M Yakubovych - Translation as a form of da'wah a unique cultural experience of king fahd glorious qur'an printing complex and its influence onislamic ummah - страница 1

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In the Name of Allah, The Most Merciful, the Most Beneficent!

Translation as a Form of Da'wah: a Unique Cultural Experience of King Fahd Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex and Its influence on

Islamic Ummah

Mykhaylo Yakubovych, The National University of Ostroh Academy, Ostroh, Ukraine

Index

Abstract of article.

Introduction.

Part I. Foundation of King Fahd Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex in the Context of Islamic Da'wah.

Part II. Methods of King Fahd Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex as Islamic approach to translation and interpretation.

• Part III. Academic Impact on the Islamic Ummah.

Part IV. World Approval and Recognition of the Complex.

• Conclusions.

Abstract of the article. Established in 1405 A.H. (1984 CE) by His Royal Highness King Fahd bin 'Abd al-Aziz Al Sa'ud (may Allah have mercy upon him) Qur'an Printing Complex quickly became one of the most eminent institutions that are related not only to the propagation of Qur'anic knowledge, but to Islamic Affairs in general. The main goal of our article is to explore how the Qur'an Printing Complex obtained its highest position in Islamic world and which efforts, with the help of Allah the Almighty, were made by the wise government of Al Sa'ud and Islamic scholars from the Kingdom on the way to these achievements. It is proved that Qur'an Printing Complex completely realized Islamic view on the translation of the Glorious Qur'an and the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) that is stated in the words of Sheikh al-Islam Ahmad ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy upon him) in his work "Refutation of Greek Logic": "Islamic community is obliged to convey (tabligh) The Qur'an, its words and meanings... if its conveying to the foreigners needs a translation, let them [i.e. Muslims] translate it as much as possible".

We assume that King Fahd Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex is a unique religious institution in the world, since no other religion has such a powerful scientific and cultural organization that deals with sacred texts and their edition. The level of published editions, interpretations and academic requirements to the translations received the highest evaluation not only from Muslim scholars, but also from Orientalists. The well-known edition of the Glorious Mushaf (al-Mushaf al-Madinah an-Nabawiyyah), published by Complex, constitutes one of the most referred sources in the present-day Qur'anic Studies. Our article affirms that methods and other features of Islamic call, used by Qur'an Printing Complex and based on the path of as-salaf as-salih, provide a wide scientific experience that is useful for Islamic ummah in every corner of the globe.

Praise be to Allah the Almighty, the Lord of all beings. May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon His Prophet and Messenger Muhammad, upon his family, his companions, and those who follow his path to the Day of Judgment.

Topicality of the chosen theme[1]. Problems of the contemporary societies oblige all the followers of Islam to keep their values preserved not only from the new challenges, but also from the claims to leave these challenges as they are, without any responses from the viewpoint of the Qur'an and Sunnah. Since Islam has been correctly defined as "decentralized" religion (in contrast to Church in Cristianity), all the responsibility for this process is given to Islamic Ummah and, especially, its prominent and intelligent scholars of religion. However, all the efforts of Islamic governments are of high importance too, because only authority of the state might consolidate these people in the way of service to Islamic Ummah in the most appropriate way. Probably this kind of support is a real feature of Shariatic Policy (as-siyasa ash-shara'iya), described by Sheikh al-Islam Taqi al-Din ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy upon him) in his prominent book on this topic .

As a result, all these processes give high importance to contemporary Qur'anic Studies, since this field of ulum ad-din deals completely with the Sacred Book of Islam. And a recent growth of Qur'an translations and interpretations in the world (from 296 in 1980 to 890 by 2002) gives a new meaning to Islamic institutions that deal with Qur'anic Studies in accordance with the true path of as-salaf as-salih. This

makes it possible to evaluate these organizations from the point of both religious and scientific experience. Moreover, the support from the state allows to concentrate great academic potential and to use all administrative structure for this. Despite a lot of such organizations in the Islamic world (different Islamic universities and government divisions), only one institution can be described as the most advanced and most appropriated for the service to al-Qur'an al-Karim and all ulum al-din, related to the Book of Allah Almighty. That is, King Fahd Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex in al-Madina al-Munawwara, founded in 1405/1984 by His Royal Highness King Fahd bin 'Abd al-'Aziz Al Sa'ud (may Allah have mercy upon him).

This great Islamic institution has been chosen as the main topic of our research for the following reasons. Firstly, this is a unique academic organization, related to scientific, cultural and religious issues. Secondly, its great activity in publishing and translations provides significant influence on the modern Islamic Ummah all around the world. Thirdly, King Fahd Qur'an Complex appeals to the true teachings of Islam and in this way combines the right ideas of as-salaf as-salih with the modern technological research.

Research subject. Our article is a try to analyze a significant role of King Fahd Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex in Islamic da'wah, specifications of its methods of translation, tafsir, other publications and, finally, notable features that make this institution so influential. Also an Islamic view on the translation of the meaning of the Glorious Qur'an that constitutes a basis for Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex will be under the scope of our research, in sha' Allah. A great respect from the experts in Islamic Studies (both Muslim scholars and Orientalists) to the editions of Complex is to be noted. All parts of these subjects are represented in the structure of our article.

Research goals. The main purpose of our research is to evaluate a great role of Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex in the modern Qur'anic Studies and by this means to emphasize magnificent efforts of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the way of Islamic da'wah and propagation of Qur'anic knowledge. Main objectives of our article can be enlisted in the following way:

1. To explore the history and the present state of King Fahd Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex.

2. To analyze the methods of the Complex in the context of traditional Islamic views on the translation of the Glorious Qur'an.

3. To study, how editions of the Complex influenced Islamic Studies in the world, both Islamic and secular.

4. To analyze the opinions, expressed in relation to the Complex by Islamic and non-Islamic media.

Research sources and methods to work with it. According to the goals of our article, we are planning to consider some of available literature published by the Complex (translations, editions of conferences, issues of Journal of Qur'anic Research and Studies), and also works by Islamic authors which deal with the problems of Qur'an translation. A recent fatawwa by Saudi scholars concerning the Glorious Qur'an and its studies should be used too. Comparisons, analysis, description and other ways of research are of high importance for our work. Special attention should be paid to Islamic and non-Islamic media. Using the practice of content-analysis in relation to their reports, positive evaluations along with other trends are to be signified.

Research structure. Our article should include introduction, four parts, and conclusion.

Part I. Foundation of King Fahd Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex in the Context of Islamic Da'wah.

A growing interest to the Qur'anic Text, its translation and modern representation, makes it possible for some non-Islamic as well as Islamic modernist authors to speak about the Holy Book of Islam not merely in the terms of traditional exegetics, history or philology, but directly in its relation to the modern inquiry strategy. This strategy constitutes a great challenge to all Muslims who try to keep principles of their belief (usul al-din) from every kind of innovations (bid'a). Defined by some Western scholars as "hermeneutics", this position includes a wide list of post-modern theories of interpretation, based on the analytic achievements of European Philosophy after the prominent "linguistic turn". Finally, modern researchers claim for "open hermeneutics" (Jacques Waardenburg)[2], "hermeneutics of indeterminacy" (Neil Douglas-Klotz) and, finally, that "phenomenology and hermeneutics are tools and instruments with which to understand the Qur'an" (Massimo Campanini) .

To our mind, this is not something new in Qur'anic Studies (and the evaluation of the role of the Qur'an in the modern world), but merely a well-known pure modernist implication from those who would like to free what they call "public sphere" from the laws, based on Shari'a and any other Islamic norms. We suppose, that new project of "open hermeneutics" itself cannot be freed from the imperative

interpreters who, like the rasihina fi l-'ilm in ibn Rushd's Fasl al-Maqal[3], pretend to be a bridge between the inner and external meanings of The Qur'an. Moreover, since the taw'il of ibn Rushd was controlled by the boundaries of Arabic grammar , modern rasihina try to signify Qur'anic Text completely by the inner spiritual experience of every believer, current social events and political affairs. One may simply assume that this kind of hermeneutics will legalize European privatization of religion among Muslims and will give complete control over the meaning of Qur'anic Text to the social and political events. It is irrelevant to the traditional Islamic values of Qur'anic interpretation.

These very short descriptions of the present trends in Western Qur'anic Studies emphasize a great importance of every high-technological and effective project, dedicated to the service of Allah the Almighty. Founding Qur'an Printing Complex in the beginning of 80th (cornerstone was laid in al-Madina al-Munawwara on 16 Muharram 1403 A.H. (1982 CE), while the Complex was finally opened in Safar 1405 A.H. (1984 CE)[4]), King Fahd bin 'Abd al-'Aziz (may Allah have mercy upon him) showed his great wisdom and foresight, results of which are very obvious for every sincere Muslim. In 1403 AH (1982 CE) King justly noted that "With the blessing of Allah, the Highest, the Almighty, we hope that this project will be a source of goodness and blessing, firstly, for serving and maintaining the Glorious Qur'an, and secondly for providing more services for Islam and Muslims all over the World. We hope that Allah, the Almighty, will help and guide us in all our affairs in this world and the Hereafter and help us achieve the desired purposes of this project,

2 (Ibidem).

serving and taking care of the Glorious Qur'an so that Muslims may benefit from it and ponder over its meanings"[5].

It is important to add, that this foundation was a manifestation of great efforts in the way of service to Islamic Ummah, which were showed by King Fahd (may Allah have mercy upon him). His support for Islamic affairs all around the world is well-known. The cost of King Fahd's efforts in this field has been astronomical, amounting to many billions of Saudi Riyals. In terms of Islamic institutions, the result is some 210 Islamic Centres wholly or partly financed by Saudi Arabia, more than 1,500 Mosques and 202 colleges and almost 2,000 schools for educating Muslim children . Some researchers evaluate the foundation of the Qur'an Printing Complex as one of the most significant achievements of King Fahd in the way of his service to Islamic Ummah[6]. Beside the Islamic institutions, King Fahd (may Allah have mercy upon him), also sponsored a lot of Islamic projects in the most advanced Western Universities. It was his decision to propagate the Islamic Studies on the highest academic level like Harvard Law School King gifted five million dollars "for the expansion of its program for the study of Islamic law"[7].

It is obvious, that from the primary Islamic Publishing House the Complex has developed to be the major seat of learning. This achievement became possible not only because of necessary financial support, but also thanking to the correct strategy

(King Fahd and Support for Islam. http://www.kingfahdbinabdulaziz.com/main/m000.htm. Acessed August 30, 2009).

of aims, chosen by the Complex administration. Let us examine all of these goals[8] in the context of modern challenges to Islam and other processes taking place in Islamic communities all around the world.

The first and probably one of the most important tasks of the Complex is "printing the Glorious Qur'an according to its well-known methods of recitation all over the Muslim world". It has been reported that, publishing 10 million copies per annum, the total number of copies printed in the Complex since its inception topped 240 million . Moreover, usage of many recitation way constitutes a very useful opportunity, because here we have two basic presuppositions: 1) all these recitations are based on the edition of Mushaf al-Madina an-Nabawiya, prepared by the Complex; 2) editions are not reduced to Hafs 'an 'Asim way of reading as it has been with so-called "Cairo edition", prepared by scholars from al-Azhar in 1923­1924 CE. So, here needs of Muslims from every region are met. Moreover, accuracy in typing and other features of Mushaf, prepared by the Complex, has reached the highest degree and became a much refereed source for both Islamic and non-Islamic scholars. The same is true about "Madinah Mushaf Publisher", one of the first soft-programs that includes complete Mushaf for reference and authorised by the most prominent scientific committee . It has been also reported that the Complex signed a contract with King Fahd University for Petroleum and Minerals for preparing a computer program for the Glorious Qur'an on PDAs and mobile phones. This significant step is an initiative against many similar but faulty programs that are on hand[9]. Taking care of people with physical disabilities, the King Fahd Qur'an Printing Complex publishes an Islamic newsletter in Braille. Titled "Al-Fajr", (meaning

http://www.qurancomplex.org/Display.asp?section=7&l=eng&f=nobza02&trans=. Acessed August 30, 2009).

(Journal of Qur'anic Research and Studies, Vol. 2, Issue 4 (2007), [subtitle]).

(Mushaf al-Madina an-Nabawiya li-n-Nashr al-Hasubi. Ver. 1.0, 1426 [CD]).

Dawn), it is distributed free of cost to organisations and individuals. So far the monthly newsletter's 310 issues have come out, Braille is a language of embossed dots meant for blind persons. The King Fahd Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex also distributes Qur'an in Braille which is printed in 54 volumes[10].

The second important aim, declared by the Complex, is formulated as the "Producing audio-recordings of the Glorious Qur'an according to its well-known methods of recitation all over the Muslim world". We suppose that this goal has two internal vistas, very useful for Islamic Ummah. Firstly, the Complex activities in audio-recordings emphasized the importance of the science of recitation ('ilm al-tajwid) that is the "common duty" fardh kifaya) for Muslims and opens a way for the "success in both worlds" . Secondly, propagation of audio-recording is a strong support for usage of the modern technologies in Islamic religious practice that helps Muslims to study their religion in the modern industrialised world. Interestingly, this problem will be the topic of the forthcoming conference "The Glorious Qur'an and Contemporary Technologies (Information Technology)" that will be held by the Complex on 13-15 October, 2009, in sha' Allah .

The third goal of the Complex connected directly with translation activities and declared as "Translating the meaning of the Glorious Qur'an and its interpretation". It has been officially reported that the Complex produced more than 50 translations of the meaning of the Glorious Qu'ran in different languages[11]. Importance of this work and methods of translation will be under the scope of our research in the second and third part of our study, in sha' Allah. In addition to the fact

(Sayf, Salah Salih. Al-'Uqd al-Qayidfi 'Ilm al-Tajwid. 'Amman: al-Maktaba al-Islamiya, 1408/1987, p. 13).

(See a special web-site, dedicated to this event: www.quranit.org).

that translations are done by experts in Qur'anic Studies from the whole world, scholars of the Complex wrote a new and authoritative commentary ("Al-Tafsir al-Muyassar"), where the most accepted interpretations are represented in a simple and understandable way. As it has been noted in the introduction by Ma'ali al-Sheikh Salih bin 'Abd al-'Aziz bin Muhammad Al Sheikh, Minister of Islamic Affairs, Endowments, Call and Guidance and General Supervisor of the Complex, this commentary is also prepared for the translation into other languages and written in the easiest and the clearest way of expression[12].

The fourth important field of the Complex activities is declared as "Promoting Qur'anic fields of study". Beside other efforts, notable results of this research included in Journal of Qur'anic Research and Studies, a refereed Journal Specializing in the Glorious Qur'an and its Studies. We have counted, that among articles in four issues released till 2008, only 50 percents are those of Saudi scholars . This fact is an obvious proof of the international significance of Journal and its high position in Islamic Studies. Recently, the Complex edited and published Jalal ad-Din as-Suyuti work on Qur'anic sciences, al-Itqan fi 'Ulum al-Qur'an (in seven volumes) and Usul al-Dabt 'ala Jihat al-Ikhtisar by Imam Abu Dawud Sulayman ibn Najah .

A next aim of the Complex' activity is one of the most important ones for present-day Islam. That is, "Promoting the study of the Sunnah and the Prophet's Biography". In response to the aforementioned claims for the "open hermeneutics" which are held by secularists, promoting of Sunnah knowledge is one of the most necessary tasks. Beside its activities in publishing the Centre for Sunnah and the

Prophet's Biography at the Complex is concerned with the collection and preservation of manuscripts and printed books, as well as documents and data pertaining to the Sunnah and the Prophet's biography.

"Supporting Islamic studies and researches". This noble goal is related not only to efforts in publishing (however, excellent results were achieved in this way too), but to the conferences and other scientific events, organized by the Complex. In 2006, The Complex organized a symposium named "The Glorious Qur'an in the Writings of Orientalists". Among the notable ideas, recommended by the Symposium, "that steps be taken towards realizing an Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an and its Sciences and other languages"[13].

The seventh, one of the most "strategic" aims is declared as "Meeting the Muslims' needs, in the Kingdom and abroad, for the Complex publications". It

has been officially reported that "in implementation of the directives of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques to provide a copy of the Holy Qur'an and other publications of the Complex to the pilgrims, the Complex continues to annually distribute the gift of Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques to every pilgrim on his departure from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after performing their Hajj rituals. The number of the copies distributed to pilgrims until the Hajj season of 1427/1428 AH, has exceeded 25 million copies" . The same is true about other academic and religious publications of The Complex.

Finally, the last of important aims is related to the efforts in distribution and declared as "Providing international networks with the Complex publications".

These activities, concerned with informational framework and public relation policy, includes wide cooperation with Islamic centres all around the world and participation

2

(http://www.haiinformation.com/main/y1698.htm. Acessed September 1, 2009).

in different academic and cultural exhibitions. According to the latest report, during 2006 The Complex participated in regional and international book fairs in Oman, UAE, Qatar, Kuwait, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Russia, Switzerland, South Korea, Germany and Iran[14].

Especially, all aforementioned efforts and achievements are only part of those that were done by King Fahd Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex since its foundation in 1984. But our analysis shows, how intelligent management of the Complex and Royal support help this institution to reach the highest degree in technology, science and other academic efforts. All this experience and present work make the Complex a unique place of learning and propagation of Islamic knowledge.

Part II. Methods of King Fahd Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex as Islamic Approach to Translation and Interpretation.

Translation of the meaning of the Glorious Qur'an and permission to it were among the widely discussed problems between Muslims. On the one hand, inimitability ('ijaz) and, as a result, untranslatability of the Glorious Qur'an is a well-known fact, but on the other hand, Islamic Ummah needs it for purposes of call (da'wwa). Sheikh Muhammad bin Salih al-Uthaymin (may Allah have mercy upon him) in his fatwa on travel to the non-Islamic countries writes, "[It is permissible] to stay there for the reason of call to Islam... This is a common duty fardh kifaya) for everyone who has a possibility on it... Call to Islam is one of the obligations of religion and the way (tariqa) of the messengers. The Prophet (peace be upon him) ordered to convey from him in every time and place. He (peace is upon him) said, "Convey from me even if it will be a simple aya)"[15]. Since Muslims ordered to base their actions on the precedents in biographies of Prophet (peace is upon him) and his companions, here we find a few events where translation was applied. For instance, when a group of Muslims immigrated to Ethiopia, they recited to Negus the opening verses of Surat Maryam. It is possible to say, that some kind of translation into Ethiopian was used, because, according to Sira ibn Hisham, the meaning was understood by Negus and his bishops . The same is true about the translation of Sura

3

al-Fatiha into Persian, done by Salman al-Farisi .

One contemporary research notices, that "commensurate with the paramount signify cancel of the oral tradition of delivering the Qur'an, sermons also played an important role. The Qur'an was always recited and then, afterwards, paraphrased (and hence, explained) from the Arabic text into the vernacular"[16]. Some Arab rulers of newly opened of Islam lands appear to have occasionally taken an interest in translating parts of the Qur'an into local languages. However, no attempt appears to have been made to translate the entire Qur'an into another language during this early period of Islamic history[17].

The most notable discussion concerning this problem was undertaken by the foundators of different madhahib and their followers. It has been stated by Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali schools that usage of translation in salat is not permitted whether someone knows Arabic or not. Some narrations say that Imam Abu Hanifa (may Allah have mercy upon him) alone supported a different view; anyway, later he changed his opinion and declared this practice as impermissible . A great medieval scholar of Qur'anic Sciences, Imam Badr al-Din az-Zarkashy summarized arguments of those who refuted possibility of translation. He personally used two evidences against translation of the Glorious Qur'an. Firstly, az-Zarkashy referred to 195 aya of Sura ash-Shu'ara ("In the plain Arabic language")[18]. So, the Qur'an exists only in Arabic language, as it is given to mankind by God. Secondly, az-Zarkashy insists that it is impossible to convey all the meanings in another language. As a result, he assumes that "recitation" (qira'at) of the Qur'an is permissible only in Arabic

3

(Ramadhan, Najda. Tarjama al-Qur'an al-Karim wa atharuha fi ma'anihi.

Dimashq: Dar al-Mahabba, 1998, p. 326).

language[19]. But in all of these statements nothing is said about daw'ah purposes, since recitations as well as obligatory prayers constitute merely Islamic religious practice.

A very expanded and well-proved answer related to the problem of Qur'an translation was given by Sheikh al-Islam, Taqi ad-Din Ahmad Abu l-'Abbas ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy upon him). He discussed this question in many of his writings and in-depth analysis of it needs a separate study. Here we will summarize some of his views, using the most basic statements in some of ibn Taymiyah's works.

In his work against logical methods of Greek philosophers and their followers among Muslims, ibn Taymiyah explains problems of meaning conveyance through the different languages. He clearly allows the translation of the Glorious Qur'an for purposes of da'wah:

"It is well-known that Islamic community is obliged to convey (tabligh) the Qur'an, its words and meanings. It was ordered by Prophet, and conveyance (tabligh) is possible only through this. If its conveying to the foreigners needs a translation, let them [i.e. Muslims] translate it as much as possible" .

Moreover, Sheikh al-Islam ibn Taymiyah proposed clear methods of translation. He already divided all possible translations into 1) renderance of simple words (alfaz) and 2) transmission of meanings through usage of additional visions (suur). Ibn Taymiyah states that translation of the meaning of the Glorious Qur'an needs even more, "it is necessary to provide a similitudes (amthala) and comparisons (maqayis) which leads to solid understanding (tasdiq) of this meaning. If this

meaning is understandable as such, there is no necessity in additions or comparisons[20]. It is obvious that ibn Taymiyah allowed translation for the purposes of daw'ah and responses to heretics and innovators. However, Ibn Taymiyah calls all Muslims to use just Arabic language in every day practice and forbids so-called ratana (speaking in non-Arabic or mixing Arabic with non-Arabic) without reasons .

Generally, methods of translation, proposed by Sheikh ibn Taymiyah, are similar to the principles of 'ilm at-tafsir. This is what modern Islamic scholar Dr. Muhammad Husayn az-Zahabi calls as tarjama al-tafsiriyah aw ma'nuwiyya ("interpretative or meaningful translation") and set against tarjama harfiyya ("literal translation") . He notes that, if all rules are kept, this method of translation is the most appropriate for the Glorious Qur'an[21].

King Fahd Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex used the heritage of ibn Taymiyah well and issued a fatwa with allowance to translate the meanings of the Glorious Qur'an[22]. It is said, that answer is based on the words of ibn Taymiyah. Here is the text of the fatwa, issued 4 Muharram 1426 AH, corresponding 13 February

2005 AD:

Question:

"Is it permissible for a Muslim to recite or memorise the Holy Qur'an in a language other than Arabic?"

(Ibn Taymiyah. Iqtidha' as-Sirat al-Mustaqim li-Muhalifa Ashab al-Jahim. Riyadh: Maktaba ar-Rushd, n. d., Vol. 1, p. 461).

(Az-Zahabi, Muhammad Husayn. At-Tafsir wa l-Mufassirun. Cairo: Maktaba

Answer :

"If a Muslim cannot recite or memorise the Holy Qur'an in Arabic, it is permissible for him to do so in any other language; this is better than abandoning it altogether. Allah said, "Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope" (2:286)"[23].

As it has been stated before, The Complex produced more than 50 translations of the Meanings of the Glorious Qur'an into different languages. This production is represented by separate editions of the whole text, partial translations with commentaries, audio-recordings and complete translations of exegetic works (for instance, prominent tafsir of Sheikh as-Sa'adi). Let us describe the formal image of Complex' edition at first, and then to study principles of commentary and translations accepted by the Complex. Both criteria are connected to each other.

The Complex prefers to publish double-language editions, i.e. original Arabic text of the Glorious Qu'ran and, on the other hand, translation with commentaries. It should be noted, that this position does not influent the style of translation, because ayat-by-ayat translation (not "phrase-by-phrase" or "word-by-word") is the most accepted and philologically proved way of textual constructions. Every translation includes special introduction, written by the highest religious authority of the Kingdom. Some editions also include detailed index of the sample words and dictionary of the basic Islamic terms . Works of world famous calligrapher Uthman Taha, represented in Qur'anic font as well as in graphic elements of Mushafs, provide brilliant aesthetic qualities for every edition of the Complex. According to reports, Uthman Taha wrote Mushafs in four recitations: Hafs, Warsh, Qalun and ad-Duri .

There are many academic strategies, used in translation of the Glorious Qur'an into different languages. Even Muslim translations include a wide spectrum of discussions and polemics[24]. Following the way of as-salaf as-salih in qawa'id atl-tarjih (rules of priority in meanings) and other principles of interpretation, scholars of the Complex constructed detailed requirements for every translation they are preparing to publication. As we already stated elsewhere , despite the obvious differences, tafsir and tarjama has a lot of similarities. These points of connection are constituted by the common principles of tarjih. If latter is defined as "strengthening one of the statements in tafsir on the basis of some proof (dalil) or some principle that gives a strength to it" , we may assume that the same process is taking place in translation, when translator tries to choose only one and adequate meaning among a few. Let us show, which principles are included into the Complex' interpretation policy.

The Complex gives every translator a priority to choose own positions in relation to formal construction of the text. For instance, in Greek translation, published by the Complex, some interpolations which are separated from the main text by brackets are included[25]. However, in Macedonian translation by Hasan Jilo[26] text is free from any insertions. These 'interpolations' (or paraphrases which are a result of the aforementioned at-tarjama at-tafsiriyya) serve as tools of understanding, so in different languages these paraphrases can play different roles, and total unification is not a necessary thing. A problem of interpolation and translators'

(Jackubovych, Mykhailo. Ukrainian Translation of the Meanings of the Glorious Qur'an: Problems and Prospects, Journal of Qur'anic Research and Studies, Vol. 2,

Issue 4 (2007), p. 47-48).

Al-Harbi, Husayn bin 'Ali bin Husayn. Qawa'id at-Tarjih 'inda l-Mufassirina. Riyadh: Dar al-Qasim, 1417/1996, Vol. I, p. 35.

remarks (should it be and in which way it must be written) are discussed much by both Islamic and non-Islamic scholars. Every translation is a unique text; however, it should be done in accordance with primary meaning of the text and principles of tarjih. These principles are formulated by the Complex and included into the recent issue of at-Tafsir al-Muyasar[27]. It is important to note, that the Complex considers this commentary as a basis for "translation of the meanings of the Glorious Qur'an into the languages of Islamic people and others" . Let us examine the main principles of this commentary.

First four principles ("Adequacy to the way of as-salaf as-salih in creed", "Giving priority to what is correct from traditional commentary", "Reduction to the correct or preferred statement in tradition", "Showing the Guidance of the Qur'an and the aims of Shari'a from tafsir" ) may be applied to every translation of the meanings of the Glorious Qur'an. So, scholars of the Complex require a following the way of as-salaf as-salih in translation (for instance, it can be reflected in translation of Allah - Subhanahu wa Taala! - names and attributes and other important questions) and avoiding every opinion that contradicts the Islamic creed. The second and third rules from this list are related directly to the practice of tafsir. The Complex prefers four commentaries (well-edited versions of these tafasir can be found on the web-site of the Complex); namely, that of at-Tabari, ibn Kathir, al-Baghawi and as-Sa'adi (may Allah have mercy upon them all). First three of these commentaries (as classical works) are listed in preface to Tafsir al-Muyasar as "the most important works"[28]. Detailed list of exegetic principles which are stated by as­

2 (Op. cit., p. "Zayn").

3 (Ibidem).

salaf as-salih, included also in fatwa, issued by Complex in 2002 on the basis of ibn Taymiyah works[29].

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