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THE   ROLE  OF  INTEGRATION   IN   THE FORMATION OF THE   NATIONAL   ECONOMY  SECTORAL STRUCTURE

UDC: 334.0 1 2.82:  332.1 22  (477) E. Prushkivska

The influence of integration on the sectoral structure of the economy of Ukraine is analyzed. The imbalance of the national economy is disclosed through the structure of exports and imports. It is proved that to reduce the disproportion of the sectoral structure, it is necessary to develop multi-vector integration, which will allow for a real diversification of the econom y. It is em phasized that for the developm ent of the prim ary and secondary sectors of the econom y of U kraine the integration processes in the framework of the Russia - Belarus - Kazakhstan Customs Union (RBK CU), based on the cooperation and specialization of production are expedient. The strengthening of real integration processes between the EU and U kraine is proved to prom ote the deve lo p m e n t o f h ig h -te c h  in d u s trie s.

Key words: sectoral structure, national economy, export structure, import structure, the division of labor, integration, distortions, the European Union, diversification, multi-vector integration.

РОЛЬ  ІНТЕГРАЦІЇ У ФОРМУВАННІ СЕКТОРАЛЬНОЇ СТРУКТУРИ  НАЦІОНАЛЬНОЇ ЕКОНОМІКИ

УДК 3 3 4.0 1 2.82:  332.1 22  (477) П р у Ш ківс Ь ка   Е .   В .

Проаналізовано вплив інтеграції на секторальну структуру економіки України. Розкрито диспропорції національної економіки через структуру експорту та імпорту. Обґрунтовано, що для зменшення диспропорційності секторальної структури необхідно розвивати багатовекторну інтеграцію, яка дозволить здійснити реальну диверсифікацію економіки. Підкреслено, що для розвитку первинного і вторинного секторів економіки України доцільні інтеграційні процеси в межах РБК МС, які базуються на кооперації та спеціалізації виробництва. Доведено, що зміцнення реальних інтеграційних процесів між ЄС та Україною буде сприяти розвитку високотехнологічних галузей.

Ключові слова: секторальна структура, національна економіка, структура експорту, структура імпорту, поділ праці, інтеграція, диспропорції, Європейський Союз, диверсиф ікація , багатовекторна  інтеграція .

РОЛЬ  ИНТЕГРАЦИИ   В  ФОРМИРОВАНИИ СЕКТОРАЛЬНОЙ СТРУКТУРЫ   НАЦИОНАЛЬНОЙ ЭКОНОМИКИ

УДК 334.0 1 2.82:  332.1 2 2  (47 7) Прушковская   Э . В

©   E. Prushkivska, №   4(64), 2012

Проанализировано влияние интеграции на секторальную структуру экономики Украины. Раскрыты диспропорции национальной экономики через структуру экспорта и импорта. Обосновано, что для уменьшения диспропорциональности секторальной структуры необходимо развивать многовекторную интеграцию, которая позволит осуществить реальную диверсификацию экономики. Подчеркивается, что для развития первичного и вторичного секторов экономики Украины целесообразны интеграционные процессы в рамках РБК ТС, базирующиеся на кооперации и специализации производства. Доказано, что укрепление реальных интеграционных процессов между ЕС и Украиной будет способствовать развитию высокотехнологических о тр а с л е й .

Ключевые слова: се кто рал ь н грация, структура экспорта, струк диспропорции, Европейский Союз,

The essence description of globalization consists in the following: the unity is gaining strength, the system integrity of the world economy on the ground of the market paradigm is reinforcing and the planetary integration processes are enhancing as well. But there are contradictory tendencies, w h ic h s h o w u p in th e fa c ts th a t, o n th e o n e h a n d , g lo b a li -z a tio n c a u s e s th e g r o w th o f th e te c h n o lo g y g a p b e tw e e n th e advanced countries and peripheral countries; the role of state is diminishing, as a result the countries begin to search for protection in integration formations, new political and economic alliances. On the other hand, the global crisis is in te n s ify in g th e c o n tr a d ic tio n s in th e s e in te g r a tio n fo r m a tio n s . The European Union, which is being involved in the debt crisis more and more, is a bright example of this process. Some prominent economists of world economy [1 - 3] define the principal causes of the crisis as follows: accumulation of the national debt in the peripheral countries of the European area (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Portugal), afterwards this crisis involved other countries of the European Union; disequilibrium of the balance of payments (there was surplus in the foreign trade balance in some countries, in others deficit was observed); structural problems of the European area (the countries united by a single credit and monetary policy maintain independence of the taxation and state charges within the framework of the taxation and budgetary policy); loss of inves tors' trust, etc. It should be note d that the crisis phenomena are being observed in other regional integration formations of the world community. The contradictions intensification in the global dim ension requires new international relations. The bipolar world with the USA as the leader should be substituted by the multipolar world with a just and more balanced system of international relations.

Within the last decade Ukraine has faced the problem of choosing one of the integration directions, "pro-russian" or "pro-western". From author' s point of view, it is expedient to choose a multivectorial integration which will assist in the formation of the national economy balanced structure. The im provem ent of the econ om y structure is an im portant issue for the present and future econom ic developm ent of the country. This is the economy structure that determines the possibilities of the econom ic system progressive developm ent. N ot only the internal factors but also the external ones including in te g ra tio n p ro c e s s e s a ffe c t th e n a tio n a l s tru c tu re fo rm a tio n .

T h e th e o re tic a l a n d m e th o d o lo g ic a l g ro u n d s o f th e integration processes studies w ere developed by a num ber of fo re ig n s c h o la rs . T h e b a s ic in te g ra tio n c o m p o n e n ts w e re researched bythefollowing scien tists: А. Etzioni, К. Deutsch, B. Balassa, G. Cassel, R. Aron, G. Myurdal, R. Cooper and others. T he conceptions of "negative" and "positive" integra­tion developed in the works by J. Tinbergen, J. Pinder, F. Scharpf

іая структура, национальная экономика, инте -тура импорта, разделение труда, интеграция, диверсификация, многовекторная интеграция. are widely spread today [4 - 7]. The issues of integration of the econom ies of U krain e and R ussia are deeply investigated by Russian scientists. Scientific works by А. Barkovsky, V. Baranovsky, S. Glaziev, А. Dynkin, Yu. Shishkov [8 - 11] and b y m a n y o th e rs a re d e v o te d to th e p ro s p e c ts a n d m o d e ls o f integration, development of the integration processes strate-g y . I n th e d o m e s tic s c ie n tific e n v iro n m e n t th e p ro b le m s o f multivectorial integration of Ukraine are covered in the works by О . Bilorus, А . G alchinsky, V. G eets, Ya. Zhalilo, А . M okiy, Yu. Pakhomov, А. Starostina, А. Philippenko and by many other scientists [12 - 17]. Foreign and domestic scientists have not investigated the processes of the integration effect on the sectoral structure of the national econom y to a full extent. T h e u rg e n c y o f th e s e p ro c e s s e s is in c re a s in g w ith in th e perio d o f th e g lo b a l e c o n o m y re fo rm a tio n .

T h e p u rp o s e o f th is w o rk is to a n a ly z e th e e ffe c t o f integration on the sectoral structure form ation and to determ ine the integration vectors w hich prom ote the im provem ent of the n a tio n a l e c o n o m y s tru c tu re .

T h e e c o n o m ic s e n s e o f in te g ra tio n p ro c e s s e s a re defined by G . Feygin as "... search for the optim um solution of one of the major contradictions of the economic life of society: th e p o te n tia l in fin itu d e o f p u b lic n e e d s is c o m b in e d w ith th e lim ited nature of resources available for use" [18, p. 61]. O ne of the basic factors, which determines the availability of resources for their use in the production process, is the territory w here som e econom ic system w orks. Integration processes result in an increase in the territorial sizes of econom ic system s in term s of available resources use.

In author's opinion, the characteristic feature of the m odern stage of integration processes is the fact that institu -tional integration is ahead of the real integration processes, in th e b a s is o f w h ic h th e in te rn a tio n a l d iv is io n o f la b o r g ro u n d e d on co-operation and production specialization lies. The relations in the field of international production determine the essence, dynam ics and structure of econom ic co-operation in other subsystem s of international econom y (w orld m arket and international trade; international m onetary system ; international scientific and technical field, etc). In the process of globalization strengthening the national and international production form s should unite organically, having as a ground th e re s o u rc e s a n d fa c to rs d iffe re n t in th e o rig in .

W hen form ing the strategy of foreign economic relations of U kraine, as a regional state, one of the m ost crucial pro b le m s is th e s e le c tio n o f p rio ritie s a n d v e c to rs o f e c o n o m ic integration. The major priority for Ukraine - integration in the structures of the European Union U ) - does not eliminate the necessity of observing the strategic balance betw een the E u ro p e a n v e c to rs a n d o th e r im p o rta n t v e c to rs o f fo re ig n econom ic  developm ent, first and  forem ost, search  for the

appropriate balance in the geostrategic triangle of "R ussia -the European Union - the USA" and also Japan, China, India. Participating of Ukraine in the world integration processes is c o n firm e d b y th e d a ta in T a b le 1 . U k ra in e e n jo y s fo re ig n tra d e re la tio n s o n a ll th e c o n tin e n ts o f th e w o rld . A c c o rd in g to th e d a ta o f th e S ta te C o m m itte e o n S ta tis tic s o f U k ra in e , in th e first half of 2012 the country had trade relations with 209 cou n trie s . F ig . 1 s h o w s th a t m o s t g o o d s w e re e x p o rte d b y Ukraine to Russia - 26.1 % out of the total amount; to Turkey -5.6 % ; Egypt - 4.1 % ; to Poland - 4 % ; to Kazakhstan - 3.9 % .

Table 1

G eographical structure of foreign trade in goods 2008 - 2012, %

Export I Import

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

10 0

THE CIS

35.5

3 5.0

36 .,5

3 8.3

3 6.8

36.8

47.9

4 4

4 5.0

4 1.7

O th e r c o u n trie s

64.5

6 5.0

63.5

6 1.7

6 3.2

63.2

5 2.1

5 6

5 5.0

5 8.3

The main partner countries in the export of goods

30

25 20 15 10

5

0 -I_I_I_,_I_I_,_I_I_,_I_I_,_I_I_

Russia Turkey Egypt Poland Kazakhstan

countries

of the

world

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

in p arti­cular:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EU - 2 7

27.0

2 4

25.3

27.0

2 4.7

34.3

3 1.5

3 2.1

3 2.8

3 2.0

Asia

2 2.1

2 9.3

26.6

25.9

2 7.0

18.6

13.0

16.4

16.1

19.2

Am erica

6 .2

2 .8

4 . 1

3 .7

3 .5

5 . 1

4.4

4 .8

4 .7

1 .0

A fri c a

5 .8

6 .6

5.8

4 .9

7 .8

1 ,9

1 .3

1 .5

1 . 1

5.8

A u s t ra lia

0 . 1

0 . 1

0 . 1

0 . 1

0 . 1

0.5

0.3

0 .4

0 .2

0.3

N ote: made by the author on the basis of the work [19].

Examining the geographical structure of Ukraine's im p o rts , w e c a n s ta te th a t h e re R u s s ia a ls o ta k e s th e le a d in g position - 33.3 % . In addition, the percentage of the goods im ported by C hina is 8.2 % , by B elarus - 6.1 % and by the USA - 4 % (Figure).

In the structure of services export the Russian Federa­tion took the leading position - 42.7 % out of the total volum e of services export as well. Within 2011 the volume of the mutu a l tra d e in g o o d s a n d s e rv ic e s b e tw e e n U k ra in e a n d R ussia grew 1 .6 tim es as m uch. The increase in the goods turnover m ainly takes place due to an increase in the value of im ports of the R ussian pow er goods - gas, oil, crude [1 9].

The main partner countries in the import of goods

35 -i

30 -­25 -­20 -­15 -­10 --

5 +

0 -I_I_I_,_I_I_,_I_I_,_I_

Russia China Belarus USA

countries

Fig. The main partner countries in the export and import of goods

T h e c o m p a ra tiv e a n a ly s is c o n d u c te d o n th e b a s is o f th e in fo rm a tio n a b o u t th e g o o d s s tru c tu re tra d e w ith th e Euro pean Union (EU), Russia - Belarus - Kazakhstan Customs U nion (RBK CU) given by the U N Comtrade testifies the strengthening of the m ultivectorness of the integration p ro c e s s e s o f U k ra in e . T h e s tru c tu re o f U k ra in e 's e x p o rts is characterized by the dependence on the previous production lin k s in h e rite d fro m th e p re v io u s e c o n o m ic s y s te m . U k ra in e s e lls m o re m a c h in e s a n d tra n s p o rt e q u ip m e n t to th e R B K C U than to the EU. The exports of Ukraine to the EU mainly consist of m etal and m etal goods, raw m aterials, such as ore, w heat, sunflow er seeds and tim ber. It m eans that the structure of the exports to the Е U is characterized by a raw m a te ria l o rie n ta tio n a n d g o o d s o f lo w -te c h in d u s trie s . P ro c e e d in g fro m th is , it is n e c e s s a ry to u n d e rlin e th a t th e e x te rn a l d e m a n d fo r th e g o o d s o f lo w -te c h in d u s trie s is increasing the disproportions in the sectoral structure of the n a tio n a l e c o n o m y . T h e s h a re o f th e e x p o rts o f h ig h -te c h goo d s in th e to ta l g o o d s tu rn o v e r is in s ig n ific a n t a n d m a in ly distributed evenly between the EU (36 .8 % ) and the RBK CU (37.8 % ); 25 % are only distributed am ong other countries of th e w o rld .

The structures of the goods im ports from the EU and R B K C U have substantial differences. In particular, in 201 1 U kraine im ported energy supply (66.2 % of the total value) from the countries of the RBK CU. The imports from the EU w e re m o re d iv e rs ifie d . M a c h in e s a n d tra n s p o rt e q u ip m e n t, g o o d s o f th e c h e m ic a l a n d lig h t in d u s trie s p re v a ile d in th e im p o rts s tru c tu re . A s fa r a s h ig h -te c h g o o d s a re c o n c e rn e d , U k ra in e im p o rts  4 0.2 %   fro m   the  EU   and  23 .9 %   fro m   th e

RBK CU.

T h e s h are of s ervic es in th e total g ood s tu rn over of Ukraine with the EU and RBR CU was even and a ccounted for 35.5 % and 36.3 % respectively. B ut the structure of trade

flow s in services trade differs in quality. Trade in services of p ip e lin e tra n s p o rt w ith th e R B K C U p re v a ile d in th e e x p o rts . The EU took the leading position in the structure of imports providing m ainly financial services, business and professionally te c h n ic a l s e rv ic e s [2 0 ].

P ro c e e d in g fro m th e c o n d u c te d a n a ly s is , it s h o u ld b e n o te d th a t th e tra d e w ith th e E U is in c re a s in g th e d is p ro -portions in the sectoral structure of the national econom y. It is characterized by the fact that in the structure of exports the goods of raw m aterial industries (m ainly of the prim ary sector and extractive industries of the secondary sector) prevail. Im ports from the E U countries have a high value added, i. e. th e y a re g o o d s o f th e la b o r in te n s iv e a n d h ig h -te c h in d u s trie s . S u c h a s itu a tio n h a m p e rs th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f lig h t a n d fo o d in d u s trie s a s w e ll a s o f s c ie n c e -c o n s u m in g in d u s trie s . T h e disproportionateness negatively affects the national com m odity p ro d u c e r a n d e m p lo y m e n t le v e l. T h e tra d e o f U k ra in e w ith th e RBK С U also has structural disparities which are mainly refle c te d in p o w e r d e p e n d e n c e .

D im inishing of the disproportions in the structure of the national econom y affected by integration processes re q u ire s a lo n g -te rm p e rio d a s s tru c tu re is a c o m p lic a te d s y s te m o f re la tio n s b e tw e e n th e m a jo r e le m e n ts o f th e national ec onom y being in constant m ovem ent and pos s e s s in g th e fo llo w in g c h a ra c te ris tic fe a tu re s : conservatism , sluggishness, invariance, inversion, fluidity and d y n a m is m . T h e re fo re th e s e ttle m e n t o f th e disproportionateness problem is possible by choosing the strategic integration direction w hich involves real co-operation lin k s a n d c o n s id e rs d iv is io n o f la b o r a n d s p e c ia liz a tio n o f th e U krainian econom y. Taking into account the previous way of development, technological level, level of division of labor, in th e o ry th e m o d e l o f in te g ra tio n c a n b e a s fo llo w s . F o r th e im p ro v e m e n t o f th e s tru c tu re s o f th e n a tio n a l e c o n o m y p rim a ry a n d s e c o n d a ry s e c to rs it is e x p e d ie n t fo r U k ra in e to d e v e lo p in te g ra tio n p ro c e s s e s w ith in th e fra m e w o rk o f th e R B K C U . For national developm ent of the tertiary sector (high te c h n o lo g ie s p ro d u c tio n ) a n d p rim a ry s e c to r in d u s trie s (production of goods with a high value added) it is expedient to develop integration links with the EU. The confirmation of our theoretical m odel is the proposition to U kraine to join the Com m on   Econom ic  Space (CES) of Russia, Belarus, and

K az ak h s tan [21 ].

P ro c e e d in g fro m th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f in te g ra tio n lin k s in this direction, aircraft building, shipbuilding, power engine­ering are going to be the prospective industries. The com plete u s e o f th e in te g ra tio n p o s s ib ilitie s o n th e b a s e o f th e E uro p e a n E c o n o m ic S p a c e w ill a llo w to c a rry o u t th e re a l diversification of the U krainian econom y (T able 2).

Table 2

Branch structure of the Ukrainian econom y (script of technological rapprochem ent of Ukraine and the CES), %

Industries

2 0 10

2 0 15

2 0 2 0

2 0 2 5

2 0 3 0

Agriculture

8 . 1

8 . 1

7.9

7 .6

7 .4

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