Автор неизвестен - Krmulture in iran - страница 13

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Total

0

-1

-1

According to the previous table, in which are five different indices. Its effects have been studied in table No. 6 summarizes all the parameters can be seen. These indicators can sum condition will clear all the activities.

Table 6: The sum of all the factors influencing factors on larval fish Goldfish

Row

documents evaluation

Treatment 1

Treatment 2

Treatment 3

1

Phisico-chemistry

+1

+ 1

-1

2

Weather

-2

-2

-1

3

Tank Environmental

+7

+8

+5

4

Conspecifics

-3

-1

-2

5

Biotic

0

-1

-1

*

Total

+3

+5

0

Chapters 5 and the sum of the overall matrix of each what can be noted that these indices measured in three different treatments are similar in terms of results.

Conclusions

In table 1, a total of 3 to 6 chemical physicochemical treatments have been studied in which the effects of physical factors such as temperature, oxygen, turbidity and acidity ionization has been studied. All of these factors can have a positive impact on the growth conditions to provide recovery wave. Weather conditions such as light, wind, rain, etc. table 2 can have negative effects on larval growth unless these conditions are controlled and limited. In the circumstances mentioned in table 3 the

water depth of the pond building, pond pain, ponds and water color etc are all examined. In table 4 the concentration of larvae and other similar factors are considered. Table 5 is other factors such as phytoplankton, zooplankton and larval predators and competitors for feed pathogens will be studied.

Suggestion

The results suggest that:

1. The all factors affecting the production of goldfish larvae acceptable range is specified table and prepared to manage Larvae develop in order to create better conditions.

2. To reduce the mortality of larvae during development is required to comply with all the points on the basis of criteria defined to minimize losses.

3. Salon management larvae reared larvae must have sufficient information to enable management to take action in this regard, with better management.

4. Larvae reared larvae are directly related to the economic survival of the larvae to face losses can cause losses for manufacturers to make goldfish larvae. The loss of the main tasks is breeders.

Reference

Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission: Fact Sheet. ''Carassius auratus'' (Linnaeus, 1758)". Nis.gsmfc.org. Retrieved 2011-11-19.

Carassius auratus'' (Linnaeus, 1758)". Fishbase. Retrieved 2011-11-19.

Goldfish". Ocean Park. Retrieved 2009-11-16.

Roots, Clive (2007). Domestication. Westport: Greenwood Press. pp. 20-21. ISBN 978­0-313-33987-5.

Background information about goldfish". Bristol Aquarists' Society. Retrieved 2006-07­28.

Nutrafin Aquatic News, Issue #4, 2004, Rolf C. Hagen, Inc. (USA) and Rolf C. Hagen Corp. (Montreal, Canada)

Research by the School of Psychology at the University of Plymouth in 2003. Goldfish were trained to push a lever to earn a food reward; when the lever was fixed to work only for an hour a day, the fish soon learned to activate it at the correct time.

The Discovery Channel's show Mythbusters tested the contemporary legend that goldfish only had a memory span of 3 seconds and were able to prove that goldfish had a longer memory span than commonly believed. The experiment involved training the fish to navigate a maze. It was evident that they were able to remember the correct path of the maze after more than a month. Mythbuster Results: A goldfish's memory lasts only three seconds

Neumeyer, C. (2003). "Color Vision in Fishes and Its Neural Basis". In Collin, S.P. and Marshall, N.J.. Sensory Processing in Aquatic Environments. New York: Springer-Verlag. p. 223. "In goldfish, as the best investigated fish species[...]"

Demonstrated in a 1994 public experiment at the Palais de la D6couverte science museum. The experimental details and results are described in: "Poissons rouges: la m6moire dans l'eau". Revue du Palais de la decouverte 217. April 1994.

Growth, development and survival of Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus larvae reared in different light regimes

Bahrain Falahatkar1*, Samaneh Poursaeid1, Iraj Efatpanah3, Bahman Meknatkhah3

1 Fisheries Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, P.O. Box 1144, Guilan, Iran

2 Fisheries Department, Faculty of natural recourse and marine science, Tarbiat Modares

University, Noor, P.O. Box 46414-356, Mazandaran, Iran

3 Dr. Yousefpour Fish Hatchery Center, Siahkal, Guilan, Iran * Email: falahatkar@guilan.ac.ir

Introduction

Photoperiod is the main factors that may affect different activities including feeding behaviour, survival and metabolism in larvae of several species (Giri et al., 2002; Puvanendran and Brown, 2002; Solbakken and Pittman, 2004; Canavate et al., 2006), but varies among the fishes and it is specific to species (Puvanendran and Brown, 2002) and may be different responses observe from different populations in the same species (Puvanendran and Brown, 1998). Earlier studies have shown that light may affect the development and physiology of sturgeon in different stages of rearing (Ruchin, 2007; Bani et al., 2009; Falahatkar et al., 2012). Application of different photoperiods on sturgeon larvae has little attention and Persian sturgeon yolk-sac larvae may be a good model for such study. During this phase of growth, sturgeon larvae develop and change morphology and behaviour which maybe a critical time for rearing.

Persian sturgeon is an important commercial sturgeon species in the Caspian and Black Seas, and is a good candidate for caviar production in sturgeon farms. Unfortunately, because of environmental pollution, over and illegal fishing and absent of the spawning grounds is considered as endangered species (IUCN, 2012). Despite the present of some data on the development stages in embryos and early life history of sturgeons, no investigations have been focused on the information of light on development, growth and survival.

Crucial optimum period of the artificial illumination cycle during larval rearing is a specific task, and it has to consider maximization of food absorption and conversion, together with realizing more adequate conditions to produce the highest quality larva and juveniles. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence different light regimes on growth performance, survival rate and body compositions in Persian sturgeon larvae.

Materials and methods

One-day post hatched larvae of Persian sturgeon with mean body weight 25.8 ± 8.2 g (mean ± SD) and total length 12 ± 0.6 mm were obtained from the Shahid Dr. Beheshti Sturgeon Fish Propagation and Rearing Complex, Rasht, Guilan, in April 2008. Yolk-sac larvae were transferred to the Dr. Yousefpour Fish Hatchery Center, Siahkal, Guilan, and then distributed to fifteen experimental tanks. These larvae were reared in white circular concrete tanks with 540 L volume and 4.6 ± 1.7 L min-1 water flow rate for 28 days. Larvae were stocked at a same density of 4000 fish per tank and acclimated for 24h prior to onset of trial. Tanks were received the flow-through non-recirculating water. Water temperature was 20.2 ± 1.3°C; oxygen concentration 8.2 ± 0.9 mg L-1, oxygen saturation 91.6 ± 11%, and pH ranged between 8.1 and 8.2 during the experiment.

Five different light regimes were applied: continuous light (24L:00D), 16 h light:8 h dark (16L:08D), 12 h light:12 h dark (12L:12D), 8 h light:16 h dark (08L:16D), and continuous dark (00L:24D). Three replicates were maintained for each treatment. A bulb was placed on top of each tank with distance of 60 cm to the surface of water. Light was provided by 23W bulbs (NASA Noor, Iran) providing 150 lx of light at water surface. Light intensity was measured with a light meter (LI-COR, model Li-1776, USA).

Approximately 150 larvae were randomly sampled weekly from each tank for measuring of total length, body weight and dry body weight to the nearest millimeter and milligram, respectively. For measuring wet

weight, larvae were dried by a small soft towel before weighing. Growth of larvae was assessed as specific growth rate for weight (SGRw) and length (SGRL), body weight increase (BWI), condition factor (CF) that were calculated.

Mortality was recorded daily and final survival was determined by hand-counting all survived fish at the end of the experiment.

The proximate analysis consisting of moisture, protein, lipid and ash was followed in the 10-15 g larvae as a pool sample for each replicate using standard method described by AOAC (1996). Also, proximate composition was undertaken randomly in 3 samples prior to the initiation of the experiment. Moisture content was measured in an oven at 105°C for 12 h. To determine crude protein, Kjeldahl method was used by Auto Kjeldahl System (Buchi B-322, Flawil, Switzerland). Crude fat content was determined by Soxhlet method. Ash content was also measured by a furnace muffler (550°C for 6 h). Gross energy content in whole body of larvae was determined using a ballistic bomb calorimeter (PARR 6772,

Moline, IL, USA).

Data were subjected to one way ANOVA using SPSS software (SPSS, version 12.0, Chicago, IL) to determine if significant differences in the parameters of interest occurred among the treatment groups. When differences were indicated, significantly different means were separated with Tukey's range test at the level of P < 0.05. Values in the text are means ± S.D.

Results

Except the last week, there was no significant difference in growth parameters among various treatments. Final weight, specific growth rate and body weight increase were significantly greater in larvae reared under 24L than 16L or 0L (Table 1). The highest growth was observed in larvae of absolute lighting and then in larvae of 12L, 8L, 16L and 0L, respectively. Final length was significantly the highest (34.5 ± 1.7 mm) in 24L and the lowest (29.5 ± 0.4 mm) in constant darkness. Yolk absorption was not affected by photoperiod. No significant difference in

survival rate was observed among larvae reared under different photoperiods. Among body composition, just moisture was significantly affected by photoperiods, so larvae of 24L significantly have the lowest moisture compared to other treatments (Table 2).

Table 1. Growth performance of Persian sturgeon larvae exposed to different photoperiods for 28 days.

Treatment

Final weight (mg)

Condition factor

SGRw (% day"1)

SGRl (% day"1)

BWI

(%)

24 L

217 ± 21.1a

0.53 ± 0.04

2.28 ± 0.04a

0.53 ± 0.02a

741.1 ± 81.9a

16 L:8 D

154.9 ± 15.4b

0.44 ± 0.06

2.14 ± 0.04b

0.51 ± 0.01a

500.3 ± 59.6b

12 L:12 D

173.4 ± 30.4ab

0.53 ± 0.1

2.18 ± 0.08ab

0.50 ± 0.01ab

572.2 ± 117.7ab

16 D:8 L

168.3 ± 8.1ab

0.47 ± 0.04

2.18 ± 0.02ab

0.52 ± 0.02a

552.4 ± 31.4ab

24 D

152.5 ± 8.2b

0.59 ± 0.06

2.13 ± 0.02b

0.47 ± 0.01b

491 ± 31.8b

Table 2. Proximate composition of Persian sturgeon larvae exposed to different photoperiods for 28 days.

Treatment

Moisture

(%)

Crude protein

(%)

Crude fat

(%)

Ash

(%)

Energy (kcal/kg)

24 L

89.9 ± 0.3b

70.4 ± 1.0

9.5 ± 1.0

12.0 ± 0.2

3344.2 ± 13.3

16 L:8 D

91.4 ± 0.2a

70.2 ± 1.2

10.2 ± 5.0

13.3 ± 1.2

3057.3 ± 83.3

12 L:12 D

91.5 ± 0.5a

67.7 ± 3.9

8.9 ± 4.1

12.0 ± 0.5

3045.5 ± 234.0

8 L:16 D

91.7 ± 0.3a

67.6 ± 2.5

11.9 ± 1.2

12.6 ± 0.9

3033.2 ± 218.8

24 D

91.7 ± 0.6a

69.9 ± 0.4

9.0 ± 0.3

14.0 ± 0.9

3276.9 ± 173.7

Discussion

These results indicate that different light regimes have no effect on growth and survival of early stages of Persian sturgeon larvae, while constant lighting induces growth in Persian sturgeon larvae during the late larval stage. The effective impact of continuous light regime on

growth has been demonstrated in some marine larvae species such as Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua; Puvanendran and Brown, 2002) larvae, European sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax; Villamizar et al., 2009) larvae, and miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy; Shan et al., 2008) larvae.

In the present study, larvae dry weight decreased about 7dph (after absorption of yolk sac) and increased again 14 dph. Except for 28 dph, photoperiod manipulation had not significant effect on the growth performances of Persian sturgeon larvae. These results were similar to those reported for other marine species (Simensen et al., 2000; Shan et al., 2008). The present findings suggest that the effect of photoperiod on the larval growth might vary with the developmental stages.

Personal observation indicated that absorption of yolk sac was clearly affected by light regimes. Completed yolk sac absorption was observed 2 days delayed in continuous darkness compare to continuous darkness, So that the start of exogenous feeding (Artemia nauplii) delayed in larvae exposed to 00L:24D. Our result is supported by that of Villamizar et al (2009), who confirmed the relation between light regime and usage of endogenous sources in European sea bass larvae. It seems that the continuous darkness delays the development of digestive enzymes which is responsible for the onset of exogenous feeding. Our results revealed that growth, dry matter and development of Persian larvae are influenced by different light regimes. These findings suggest that larval Persian sturgeon require continuous light during the early larval stages (0-28 dph) and would shorten this critical period and increase growth with high efficiency. From the management perspective in aquaculture or rehabilitation programs, a reduction of the period of larval rearing in the system would result in cost saving.

AOAC, 1996. Official method of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists. Association of official analytical chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.

Bani, A., Tabarsa, M., Falahatkar, B., Banan, A. 2009. Effects of photoperiod on growth, stress and haematological parameters in juvenile great sturgeon Huso huso. Aquaculture Research 40, 1899-1907.

Canavate, J.P., Zerolo, R., Fernandez-Dfaz, C. 2006. Feeding and development of Senegal sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae reared in different photoperiods. Aquaculture 258, 368-377.

Falahatkar, B., Poursaeid, S., Efatpanah, I., Meknatkhah, B., Biswas, A. 2012. Effect of photoperiod manipulation on growth performance, physiological and hematological indices in juvenile Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 43, 692-700.

Puvanendran, V., Brown, J.A. 2002. Foraging, growth and survival of Atlantic cod larvae reared in different light intensities and photoperiods. Aquaculture 214,

131-151.

Ruchin, A.B. 2007. Effect of photoperiod on growth, physiological and hematological indices of juvenile Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. The Biological Bulletin 6,

583-589.

Shan, X., Xiao, Z., Huang, W., Dou, S. 2008. Effects of photoperiod on growth, mortality and digestive enzymes in miiuy croaker larvae and juveniles. Aquaculture 281, 70-76.

Simensen, L.M., Jonassen, T.M., Imsland, A.K., Stefansson, S.O. 2000. Photoperiod regulation of growth of juvenile Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Aquaculture 190, 119-128.

Solbakken, J.S., Pittman, K. 2004. Photoperiodic modulation of metamorphosis in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.). Aquaculture 232, 613-625.

Villamizar, N., Garcfa-Alcazar, A., Sanchez-Vazquez. 2009. Effect of light spectrum and photoperiod on the growth, development and survival of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae. Aquaculture 292, 80-86.

Feeding of Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus larvae with vitamin C enriched bloodworm and Daphnia; preliminary results on growth performance

A. Hamidoghli1, B. Falahatkar1*, M.R. Khoshkholgh1 and A. Sahragard2

1 Fisheries Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Guilan, Iran. *falahatkar@guilan.ac.ir

2 Plant Protections Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Guilan, Iran

Introduction

One of the most ancient groups of the Osteichthyes is Acipenseriformes, mostly distributed in the temperate waters of the northern hemisphere (Birstein, 1993). The latest update of the red list assessed the status of 18 species, including Acipenser persicus, to be threatened (IUCN, 2012). Therefore, conservation of wild sturgeon populations and restocking is performed in several countries. Producing juvenile sturgeon is probably the most difficult part of the hatchery process. Fry survival depends on having a proper culture system and a complete nutritional program (Mims et al., 2002).

A successful hatchery production is largely dependent on the availability of suitable live food (Lim et al., 2003), but for optimal growth, survival, and lack of developmental malformations, live food organisms need to be enriched with some micronutrients (Moren, 2011). Vitamin C or ascorbic acid (AA) is a water-soluble redox reagent that takes part in some physiological reactions and metabolism of aquatic organisms and is essential in fish nutrition (Darias et al., 2011). Thus, live feed are enriched with AA, to rectify the insufficiencies. In this study chironomidae larvae enriched with different levels of vitamin C were compared with Daphnia, the live feed that is routinely used in Persian sturgeon larval feeding. Growth performance, survival rate and viscera content of AA were examined to indicate the proportion of each natural food type and the amount of AA necessary to maximize the performance of Persian sturgeon larvae during the hatchery phase of rehabilitation and stocking programs.

Material and methods

Persian sturgeon larva were obtained from the Shahid Dr. Beheshti Sturgeon Fish Propagation and Rearing Complex (Rasht, Guilan, Iran) and transported to the Dr. Yousefpour Fish Hatchery Center (Siahkal, Guilan, Iran). During the 10-day adaptation phase, larvae were fed by Artemia naupli (5 days) and Daphnia sp. (5 days). The experiment started when the larva weighed 307.1 ± 34.7 mg and were able to ingest bloodworms. Twenty sturgeon larva were held in each plastic circular containers (volume of 10 L, 1256 cm2 area and constant water flow 197.5 ml/min) over 14 days.

L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (APP) was added to chicken manure substrate for bloodworm production. The enrichment rates were 0 (C0), 100 (C100) and 1000 (C1000) mg of AA/kg substrate. Those treatments and un-enriched live Daphnia (D) were used for Persian sturgeon larval feeding trial for 14 days. The four treatments, each with three replicates, were randomly assigned in to the 12 containers with identical conditions. During the experiment, fish were fed ad libitum 6 times (at 8:30, 11:30, 14:30, 17:30, 20:30 and 23:30) a day and excess food was removed from tanks by siphoning. Growth performance was evaluated using the following production criteria: weight gain (WG), specific growth rate in length (SGRL) and weight (SGRW), daily absolute growth rate for length (AGRL) and weight (AGRW), food conversion efficiency (FCE) and percent of body weight increase (BWI) (Volkman et al. 2004).

Total ascorbic acid was determined in bloodworm and sturgeon larva samples by spectrophotometric method that previously described by Dabrowski and Hinterleitner (1989). This method is based on the extraction of ascorbic acid by perchloric acid and TCA in the presence of EDTA. After coupling with 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) a red complex was produced and absorbance of that complex was spectrophotometrically measured at 400 nm. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA using SPSS 17.0 software (SPSS, Chicago, IL). Treatment means were compared by tukey's test at P < 0.05. Data are presented in mean ± standard error (SE).

The initial average biomass of Persian sturgeon larva at the onset of this study was 6.14 g, after 14 days of feeding, average biomass was 15.26 ± 0.10 g, 15.48 ± 0.19 g, 16.79 ± 1.02 g and 16.24 ± 1.07 g in C0, C100, C1000 and Daphnia groups, respectively, with no significant differences among the treatments (P > 0.05). All the other growth performances are illustrated in Table 1. Bloodworms enriched with higher proportion of AA (C1000) had a significantly higher FCE compared to fish fed Daphnia (P < 0.05), but differences were not significant among the other groups (P > 0.05).

Table 1. Production criteria for Persian sturgeon fed bloodworm enriched by different levels of ascorbic acid and Daphnia. Values are means (± SE) of three replicates per treatment.

Diet treatment

Variable

 

Co

C100

C1000

Daphnia

Final weight

0.76 ± 0.01

0.77 ± 0.01

0.83 ± 0.05

0.81 ± 0.05

Final length

57.84 ± 1.22

55 ± 1.80

56.06 ± 1.68

55.7 ± 0.98

WG (g)

0.45 ± 0.01

0.46 ± 0.01

0.53 ± 0.05

0.50 ± 0.05

AGRL (mm/day)

1.53 ± 0.08

1.30 ± 0.12

1.40 ± 0.12

1.38 ± 0.07

AGRw (g/day)

0.65 ± 0.01

0.66 ± 0.01

0.76 ± 0.07

0.72 ± 0.07

SGRL (%/day)

0.06 ± 0.003

0.05 ± 0.004

0.06 ± 0.004

0.06 ± 0.002

SGRW (%/day)

0.06 ± 0.000

0.06 ± 0.001

0.07 ± 0.004

0.06 ± 0.004

BWI (%)

148.58 ± 1.69

152.17 ± 3.15

173.56 ± 16.6

164.60 ± 17.4

FCE (%)

50.12 ± 0.57 ab

51.33 ± 1.06 ab

58.55 ± 5.60 a

38.87 ± 4.11b

The spectrophotometric analysis of AA of bloodworms were estimated 74.2 ± 15.25 ug g-1 for C0, 325.03 ± 116.61 ug g-1 for C100 and 779.86 ± 31.81 ug g-1 for C1000 (P < 0.05). AA content in Persian sturgeon's viscera showed 507.03 ± 70.07, 584.5 ± 35.78, 605.61 ± 59.40 and 529.78 ± 28.38 ug g-1 in C0, C100, C1000 and Daphnia fed groups, respectively. Values had no significant differences among groups (P > 0.05).

The results of this study showed that fish fed C1000 enriched bloodworms had a slightly higher WG, AGRW, SGRW and BWI values, but the differences were not significant. We observed no mortalities and all the fish survived throughout the experiment. Possible deficiency levels where death could ensue, was not reached in this limited period. FCE analysis showed significant differences between C1000 and Daphnia fed groups. The higher FCE level in C1000 group may be related to higher amounts of AA, as AA has been shown to interfere with mineral and lipid metabolism and also acts as an important antioxidant regent that can positively influence FCR levels (Darias et al. 2011; Falahatkar et al. 2006). However, these functions occur at considerably higher concentrations of AA than the minimum requirement for optimal growth and survival (Moren, 2011). According to our results, probably the AA concentrations in C0 and C100 groups were not sufficient to have a FCE as well as C1000 group and this could explain the insignificant differences.

A similar study on juvenile lake sturgeon A. fulvescens showed that un-enriched frozen bloodworms resulted in a significantly higher FCE, WG, AGRW, SGRW and BWI compared to those fed Artemia spp (Volkman et al. 2004). Unfortunately, there were no literatures regarding to chironomidae larva enrichment with AA or any other micronutrients. Hafezieh (2009) used AA-enriched Artemia nauplii for Persian sturgeon larval feeding and observed that growth rate was not increased significantly compared to control group. Although, this might be the cause of vitamin C synthesize in the kidney of sturgeons (Moreau et al. 1999), that perhaps this amount of AA meets the requirements of Persian sturgeon larvae.

According to our results, it seems that un-enriched bloodworms, similarly to sandworms (Perinereis nuntia), have a short supply of vitamin C (Techaprempreecha et al. 2011), that surely cannot satisfy the needs of fish for AA. But enrichment seems to be a solution to tackle nutritional AA insufficiencies. It appears that growth can be maintained at high rate with smaller quantities of well enriched feed substrate for bloodworms at the level of C1000.

Birstein, V.J. 1993. Sturgeon and paddlefishes: threatened fishes in need of conservation. Cons Biol 7, 773-787.

Darias, M.J., Mazurais, D., Koumoundouros, G., Cahu, C.L., Zambonino Infante, J.L. 2011. Overview of vitamin D and C requirements in fish and their influence on the skeletal system. Aquaculture 315, 49-60.

Falahatkar, B., Soltani, M., Abtahi, B., Kalbassi, M.R., Pourkazemi, M., Yasemi, M. 2006. Effects of vitamin C on some growth parameters, survival and hepatosomatic index in juvenile cultured beluga, Huso huso. Pajouhesh &

Sazandegi 72, 98-103.

Hafezieh, M., 2009. Effect of Artemia urmiana enrichment in larviculture of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). PhD thesis, University Putra, Malaysia.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN red list of threatened species. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org.

Lim, L.C., Dhert, Ph., Sorgeloos, P. 2003. Recent developments in the application of live feeds in the freshwater ornamental fish culture. Aquaculture 227, 319-331.

Mims, S.D., Lazur, A., Shelton, W.S., Gomelsky, B., Chapman, F. 2002. Production of

sturgeon. SRAC Publication No. 7200.

Moreau, R., Dabrowski, K., Sato, P.H., 1999. Renal L-gulono-1,4-lactone oxidase activity as affected by dietary ascorbic acid in lake sturgeon (Acipenser fultescens). Aquaculture 180, 359-372.

Moren, M., R. Waagbo, Hamre, K. 2011. Micronutrients. In: Larval Fish Nutrition. pp. 117-149, G.J. Holt (ed). Wiley-Blackwell, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. U.K.

Techaprempreecha S., Khongchareonpornb N., Chaicharoenpong C., Aranyakananda P., Chunhabundit S., Petsom A. 2011. Nutritional composition of farmed and wild sandworms, Perinereis nuntia. Anim Feed Sci Tech 169, 265-269.

Volkman, E.T., Pangel K. L., Rajchel D.A., 2004. Hatchery performance attributes of juvenile lake sturgeon fed two natural food types. N Am J Aquacult 66,105-112.

Spiny lobster larvae, the main gate of lobster aquaculture with emphasis on Panulirus homarus

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