Ya Kononenko - The formation of the enterprise's corporate strategy in the context of globalization - страница 1

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THE   FORMATION   OF THE   ENTERPRISE'S CORPORATE STRATEGY  IN   THE  CONTEXT  OF GLOBALIZATION

UDC 658.14/17 Ya. Kononenko

The features of the formation of the enterprise's corporate strategy in the context of globalization are described. It is specified that such management functions as strategic planning, organization, motivation, control and regulation are the basis of the process of form ing the enterprise's strategic set. It is determ ined that during the form ation of any strategy one should provide new opportunities, such as: m arkets that can be entered, the capacity of every consum er m arket, new products, the definition of program s for prom otion and distribution, the sequence of entering the m arket. The basic phases of the enterprise's developm ent and the system of strategic m anagem ent in the context of globalization for the purpose of achieving the com petitive advantage, nam ely: the developm ent in the national scale, the growth of export activity, the offshore production, the intern ationalization of the enterprise, the globalization of th e e n te r p r i s e a r e d e fi n e d .

Key words: globalization, the corporate strategy of the enterprise, competitiveness, com petitive advantages.

ФОРМУВАННЯ   СТРАТЕГИ РОЗВИТКУ ПІДПРИЄМСТВА В  УМОВАХ ГЛОБАЛІЗАЦІЇ

УДК 658.1 4/1 7 Кононенко   Я . В.

Охарактеризовано особливості формування стратегії розвитку підприємства в умовах глобалізації. Уточнено, що основою процесу формування стратегічного набору підприємства є функції управління: стратегічне планування, організація, мотивація, контроль та регулювання. Визначено, що в процесі формування будь - якої стратегії слід виділяти нові можливості: ринки, на які можна вийти ; місткість кожного споживчого ринку ; нові види продукції; визначення програм просування та розподілу ; послідовність, у якій доцільно виходити на ринок. Окреслено основні фази розвитку підприємства та систему стратегічного управління в умовах глобалізації з метою завоювання конкурентної переваги, а саме: розвиток у національному масштабі; зростання експортної діяльності; виробництво за кордоном; інтернаціоналізація  підприємства; глобалізація підприємства.

Ключові слова: глобалізація, стратегія розвитку підприємства, конкуренто -спроможність, конкурентні переваги.

ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ  СТРАТЕГИИ   РАЗВИТИЯ ПРЕДПРИЯТИЯ В  УСЛОВИЯХ ГЛОБАЛИЗАЦИИ

©   Ya. Kononenko,   №   4 (6 4 ), 2012

УДК 658.14/1 7

Кононенко Я . В.

Охарактеризованы особенности формирования стратегии развития пред -приятия в условиях глобализации. Уточнено, что основой процесса формирования стратегического набора предприятия являются функции управления: стратегическое планирование, организация, мотивация, контроль и регулирование. Отмечено, что при формировании любой стратегии следует выделять новые возможности: рынки, на которые можно выйти ; вместимость каждого потребительского рынка ; новые виды продукции ; определение программ продвижения и распределения; последовательность, в которой целесообразно выходить на рынок. Очерчены основные фазы развития предприятия и система стратегического управления в условиях глобализации с целью завоевания конкурентного преимущества, а именно: развитие в национальном масштабе ; рост экспортной деятельности; производство за рубежом; интернационализация  предприятия; глобализация предприятия.

Ключевые слова: глобализация, стратегия развития предприятия, конкурентоспособность, конкурентные преимущества.

Among many factors of the contemporary stage of global economicgrowththe most important one is the accele­ration of globalization of economic relations by means of interdependence and mutual influence of different sectors of the economy in the framework of international relations. The w ays of production and distribution of finished products are increasingly gathering the internationality, supply chains between the producer and connected structures are gradually extended, becoming more challenging and high-priced.

In the context of globalization it is required to make a search for efficient production and logistics solutions that are able to take into account the complexity of supply chains' configuration, the geographic level of business transactions, multidimensionality and the integration of material flows.

In recent times, the phenomenon of globalization has been thoroughly studied in economics [1 - 7]. The significant contribution to the formulation, conceptualization and deve­lopment of general theoretical and applied problems of the globalization has been made by foreign and national researchers of the globalization theory such as: A. Blinder, V. Galchinskiy, V. Geets, A. Greenspan, M. Intriligator, G. Ko-lodko, P . Krugm an, T. Levitt, A . Lisetskiy, G . M acLean, M . Porter, R. Robertson, P. Samuelson, G. Soros. The questions of g lo b a liz a tio n p ro c e s s e s a n d c o m p e titio n h a v e b e e n re c e n tly discussed. The research of competition in the globalization of g lo b a l e c o n o m y is b a s e d o n th e e c o n o m ic th e o ry o f c o m p e -tition (A. Smith, D. Ricardo, A. Cournot, L. Walras, J. Ro­binson, H . von Stackelberg, E. Cham berlin). The basic m odel fo r th e a n a ly s is o f th e n a tu re a n d le v e l o f c o m p e titio n h a s b e c o m e tra d itio n a l; it w a s c re a te d b y M . P o rte r a n d is u s e d in the formation of strategy formation. In the national literature th e c o n c e p t o f c o m p e titiv e n e s s is m a in ly c o n s id e re d b e y o n d the global analysis, because the m ain problem s of enterprise competitive growth remain poorly understood in the globa­lization of world economy.

T h e p u rp o s e o f th is a rtic le is to id e n tify th e a s p e c ts and results of the econom ic globalization's im pact on the enterprise's com petitiveness and to develop recom m endations fo r s e le c tin g th e v e c to r o f th e e n te rp ris e 's c o rp o ra te s tra te g y .

From   the point of view  of modern experts in globali­zation, the current period of globalization has the negative connotation and its benefits are put in doubt. Under the influence of globalization, network product m arkets are appearing where economic relations have a specific character. Vertical and horizontal integration of the econom y is accom panied w ith a u to n o m y o f e c o n o m ic a g e n ts . F o r e x a m p le , a s m a ll firm associated with a large corporation via relevant franchise contractual relationship, is capable to join many other interac­tions and cooperation. Such economic innovations displace hierarchical forms of business organization in the modern economy: it assumes the character of the network of econo­mic agents and their interactions [1; 8; 9].

A c c ord in g to A . Leon tev, th e es s en tial c h aracteristic of th is p ro c e s s is th a t to d a y , d u rin g th e s y s te m ic c ris is , th e tra n s itio n to a n e w ty p e o f e c o n o m y w ith n e w a n d u n k n o w n types of goods and information technologies is just a harbinger of the new economy [10].

M a rk e t s ta tu s o f th e e n te rp ris e in a d d itio n to in te rn a l and external factors of com petitiveness depends on a num ber of "qualitative" factors (com ponents of the com petition). A m o n g th e q u a lita tiv e c o m p o n e n ts o f th e c o m p e titio n th ere are: openness to the outside w orld, the m obility of labor force, work ethics, readiness to work in the service sector. According to M. Porter, the globalization often provides for company's growth that is consistent with its strategy, opening large markets for the focused strategy. In contrast to the inner expansion, the expansion during the globalization m ay c o n trib u te to th e a c q u is itio n a n d c o n s o lid a tio n o f th e u n iq u e p o s itio n , id e n tity o f th e c o m p a n y a n d th e d e v e lo p m e n t n o t o f a local strategy, but the gl obal one... It is not surprising that research and corporate practice in the context of international s tra te g y b e c o m e in c re a s in g ly im p o rta n t fo r m a n y c o m p a n ie s during the globalization of business com petition. The m ain attention of specialists in the development of international s tra te g y is a ttra c te d b y th e a b ility o f m u ltin a tio n a l ( tra n s n a tio n a l, in te rn a tio n a l) c o m p a n ie s to c re a te c o m p e titiv e advantages through the network activity on world markets. G lo b a l s tra te g y a s s o c ia te d w ith th e e x p a n s io n o f a c o m p a n y in m a n y c o u n trie s is c o n s id e re d a s a p o w e rfu l m e a n s o f econom y's achievem ent based on production grow th, quick

adaptation to the needs of international m arkets and im pactful entrance to worldwide resources such as capital, labor, raw m aterials and technology. E ven according to authors such as K. Omae, R. Reich, C. Bartlett and S. Ghoshal, there are no n a tio n a l b o u n d a rie s fo r a g lo b a l c o m p a n y . B u t d e s p ite th e fa ct th a t c o m p a n ie s re a lly c o m p e te o n a g lo b a l s c a le , a n d s u c h costs as raw m aterials, capital and scientific know ledge m ove freely all over the world, there is the irrefutable evidence that the activities on the local m arkets continue to play the fu n d am en tal role in th e ob tain m en t of c om p etitive ad van ta­g e s , a c c o rd in g to th e m o d e l o f M . P o rte r. H o w e v e r, d u e to th e in te n s e e x p a n s io n o f e c o n o m ic n e tw o rk s , th e im p o rta n c e o f basic competitive forces, according to Porter's Five Forces M odel (Threat of new com petition, Threat of substitute products or services, Bargaining power of customers (buyers), Bargaining pow er of suppliers, Intensity of com petitive rivalry) is leveling: the impossibility to assess objectively the perform ance of industry's profitability, the assum ption that the s tre n g th o f fiv e fa c to rs is th e s a m e fo r a ll c o m p e tito rs in th e in d u s try , th e s im p lific a tio n o f s o m e concepts, such as in d u s try s tru c tu re [1 1 ].

T h e m e c h a n is m o f fo rm in g th e e n te rp ris e 's s tra te g ic set is a system of methods, procedures, guidelines, criteria and processes for developing and providing the im ple-m entation of the strategic directions of developm ent. The fo rm a tio n s e t o f th e e n te rp ris e 's s tra te g ic is th e m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s a n d th e fo l lo w in g m a n a g e m e n t fe a tu re s a re its fo u n d a tio n , s u c h a s :

strategic planning - to develop individual strategies and the strategic set;

organization and motivation - to provide the e ffe c tiv e fo rm a tio n o f th e s tra te g ic s e t b y c re a tin g s p e c ific organizational and m ethodological conditions;

control - to analyze and evaluate strategies to d e te rm in e th e le v e l o f a c h ie v e m e n ts ;

regulation - to do some changes in case of d e v ia tio n s b e tw e e n p la n n e d a n d a c tu a l re s u lts .

It should be noted that one of the important objectives w h e n fo rm in g th e e n te rp ris e 's s tra te g ic s e t is th e p ro v is io n o f interaction between external and internal environment [12].

In this regard, A. Prisyagina emphasizes that for the creation of a successful international com pany there should be the clear form ulated strategy as a com plex system of setting and im plem enting the strategic objectives of the enter-p ris e , b a s e d o n th e e n v iro n m e n t p re d ic tio n a n d d e v e lo p m e n t o f w a y s to a d a p t to its c h a n g e s th a t in c lu d e :

th e d e fin itio n o f th e e n te rp ris e 's ty p e , m e th o d o f business m anagem ent and ow nership, analysis of the strengths and weaknesses (SWOT-analysis is used); the formulation of the basic conditions of the com pany's business (investm ent and developm ent, quality m anagem ent, planning, cost control, m anagem ent and accounting, inform ation m anagem ent);

th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e e n te rp ris e 's m is s io n , d e v e -lopm ent of objectives; philosophy of the enterprise.

T h e s tra te g y o f th e c o m p a n y m u s t m e e t c u rre n t market requirements and ensure the success of the ente rp ris e in the future. In the form ation of any strategy it is necessary not only to take into account changes in the environm ent such as expanding range of products, new te c h n o lo g ie s a n d p ro d u c ts , d ilu tio n o f b o u n d a rie s b e tw e e n industries, increased competition and rapid deterioration of in fo rm a tio n , d e v e lo p m e n t o f n e tw o rk s tru c tu re s , b u t a ls o to provide new opportunities such as: m arkets for entrance, the capacity of every consum er m arket, new products, the definition of prom otion   and   distribution   program s,  the  sequence for m a rk e t en tra n c e [13].

It is necessary to clarify the question concerning phases of developm ent that the enterprise m ust go through in the globalization (Figure).

Phase 1. Nation-wide development

XL

Phase 2. The growth of export marketing activities

-q

P hase 3. O verseas production

-0-

Phase 4. The internationalization of the enterprise

Phase 5. The globalization of the enterprise

Fig. The basic phases of the development of the enterprises in the context of globalization

Phase 1. N a tio n - w id e development. On national basis, the enterprise has to do its best to get its specific benefits. At th is s ta g e it is n o t in te re s te d in p e n e tra tin g in to fo re ig n m arkets, especially in cases w here the size of internal m arket is s u ffic ie n t.

Phase 2 . The g row th of ex po rt m a rk e tin g a c tiv itie s . T h e e n te rp ris e h a s re a c h e d th e a p p ro p ria te p ro d u c tio n o u tp u t and seeks to expand m arkets and starts to export products in order to eliminate gaps of realization.

Phase 3 . Overseas p ro d u c tio n . Production is moved around over the sea where branches of the enterprise are opened. It is expected to reduce transportation costs and give other benefits provided by the host country, such as low labor costs, availability of raw materials, receiving of grants.

P h a s e 4 . T h e in tern a tion a liz a tion of th e en terpris e. It enters the m arkets of several countries and tries for the consolidation of all international transactions. It is essential to s h a re th e fin a l p ro d u c ts a n d th e ir c o m p o n e n ts b e tw e e n fo re ig n a ffilia te s a n d th e p a re n t c o m p a n y .

Phase 5. The globalization of the enterprise. The decision is made to implement the globalization of all operations. At the central level, production and distribution o p e ra tio n s a re c o o rd in a te d . T h e e n te rp ris e s e a rc h e s fo r p a rtn e rs in order to reduce the fixed costs of operation. It s h o u ld b e n o te d th a t th e p h a s e s 4 a n d 5 m u s t n o t n e c e s s a ry com e one after another, they can be carried out independently.

T h e m e n tio n e d d e v e lo p m e n t re q u ire s th e fo rm u la tio n o f th e a p p ro p ria te s tra te g y to e n s u re th e e ffic ie n t o p e ra tio n o f a b u s in e s s e n tity in e a c h p h a s e a n d p ro m p t tra n s itio n to th e n e x t o n e . A t th e firs t th re e s ta g e s th e ta s k o f m a n a g e rs is to id e n tify th e p la c e o f th e o rg a n iz a tio n in th e c h a n g in g e x te rn a l environm ent, the research of possible opportunities and threats, realizationof necessary adaptive actions. To be e ffic ie n tly im p le m e n te d , th e s tra te g y m u s t b e s u p p o rte d b y the institutional structure, m odern m anagem ent system and flexible organizational culture. That is the only way to ensure the profitable com petitive position for the enterprise in the n a tio n a l m a rk e t a n d to c re a te o p p o rtu n itie s fo r its in te rn a -tionalization. The last two stages are characterized by problems of high com plexity.

T h e g lo b a l m a rk e t is th e g o a l o f a g ro w in g n u m b e r o f

businesses and organizations that take care of the survival, they h a v e to s e a rc h n e w m a n a g e m e n t m e th o d s a n d n e w fo rm s o f organization activities. The achievem ent of com petitive advantage happens in a keen fight being the consequence of th e fu n c tio n in g o f th e g lo b a l m a rk e t c h a ra c te riz e d b y fie rc e com petition, leading products, global technology com petition, the development of international organizations such as conglomerates, multicorporate enterprises, holding companies, network and virtual enterprises. In this situation, economic agents should carefully m onitor the m arket developm ent, engineering and technology in order to anticipate the behavior of custom ers and com petitors. Their goal is to develop and im plem ent high -priced program s and strategic steps, both at th e ir o w n e x p e n s e a n d w ith th e a s s is ta n c e o f e x tra n e o u s capital. T his m eans that th e com petitiveness of each enterprise d e p e n d s o n th e a b ility to g e n e ra te n e w p ro d u c ts q u ic k ly a n d s e ll th e m o n th e g lo b a l m a rk e t.

In conclusion, the analysis of the level of the enterprise's competitive position (macroeconomic, in d u s try -specific, enterprise level) involves the clarification of factors that im pact m ore or less on its com petitiveness. These factors a re th e s ta rtin g p o in t fo r d e v e lo p in g th e s tra te g ic v e c to r o f th e enterprise's development, as only the enterprise that can adapt to changes takes advantage of flexible form ation of p ro d u c tio n a n d d is trib u tio n p ro c e s s e s a n d is a b le to c o m p e te successfully in the international m arket. The em ergence of the new type of com petition (global hyper-competition) dictates the n eed for m ark et p artic ip an ts to s earc h for n ew form s of efficient operation, adapted to the conditions of aggressive global com pe titio n .

The prim e factor in achieving com petitive advantage is to c re a te a te a m o f m a n a g e rs a n d in n o v a to rs w h o a re h ig h ly in te re s te d in o b ta in in g th e re s u lts , a n d a re a b le to im p le m e n t th e a d o p te d p la n s a n d s tra te g ic p ro g ra m s . F o r e ffic ie n t activity of m anagers and em ployees there should be the appropriate control system , nam ely:

- innovative - adaptable - elastic - efficient - prom pt [1 4].

It should also be noted that there is no universal s tra te g y . T h e s u c c e s s fu l s tra te g y is th e s tra te g y c o n s is te n t w ith th e c o n d itio n s o f d e fin ite in d u s try s e c to r, e x p e rie n c e a n d c a p ita l o f th e d e fin ite e n te rp ris e . N o t o n ly g o o d s c o m p ete w ith each other, but also the strategy of m arket activities of enterprises and their m anagers, executive system s and working groups [15].

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