e s s e s .

C o n c e rn in g th e s u b je c ts o f s m a ll b u s in e s s o f th e bio p h a rm a c e u tic a l c lu s te r th e ta x -b u d g e ta ry p o lic y s h o u ld assum e the realization of the follow ing basic actions:

1 . It is necessary to continue the work on introducing the sim plified taxation system on the basis of the patent in the te rrito ry o f th e A lta i R e p u b lic .

ceutical cluster of the Altai Republic

2. To develop the systems of privileges on taxes for the s u b je c ts o f s m a ll a n d m e d iu m b u s in e s s e s o f th e b io p h a rm a -c e u tic a l c lu s te r, w ith in th e lim its o f th e o p e ra tin g fe d e ra l legislation.

3. To generate at the expense of the republican budget m eans the system of preferential financing the subjects of s m a ll a n d m e d iu m b u s in e s s e s o f th e b io p h a rm a c e u tic a l clu s te r, p ro v id in g :

granting the created businessmen;

granting the young businesses;

• granting m icroloans, the budgetary subsidizing, d ire c te d a t th e c re a tio n a n d d e v e lo p m e n t o f m a te ria l and tec h n ic a l b a s e o f th e b u s in e s s s u b je c ts ;

• granting the state guarantees and subsidizing according to the obligations of the subjects on the crediting contracts at the expense of the m ortgaging fund;

• subsidizing of expenses for participation of the b u s in e s s s u b je c ts o f th e b io p h a rm a c e u tic a l c lu s te r in th e inter-regional and international exhibitions-fairs;

• granting on the expenses connected w ith patenting, certification, exam ination and the state registration of intellectual activity results, w orking out and designing the new p ro d u c t s a m p le s , th e o rg a n iz a tio n o f m a n u fa c tu re p re p a -ration, reception the engineering services.

4. It is necessary to prom ote the advancem ent of ready-made products in Russian and international markets.

5. To im prove the tax-budgetary support to the subjects of the sm all and m edium businesses m aking and delivering products of biopharm aceutics out of the Altai R epublic and for export.

F in a n c in g o f e x p e n s e s o n re a liz a tio n o f m e a s u re s o f th e ta x -b u d g e ta ry s u p p o rt to th e s u b je c ts o f s m a ll b u s in e s s should be carried out on an equal footing, according to the le g is la tio n o f th e R u s s ia n F e d e ra tio n , fro m th e R e p u b lic a n and local budgets.

The prim ary goals of the investm ent policy of the Altai Republic the directed at the development of small and medium b u s in e s s e s o f th e b io p h a rm a c e u tic a l c lu s te r a n d in c lu d e th e fo llo w in g :

• fo rm a tio n o f th e d e v e lo p e d in fra s tru c tu re o f th e in v e s tm e n t a c tiv ity in c lu d in g th e c re a tio n o f m o rtg a g in g fu n d , the m arket of insurance services, network of business in c u b a to rs in M a y m in s k iy a n d C h e m a ls k iy a re a s o f th e R epublic, and also the consulting centres providing tim ely in fo rm a tio n s u p p o rt fo r s m a ll a n d m e d iu m  b u s in e s s e s ;

• c re a tio n o f th e in v e s tm e n t m e c h a n is m in c lu d in g leasing, franchising, and providing steady econom ic developm ent of the Republic and a diversification of the goods and services m anufacture, reproduction of natural-resource potential and escalating the investm ents into the hum an capital;

• granting of the ground areas on favorable term s, the s ta te o r m u n ic ip a l p ro p e rty .

T h e b a s ic in d ic a to rs o f re a liz a tio n o f th e b io p h a rm a -c e u tic a l c lu s te r c re a tio n o f th e A lta i R e p u b lic a re :

• th e in c re a s e in th e c o n te n t o f th e re g io n a l p ro d u c t and export of the R epublic share of products of the cluster's p a rtic ip a n ts , a n d firs t o f a ll - th e end p ro d u c t, c o m p e titiv e in th e R u s s ia n a n d in te rn a tio n a l m a rk e ts ;

• th e in c re a s e in n u m b e r o f n e w w o rk p la c es w ith in th e

c lu s te r;

• the grow th of volum es of research and developm ent and innovative activity within the cluster;

• th e re d u c tio n o f th e p e rc e n ta g e o f d is c re p a n c y b e t-w e e n th e n u m b e r o f e x p e rts w h o g ra d u a te d fro m p rim a ry , s e -condary and higher professional educational institutions, and the re q u ire m e n t o f th e m a rk e t in th e s e e x p e rts w ith in th e c lu s te r;

• g ro w th o f re la tiv e d e n s ity o f g o o d s a n d s e rv ic e s o f th e s u b je c ts o f s m a ll a n d a v e ra g e b u s in e s s e s m a d e a n d ren d e re d w ith in th e c lu s te r b y m e a n s o f o u ts o u rc in g a n d sub c o n tra c tin g m e c h a n is m s .

References: 1 . П ортер М . М еждународная конкуренция / М . Портер ; под ред. В . Д. Щ етинина. - М . : М еждународные отношения, 1993. - 901 с. 2. Кундиус В. А. Экономическая стратегия и механизмы инновационно - кластерного развития АПК региона / В. А. Кундиус. - Барнаул : Изд. АГАУ, 2008. -4 6 0 с. 3. Особая экономическая зона туристско - рекреационного типа как форма инновационного развития Республики Алтай : монография / [Е. Е. Ш ваков, Р. Т. Адарина, Т. С. Зяблицкая и др.] ; под ред. Е. Е. Ш вакова. - Барнаул : Изд. Алт. ун - та, 2010. -

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