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1 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

2 Artemia and Aquatic Animals Research Institute, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Introduction

Prey items used in aquaculture must have an adequate size, high survival rate, swimming ability and capacity to survive in the target species culture environment (McConaugha, 1985; Beck and Turingan, 2007). Artemia nauplii are a non-selective filter feeder; therefore, it has the potential to deliver different materials to the larvae of fish, shrimp and other aquatics through enrichment. Earlier studies proved that enrichment of newly hatched nauplii using different fish and vegetable oils as well as commercial emulsions improves growth, survival, and stress tolerance of the larvae. Although vegetable oils have been used for enrichment of Artemia nauplii by many researchers, but no one has tried to optimize the technique as it was earlier done for fish oil.

Materials and methods

In this study, cyst of Artemia urmiana initially hatched according to standard method (Sorgeloos et al., 1986) then the Artemia urmiana at the densities of 50000, 100000 and 200000 nauplii L-1 was enriched with local canola oil at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g L-1, at 28±1°C, pH=7.72±0.22 and salinity of 35 ppt for 18 hours. The growth and survival rate of nauplii was evaluated during the course of enrichment at 6, 12 and 18 hours after the onset of enrichment. Groupings of Artemia urmiana has shown in the table 1 that carry out with Minitab 16. Differences in final survival and growth among treatments were analyzed by MANOVA and nested MANOVA (SPSS 16). These data are based on Kolmogorov- Smirnov test were normal, also homogeneity was shown by Levenes test (P>0.05).

Iran-Larvi, ll-!2 December 2Ol2-Karaj

Table 1: Groupings of Artemia urmiana nauplii enriched under different density, oil concentration and enrichment time.

Group

Density (naplii L-1)

Oil concentration (g L-1)

Time (h)

 

200000

0.1

б

 

200000

0.2

б

 

200000

0.1

12

1

200000

0.2

12

 

50000

0.2

12

 

100000

0.1

18

 

100000

0.2

18

 

200000

0.3

б

 

100000

0.1

12

2

 

 

 

 

50000

0.1

12

 

50000

0.3

12

 

100000

0.1

б

 

100000

0.2

б

3

100000

0.3

б

 

50000

0.1

б

 

50000

0.2

б

4

50000

0.3

б

 

200000

0.3

12

 

200000

0.1

18

5

200000

0.3

18

 

100000

0.3

18

 

100000

0.2

12

б

100000

0.3

12

 

200000

0.2

18

 

50000

0.1

18

7

50000

0.2

18

 

50000

0.3

18

Results

A.urmiana survival and length for all combinations of density, oil concentration and enrichment time (duration) are presented in Table 2.

Oil concentration, density and enrichment time had alone no significant effect on survival of nauplii. Oil concentration had no significant effect on growth of nauplii, but nauplii density and enrichment time significantly affected this parameter. Figure 1 can be concluded that maximum growth of nauplii was in 5 groups that contain 200000 nauplii L-1 densities with 0.3, 0.1 and 0.3 g L-1 oil concentration for 12, 18 and 18 hours respectively and 100000 nauplii L-1 densities with 0.3 g L-1 oil concentration for 18 hours. Maximum survival was in 3 groups that contain 100000 nauplii L-1 densities with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g L-1 oil concentration and 50000 nauplii L-1 densities with 0.1 g L-1 oil concentration for 6 hours.

Table 2: Survival and length (average ± standard deviation) of Artemia urmiana nauplii enriched under different density, oil concentration and enrichment time.

Treatment

Density

Oil concentration

Time

Length (mm)

Survival (%)

 

(naplii L-1)

(g L-1)

(h) "

Mean

S.D

Mean

S.D

1

200000

0.1

6

0.69

0.04

98.87

0.24

2

200000

0.2

6

0.70

0.06

98.84

0.89

3

200000

0.3

6

0.68

0.02

99.27

0.31

4

100000

0.1

6

0.56

0.02

96.73

2.87

5

100000

0.2

6

0.58

0.04

98.66

0.28

6

100000

0.3

6

0.57

0.01

95.95

3.50

7

50000

0.1

6

0.56

0.03

98.49

1.31

8

50000

0.2

6

0.53

0.02

94.37

1.18

9

50000

0.3

6

0.54

0.01

99.22

0.67

10

200000

0.1

12

0.74

0.02

97.52

0.23

11

200000

0.2

12

0.73

0.01

96.23

3.06

12

200000

0.3

12

0.73

0.02

95.35

4.05

13

100000

0.1

12

0.67

0.02

89.11

2.06

14

100000

0.2

12

0.69

0.03

92.88

3.35

15

100000

0.3

12

0.69

0.02

91.53

3.05

16

50000

0.1

12

0.66

0.01

87.72

3.49

17

50000

0.2

12

0.70

0.01

92.67

2.40

18

50000

0.3

12

0.66

0.01

94.94

0.65

19

200000

0.1

18

0.76

0.02

85.55

2.47

20

200000

0.2

18

0.74

0.01

85.20

10.90

21

200000

0.3

18

0.75

0.02

84.35

12.68

22

100000

0.1

18

0.70

0.02

63.37

0.07

23

100000

0.2

18

0.71

0.02

67.06

6.65

24

100000

0.3

18

0.72

0.02

66.08

4.43

25

50000

0.1

18

0.71

0.04

58.33

6.32

26

50000

0.2

18

0.70

0.02

69.59

2.01

27

50000

0.3

18

0.69

0.02

77.84

3.63

Table 3: Survival and length (average ± standard deviation) groupings of Artemia urmiana nauplii enriched under different density, oil concentration and enrichment time.

 

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Group 4

Group 5

Group 6

Group 7

Survival

(%)

95.98±0.28 b

96.12±0.75 b

97.90±0.86 a

95.93±0.82 b

94.17±0.25 c

92.97±0.66 d

95.03±0.15 c

Length (mm)

0.71±0.02 b

0.67±0.01 c

0.57±0.01 d

0.54±0.005 e

0.74±0.02 a

0.71±0.03 b

0.70±0.01 b

0.2 0.1

0

Group 7    Group 6    Group 5    Group 4    Group 3    Group 2    Group 1

>   (%) Survival        *   (Length (mm

Fig. 1: Mean Survival (%) and Total Length (mm) of Artemia urmiana nauplii enriched under different density, oil concentration and enrichment time according to Minitab grouping.

Discussion and Conclusion

Findings of the study showed that survival decreases by increasing enrichment time. Similarly Figueiredo et al. (2009) found increasing mortality with prolonged enrichment time in A.franciscana nauplii enriched with fatty acids and where the maximum enrichment time was 24h. Cook and Rust (2002) who found significant lower survival of adult Artemia .This is in contrast to the study by Roiha et al. (2010) found no mortality with prolonged enrichment time in Artemia nauplii enriched with florefenicol.

We found that total length of nauplii increases by increasing enrichment time. Similarly Figueiredo et al. (2009) found increasing A.franciscana length over the enrichment process.

The best growth and survival were observed in 1 group that contained 200000 nauplii L-1 density with 0.1 and 0.2 g L-1 oil concentration for 6, 12 h and 100000 nauplii L-1 density with 00.1 and 0.2 g L-1 oil concentration for 18 hours and 50000 nauplii L-1 density with 0.2 g L-1 oil concentration for 12 hours. The best density to harvest Artemia urmiana nauplii for aquaculture feed is 200000 and 50000 nauplii L1 with 0.1 and 0.2 g L-1 canola oil concentration for 6 hours respectively. Based on the results it was concluded that 50000 nauplii L-1 with 0.2 g L-1 is suitable naupliar density and canola oil concentration for enrichment of A.urmiana as far as the survival and growth is concerned.

References

Beck, J.L., Turingan, R., 2007. The effects of zooplankton swimming behavior on preycapture kinematics of red drum larvae, Sciaenops ocellatus. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 151, 1463-1470.

Cook MA, Rust MB. 2002. Bioencapsulation of five forms of erythromycin by adult Artemia salina (L.). Journal of Fish Diseases 25: 165-170.

Figueiredo J, van Woesik R, Lin J, Narciso L .2009. Artemia franciscana enrichment model - How to keep them small, rich and alive? Aquaculture 294: 212-220.

McConaugha, J.R., 1985. Nutrition and larval growth. In: Wenner, A.M. (Ed.), Larval Growth - Crustacean Issues, vol. 2. AA Balkema Publishers, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 127-154.

Sorgeloos, P., Lavens, P., L6ger, Ph., Tackaert, W., Versichele, D., 1986. Manual for the culture and use of brine shrimp Artemia in aquaculture. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ghent. 319 pp.

Enrichment of Artemia urmiana with Canola Oil: Effect on Fatty Acid profile

Sirwe Ghaderpour1, Naser Agh2, Farzaneh Noori2 and Eslam Ahmadian1

1 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

2 Artemia and Aquatic Animals Research Institute, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Introduction

Prey items used in aquaculture must have an adequate size, high survival, a high nutritional profile, swimming ability and capacity to survive in the target species culture environment (McConaugha, 1985; Beck and Turingan, 2007). Artemia nauplii are among the most commonly used cultured prey in aquaculture, but they may lack certain essential fatty acids appropriate to their target species (Figueiredo et al. 2009). Artemia nauplii are a non-selective filter feeder; therefore, it has the potential to deliver different materials to the larvae of fish, shrimp and other aquatics through enrichment. Earlier studies proved that enrichment of newly hatched nauplii using different fish and vegetable oils as well as commercial emulsions improves growth, survival, and stress tolerance of the larvae. Although vegetable oils have been used for enrichment of Artemia nauplii by many researchers, but no one has tried to optimize the technique as it was earlier done for fish oil.

Materials and methods

In this study, cyst of Artemia urmiana initially hatched according to the standard method (Sorgeloos et al., 1986) then were enriched at the densities of 50000, 100000 and 200000 nauplii L-1 with local canola oil at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g L-1, at 28±1°C, pH=7.72±0.22 and salinity of 35 L-1 for 18 hours. Samples for fatty acids analysis were rinsed in freshwater and were stored in micro tubes at -80 °C. Fatty methyl esters were extracted following Lepage and Roy (1984) procedure. Then fatty acids value was measured during the course of enrichment at 6, 12 and 18 hours after the onset of enrichment. Differences in fatty acids among treatments were analyzed by MANOVA

and nested MANOVA (SPSS 16). Normality of the data were checked with Kolmogorov- Smirnov test and homogeneity was shown by Levene's test (P>0.05).

Results

Based on the results the treatments were grouped using Minitab 16 (Table 1). A. urmiana fatty acids for all combinations of density, oil concentration and enrichment time (duration) are presented in Table 2.

Density had significant effect on all fatty acids except SFA (saturated fatty acids) and Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6). But oil concentration had significant effect on all fatty acids except EPA, Arachidonic acid, Linolenic acid (C18:3n3) and SFA (P<0.05).

The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as linoleic acid (C18:2n-6), linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) showed the highest values in group 8, where 100000 and 50000 nauplii L-1 densities were enriched with 0.3 and 0.1 g L-1 oil concentrationfor 18 hours, respectively. The most abundant PUFA was linoleic acid (Table 3).

Discussion and Conclusion

The fatty acids composition of the nauplii changes over enrichment time due to the processes of fatty acid ingestion, catabolism and synthesis (Figueiredo et al. 2009). Density, enrichment time and oil concentration significantly affected A.urmiana fatty acid profile. However, these effects were not consistent among fatty acids.

We found that DHA increases by increasing enrichment time in groups with 100000 and 50000 nauplii L-1 where the maximum value was detected at 18 h enrichment. But DHA decreased by increasing enrichment time in treatment with 200000 nauplii L-1. Similarly Figueiredo et al. (2009) found increasing DHA with prolonged enrichment time in A. franciscana nauplii enriched with fatty acids and where the maximum DHA was at 23h. Similarity Evjemo et al. (1997), Coutteau and Mourente (1997) and Kyungmin et al. (2000), found highest DHA value after 24 h enrichment using an ICES emulsion

Iran-Larvi, 11-12 December 2012-Karaj

containing 30% n-3 HUFA (0.3 and 0.25 g L-1) and 50% n-3 HUFA emulsion at 0.3 g L-1, respectively. Azari Takami and Mahmoodzadeh (2001) observed maximum amount of DHA at 6 h, but decreased by increasing enrichment time.

Table 1: Groupings of Artemia urmiana nauplii enriched under different density, oil concentration and enrichment time.

Group

Density (naplii L-1)

Oil concentration (g L-1)

Time (h)

1

200000 200000 200000 100000

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3

0

6 6 6

12

2

100000

100000 50000

50000

0.1

0.2 0.2

0.1

6

12

6

12

3

100000 50000

0.2 0.1

6 6

4

100000

100000 50000 50000 50000

0.3

0.1 0.3 0.2 0.3

6

12

6

12 12

5

200000 200000

0.1 0.1

12 18

6

200000

200000

0.2

0.3

12

12

7

200000

200000 100000 100000

0.2

0.3 0.1 0.2

18

18 18 18

8

100000 50000

0.3 0.1

18 18

9

50000 50000

0.2 0.3

18 18

Table 2: The fatty acids (average ± standard deviation) of Artemia urmiana nauplii enriched under different density, oil concentration and enrichment time._

1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

C18:2n6 ds

1.46+0.08 1.90+0.10 1.81+0.13 1.84+0.18 1.35+0.14

1.64+0.16 1.52+0.11 1.68+0.10 1.25+0.47 1.88+0.36 1.80+0.02 2.17+0.44 2.88+0.23 2.01+0.43 1.65+0.27 1.68+0.27 1.48+0.36 1.91+0.05 2.15+0.14 2.12+0.04 3.24+0.65 3.82+0.79 2.87+0.63 2.84+0.12 4.29+1.08 4.57+0.56 3.40+0.67 3.82+0.12

C18:3n3

3.11+0.49

3.30+0.18 2.96+0.22 2.80+0.03 3.12+0.01 3.87+0.21 3.41+0.14 4.07+0.06 3.00+1.14 3.53+0.08 2.54+0.10 2.32+0.15 2.71+0.19 3.37+0.65 2.59+0.54 2.44+0.66 2.75+0.10 3.12+0.07 3.16+0.18 2.27+0.05 2.66+0.45 2.64+0.03 2.63+0.55 2.70+0.15 4.06+1.14 4.42+0.44 3.02+0.54 3.15+0.003

ARA

EPA

DHA

SFA

MUFA

PUFA

0.10+0.02 0.09+0.01 0.07+0.0003 0.08+0.01 0.06+0.01 0.08+0.01 0.07+0.01 0.08+0.001 0.06+0.02 0.08+0.01 0.06+0.004 0.09+0.02 0.10+0.01 0.07+0.02 0.06+0.02 0.07+0.01 0.06+0.01 0.08+0.003 0.09+0.002 0.06+0.01 0.09+0.02 0.11+0.001 0.07+0.02 0.10+0.005 0.18+0.04 0.16+0.02 0.15+0.02 0.17+0.002

0.44+0.05 0.42+0.06 0.35+0.01 0.35+0.001 0.51+0.01 0.66+0.50 0.58+0.02 0.71+0.01 0.52+0.20 0.60+0.001 0.30+0.002 0.25+0.03 0.31+0.03 0.55+0.14 0.41+0.09 0.41+0.09 0.46+0.02 0.50+0.002 0.52+0.02 0.26+0.01 0.29+0.06 0.29+0.03 0.39+0.09 0.42+0.002 0.62+0.18 0.71+0.08 0.49+0.08 0.49+0.01

0.09+0.01 0.10+0.01 0.07+0.001 0.05+0.01 0.02+0.002 0.03+0.002 0.02+0.01 0.01+0.005 0.01+0.01 0.01+0.004 0.04+0.004 0.10+0.01 0.10+0.03 0.02+0.002 0.02+0.01 0.08+0.08 0.01+0.002 0.02+0.004 0.02+0.0004 0.03+0.01 0.05+0.02 0.06+0.004 0.01+0.01 0.02+0.001 0.15+0.14 0.05+0.004 0.05+0.01 0.05+0.003

2.99+0.40 3.13+0.12 2.87+0.27 2.77+0.20 2.89+0.02 3.66+0.21 3.24+0.14 3.84+0.08 2.79+1.03 3.38+0.09 2.37+0.09 2.74+0.79 2.92+0.16 3.38+0.73 2.61+0.54 4.60+2.29 2.73+0.16 3.11+0.03 3.38+0.23 2.28+0.06 2.70+0.52 2.95+0.28 3.00+0.64 3.08+0.18 6.51+1.19 5.07+0.60 3.66+0.64 3.98+0.07

4.33+0.11 5.15+0.27 4.75+0.35 4.80+0.44 4.43+0.25 5.51+0.42 4.96+0.24 5.77+0.21 4.21+1.59 5.74+0.78 4.54+0.11 5.40+1.35 6.47+0.48 5.95+1.36 4.69+0.87 5.59+0.09 4.53+0.80 5.59+0.09 6.06+0.33 4.97+0.05 7.06+1.39 8.12+1.35 7.05+1.54 7.05+0.29 11.12+1.85 11.41+1.34 8.30+1.59 8.99+0.35

TFA

5.41+0.51 6.06+0.39 5.47+0.38 5.31+0.23 5.22+0.17 6.48+0.44 5.78+0.29 6.78+0.14 4.99+1.91 6.29+0.47 4.89+0.12 5.11+0.62 6.29+0.50 6.21+1.28 4.88+0.96 5.84+0.29 4.92+0.52 5.81+0.12 6.15+0.38 4.90+0.02 6.50+1.24 7.08+0.71 6.14+1.32 6.25+0.28 11.09+0.20 10.22+1.14 7.33+1.32 7.89+0.13

12.73+1.03 14.34+0.79 13.09+1.0 12.87+0.87 12.54+0.44 15.64+1.07 13.97+0.67 16.39+0.43 11.98+4.53 15.41+1.34 11.80+0.31 13.24+2.76 15.68+1.14 15.54+3.37 12.18+2.37 16.03+2.67 12.18+1.48 14.51+0.18 15.59+0.94 12.15+0.10 16.26+3.14 18.15+2.35 16.19+3.50 16.38+0.75 28.73+0.85 26.70+3.08 19.28+3.55 20.86+0.54

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