Otravenko О - The problem of fatherlessness in the usa - страница 1
Luhansk Taras Shevclienko National University Council of Young Scientists
Education * Science
III International Scientific-Practical Internet-Conference
Improving the Quality of Physical Culture Lessons
with the Help of Functional Training.............................165
Ideological Bases of the American Foreign Policy in the Period of
T. Roosevelt's Presidency (1901-1909).......................167
Spaces and Affine Connections on it............................170
Z. Brzezinski's Activity as National Security Advisor
of President Jimmy Carter's Administration
(1977 - 1981)..............................................................172
Conceptions of Social and Pedagogical Technology
of the Formation of Conscious Parenthood
of Youth in Activities of the Local Community............175
The Problem of Fatherlessness in the USA.................178
Activation of Cognitive Activity
of Junior School Students...........................................181
Master's Degree in Philology
Teacher of Practical Course of English, Business English, English for Professional Purposes, Stylistics, English Language Teaching Methodology
English Philology Department
Faculty of Foreign Languages
Luhansk Taras Shevchenko National University
Otravenko Olga E-mail: email@example.com Published online:
© The Author(s) 2013. This thesis published in the open access on a site of conference Council of Young Scientists: icrmu.luguniv.edu.ua
THE PROBLEM OF FATHERLESSNESS IN THE USA
The importance of father in the family other than the creation of children is in doubt. There are lots of American scientists, investigating fatherless families, including D. Popenoe, J. Elshtain, S. McLanahan), M. Baniels, Dan Quayle, M. Gallagher, R. Griswold, F. Dodson, and others. They are divided into three camps: conservatives, feminists, and liberals.
Conservatives make efforts to restore the lost value of the two-parent family. They consider single-mother families as rather harmful for children. Popenoe , for example, states that up to 60% of rapists, 70 % of long-term prisoners, and 72% of killers are the victims of
fatherless upbringing. Such children commit suicide more often, as well as use drugs. To the opinion of the scientist, a child, who is brought up by mother alone, will not become a good person. The main reason for the decrease of a child's well-being is the lack of money. So, a child should live in a full family. Both parents should take care of their children for the full and harmonious development of their personality. That is why the conservatives stand for the renovation of family values, and support of families by the church. Most conservatives are males. The following family researchers are conservatives: D. Popenoe, J. Elshtain, S. McLanahan, C. Daniels, D. Quayle, R. Griswold etc.
As for feminists, they respect various forms of a family. Nevertheless, they stand for the independence and equality of all family members. The majority of feminists are females, and they admit personal independence and individuality. Thus, feminists accept various forms of relationships among family members, and respect the family as a social institution, but they strive to be modern, to have freedom and equality in relationships and bringing up of children, as well as prefer to have financial independence. Feminists think that a family disruption does not cause any long-term effect on children. Besides, it may even give them some life experience. M. Krantzler  thinks that children may survive any family crisis without much trauma, and will eventually become nice people. The feminists include the following scientists: J. Giele, M. Krantzler, A. Skolnicketc.
Liberals deny negative effects of fatherless, though, they accept structural changes in the modern family. They acknowledge that a family has lost its values, and should not exist just to burden a man and a woman. Single-parent families also have a right to exist. And they do not differ much from full families. M. Gallagher  admits that children from single-mother families do well at school, just like children from intact families. Besides, they are more successful in their study than children, who live with a single father. M. Gallagher blames conservatives for inaccurate statistics they give. The only major problem fatherless families may come across is of financial nature. Although, not all women suffer from the shortage of money, as lots of women are independent and earn as much as men do. Among liberals there are the following scientists: F. Dodson, M. Gallagher, K. Keniston, K. Pollitt, etc.
Thus, as we can see, the majority of scientists believe that family is changing now, and fatherless families are not worse than those, who have both parents. Single-parent families are treated as normal ones in the USA.
1. Popenoe D. Life without father. - New York: Free Press, 1996. - 288 p. 2. Gallagher M. The Age of Unwed Mothers: Is Teen Pregnancy the Problem? New York: Institute for American Values, 1999. -60 p. 3. Krantzler M. Creative Divorce: A New Opportunity for Personal Growth. NY: Signet, 1975. - 240 p.