Автор неизвестен - Krmulture in iran - страница 16
Table 3: The fatty acids (average + standard deviation) groupings of Artemia urmiana nauplii enriched under different density, oil concentration and enrichment time.
In this study, eicosapentaenoic acid levels were highest at 6 and 18 h. Similarly Immanuel et al, (2007) detected the highest amount of fatty acids at 6 and 24 h of enrichment. Based on the results it was concluded that 50000 nauplii L_l with 0.1 g L-1 is suitable naupliar density and canola oil concentration for enrichment of A.urmiana as far as the fatty acids are concerned and the best enrichment time for A.urmiana nauplii was found to be 18 h.
AzariTakami, G., Mahmoodzadeh, H. and Grailu, Z., 2001. Survey of the stability of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids following enrichment of Artemia by various oil and subsequent starvation. International workshop on Artemia urmiana, Iran.
12th-15th, May 2001.
Coutteau, P., Mourente, G., 1997. Lipid classes and their content of n-3highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in Artemia franciscana after hatching, HUFA enrichment and subsequent starvation. Journal of Marine Biology130: 81-91.
Evjemo, J.O. Coutteau, P., Olsen, Y., Sorgeloos, P., 1997. The stability of DHA in two Artemia species following enrichment and subsequent starvation. Aquaculture 155: 135-148.
Figueiredo, J., Van Woesik, R., Lin, J., Narciso, L., 2009. Artemia franciscana enrichment model - How to keep them small, rich and alive? Aquaculture
Immanuel, G., Citarasu, T., Sivaram, V., Selva Shankar, V., Palavesam A., 2007. Bioencapsulation strategy and highly unsaturated fattyacids (HUFA) enrichment in Artemia franciscana nauplii by using marine trash fish Odonus niger liver oil. African Journal of Biotechnology 6 (17): 2043-2053.
Kyungmin, H., Geurden, I., Sorgeloos, P., 2000. Enrichment strategies for Artemia using emulsions providing different levels of n-3 highlyunsaturated fatty acids. Aquaculture 183(3-4): 335-347.
Lepage, G. and Roy, C.C., 1984. Improved recovery of fatty acid through direct transesterification without prior extraction or purification. Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 25,1984, Notes on Methodology, pp. 1391-1396.
McConaugha, J.R., 1985. Nutrition and larval growth. In: Wenner, A.M. (Ed.), Larval Growth - Crustacean Issues, vol. 2. AA Balkema Publishers, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 127-154.
Sorgeloos, P., Lavens, P., L6ger, Ph., Tackaert, W., Versichele, D., 1986. Manual for the culture and use of brine shrimp Artemia in aquaculture. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ghent. 319 pp.
Effect of temperature on survival and growth of Phallocryptus spinosa Milne Edward, 1840 (Crustacea: Anostraca) from Iran
Mohammad R. Gharibi*, Mohammad A. Neamatollahi, Naser Agh, Behrooz Atashbar and Manadana Kazemi
*Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Aquaculture, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran Abstract
Phallocryptus spinosa is a common inhabitant of seasonal water catchments in the northwest of Iran. Growth and survival of this species were studied at different temperatures in the laboratory. Three replicates of 200 newly hatched nauplii were treated in temperature of 15, 20, 25 and 30°C. The larvae were fed with unicellular algae Dunaliella tertiolecta and Lansy PZ. Survival and growth rate of animals were calculated on days: 3,6,9,12,15 and 18. Total length was significantly longer at high temperatures, 13.2 ± 2.0 mm at 30°C, compared to 5.3 ± 1.3 mm at 15°C on day 12. Nevertheless, contrasting results were obtained for survival, being the lowest at 30°C (%0) and highest at 15°C (%S6) on day 12 of growth.
Keywords: Anostraca, Growth, Survival
Anostracans (Crustacea, Branchiopoda), commonly known as fairy shrimps, are often the dominant fauna in the early successional stages of ephemeral freshwater pools. Many fairy shrimp species have specific habitat requirements for parameters such as temperature and pH (Eriksen & Belk, 1999). Although much information is available on the ecology of anostracans (Maeda Martinez et al., 1995), relatively little is known
about how populatios differ in growth and survial (Beladjal et al., 2007). A number of studies have been carried out on growth and survival of Anostraca populations from different parts of the world cultured under standardized laboratory conditions (Beladjal et al., 2003; Atashbar et al., 2012). However, more research is requires to understand dynamics and life history characteristics in other species. Phallocryptus spinosa Milne Edwards 1840 was reported from pools at the vicinity of the Lake Urmia. The life cycle of P. spinosa has not been documented neither Iran nor anywhere else in the world. The main aim of this study is to present data on characterization of P. spinosa from Iran, based on their growth and survival patterns.
Material and methods
Dehydrated cysts were hatched using tap water at 25°C under constant fluorescent light. Two hundred newly hatched nauplii (Instar 1) were transferred to each of the 2-liter cylindrical bowls containing 1-liter areared saline water (5 g/l) in four temperature treatments (15, 20, 25 and 30°C) with three replicates for each treatment. The animals in the culture bowls were kept under mild aeration and fed unicellular algae (Dunaliella tertiolecta) at a concentration of 10,000 cells ml-1 daily (Mura et al., 1998).Growth rate and survival were determined on days 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18.The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS, analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) and the averages were compared using the post-hoc Duncan test.
The growth curve of p. spinosa is shown in fig 1. The animals continued at all temperatures throughout their life time. Comparsion of growth on day 12 revealed significantly higher growth (13.2 + 2.0 mm) at 30 °C than animals at 15-25 °C. Overall minimum mean length were
obtained at 15 °C (5.3 + 0.7mm) and the growth rates at 20 and 25 °C
were almost similar. The results indicated that growth increases in p. spinosa when temperature increases.
Fig.1. Growth rate of p. spinosa at different temperatures Survival
The Survival curve is shown in fig 2. The result indicated that survival declines in p. spinosa when temperature increases. Higher survival was at 15 °C and minimum survival was observed at 30 °C. All animals died by day 12 at 30 °C, while survivorship was over 80% at 15-25 °C. Significantly longer life spans (over two months) were detected at 15 and 20 °C compared to those reared at higher experimental temperatures.
Fig.2. Survival of p. spinosa at different temperatures.
Life history studies on other fairy shrimps have shown that temperature plays an important role on growth (Atashbar et al., 2012). Survival was significantly different at various experimental temperatures. In P. spinosa, all shrimps at 30 °C died within 10-12 days after hatching. Survival was significantly highest at low temperature (86% at 15 °C) and lowest at high temperature (0% at 30 °C) on day 12 of culture period. Also a similar pattern of survival was observed by Beladjal et al (2003) Who reported a longest life expectancy (100 days) for T. perrieri cultured at 10 °C, while the minimum life span (20 and 18 days) was observed at 30 and 35 °C. These findings reveal that P. spinosa is generally sensitive to high temperature and perform better at low temperatures.
Since anostracans are poikilotherms, higher temperatures can accelerate their metabolic rate, reflected in their faster growth under warmer conditions (Atashbar et al., 2012).Our results prove the life strategy of P. spinosa in adapted to warm water, ranging between 20 and 25 °C , of vernal pools that stay inundated for 10 to 20 days at least. Based on our results, P. spinosa increased in length rapidly in the first 9 days after hatching at 25 and 30 °C, while little growth was observed at 15 °C. However, growth continued for a much longer period at 15 °C compared to 25 and 30 °C. We observe a positive correlation between temperature and body length in P. spinosa. Total length was significantly longer at high temperature (13.2 ± 2.0 mm at 30 °C compared to 5.3 ± 1.3 mm at 15 °C) on day 12. In conclusion, this study revealed that the temperature range of 20-25 °C provides the best conditions for growth and survival of the P. spinosa.
Atashbar B, Agh N, Beladjal L, Mertens J, 2012. Effect of Temperature on Survival, Growth, Reproductive and Life Span charactristics of Branchinecta orientalis Sars, 1901(Branchipoda: Anostraca). Crustaceana, 85 (9): 1099-1114.
Beladjal L, Khattabi EM, Mertens J, 2003. Life history of Tanymastigites perrieri (Anostraca) in relation to temperature. Crustaceana, 76: 135-147.
Beladjal L, Weekers P, Mertens J, 2007. Life cycle and genetic differences of tow
Branchipus Schaefferi populations from Morocco. Journal of Animal Biology, 4:
Eriksen, C. H.&D. Belk, 1999. Fairy shrimps of California's puddles, pools, and playas: 1 181. (Mad River Press, Eureka, CA).
Maeda-Martinez A, Obregon-Barboza H, Dumont HJ, 1995. Laboratory culture of fairy shrimps using baker's yeast as basic food in a flow-through system. Hydrobiolgia, 298: 141-157.
Mura G, Ferrara F, Fabietti F, Delise M, Bocca A, 1998. Intraspecific variation of fatty acid profile in wild populations of Chirocephalus diaphanus Prevost (Anostraca). Crustaceana, 71(7): 785-800.
Research of Rainbow Trout Reproduction and Seed Production by Mathematical Matrix Analyses Farm Management in I.R. of Iran
Gheshlaghi, P1*. Faizbakhsh, R.2
1M.Sc. Fisheries and Aquaculture
2Ph.D., Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics
* Pegah email@example.com
Trout has been cultured in I.R. of Iran since early 1965 s, but major development took place during 1990s, currently, with an annual production near 110.000 tons. Statistics collected by the data replication at different stages of larval and registration information, and then matrix assessed using data collected in the evaluation technique is defined. The trial compared three treatments can be seen that the rate of assessment for the three treatments are equal treatment 1, treatment 2 and treatment 3 equals + 6, + 7, + 8 and is equal._The data show that the replication status for all treatments in the evaluation of various conditions and show that the situation is better than treatment 2 and treatment 3. Treatment 3 is better results than treatment 1. The results show that the number of proposed and discussed in scenario is presented in the following format. Trout reproduction in the center of the new methods and procedures to be used more for egg production and reproduction of old River. It centers on reproducing trout larvae more attention to quality and larval tests to be done in this regard. The quality of the reproduction center is not good condition and must be improving rapidly. Thus, it is replication centers in the field of genetic engineering and breeding programs produce specific and act accordingly.
Keywords: Rainbow Trout, Reproduction, Seed Production, Mathematical Matrix, Farm Management
Trout has been cultured in I.R. of Iran since early 1965s, but major development took place during 1990s, currently, with an annual production near 110.000 tons. I.R. of Iran becomes one of the top trout production countries. Although, most of the farms produce their own eggs and fry and those have not got such facilities buy fingerlings rather than eyed, eggs, but demand of fingerlings vary considerably due to heavy losses as results of water quality fluctuations, diseases outbreaks and management issues.
The original range of the Rain bow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was limited to the eastern Pacific Ocean and the fresh water. It has been introduced to Japan, Europe, most of South and Central America, Africa, Australia and Newzealand. The Rain bow trout is probably one of the oldest fish in culture. The first successful transfer of rainbow trout eggs out of the North America was made to Tokyo, Japan in 1877. This was followed by the 1885 shipments to England and Scotland. According to the Laird and Needham (1988) European commercial rainbow trout farming started in Denmark in the 1890s. Eggs and hatchery stocks established in England, Scotland and Denmark were transferred to other European countries.
Statistics collected by the data replication at different stages of larval and registration information, and then matrix assessed using data collected in the evaluation technique is defined.
Material and Methods
In this study, three treatments of three trout reproduction have been studied._Important indicators to evaluate treatments have been evaluated in fish reproduction._Hypotheses of this study are important factors that should be observed in the proliferation centers.. These indicators can be useful to assess the quality of the copy centers realized through three
treatments.. Each experimental group consisted of a sample of 100 eggs eyed the three treatments have been tested to be 300 eggs.
Table 1: The table size and number of eggs trout production in the three treatments
Egg size (mm)
No. of eggs in 30 cm
A method of study is broodstock management and seed production (Larvae and fry) for fish culture with methods Bromage, 1995. Matrix method can be used to reproduce an assessment center salmon. The evaluation and grading methods to assist with variable range between -2 to +2 state replication centers measured for three treatments.. The following table can be used to measure three treatments applied to assess the situation.
Table 2: Important indicators in assessing the situation of different treatments on trout reproduction
Control of maturation
Eggs and sperm quality
Quality of Larvae
Egg size (mm)
Brood stock quality
The present researches purpose analyzing the data of growth rate markets the advantages of various with the use of mixed feed with the
addition preparation. The trial compared three treatments can be seen that the rate of assessment for the three treatments are equal treatment 1, treatment 2 and treatment 3 equals + 6, + 7, + 8 and is equal..The data show that the replication status for all treatments in the evaluation of various conditions and show that the situation is better than treatment 2 and treatment 3 Treatment 3 is better results eggs create than treatment 1.
Management techniques as an important indicator of proliferation center was assessed every 3 treatments failed to gain an advantage in this regard. Another one document is Broodstock quality. number score for this index for the three treatments were evaluated in this work shows there is more to improve conditions for reproduction.
According to the 10 indicators measured in this study for three treatments of three research centers and has been used. Quality index or index at No. 5 and No. 9 index management techniques are unpleasant situations..Also in the field of genetic engineering and breeding evaluated as an indicator of the number 6 suggests that good condition and should not be seen in this work more rapidly.. However, some of the indicators have been better off in this regard can be one indicator of marketing and index noted. The status indicator is appropriate.
The results show that the number of proposed and discussed in scenario is presented in the following format.
1- Trout reproduction in the center of the new methods and procedures to be used more for egg production and reproduction of old River.
2- It centers on reproducing trout larvae more attention to quality and larval tests to be done in this regard.
3- The quality of the reproduction center is not good condition and must be improving rapidly.
4- Also, it is replication centers in the field of genetic engineering and breeding programs produce specific and act accordingly.
Bromage, N.R. 1995. Broodstock management and seed quality, general considerations. N.R. Bromage and R.J. Roberts and J.F. Muir (Eds), Broodstock management and Egg and Larval quality. Blackwell Science, Oxford 1-24.
Lem, A. 1999. Presentation given at the Conference of Aquaculture Economics and Marketing Debercen, Hungary.
Morrison, J.K. and Smith, C.E. 1986. Altering the spawning cycle of Rain bow trout by manipulating water temperature. Prog. Fish. Cult. 48: 52-54.
Springate, J.R.C. and Bromage, N.R. 1983. Egg Production and Broodstock management. Fish Farmer, 6: 21.
Tacon, A.G.J.1998. International Aqua Feed Directory and Buyers Guide. Turret Rai PLC.Middlesex, U.K.
A comparative study of the impact pellet feed, plant feed and live feed on the eggs of freshwater crayfish in the River Aras creation
Pegah Gheshlaghi1*, Reza Faizbakhsh2
1* M.Sc. Fisheries and Aquaculture Engineer, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 2 Ph.D. Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics and Management
In both treatments, 10 crayfish were considered part of the female reproductive and feeding the different treatments is as follows. A total of 7 treatments around of 70 pieces and repeat 2 times, 140 pieces have been used. The mean average weight was 88 g..Overall results are presented in Table 4. In this table it can be seen that the average number of treatments 1 195 eggs have been collected. In treatment 2, 187 and treatment 3, 178 in treatment 4, 197 and treatment 5, 198 and treatment 6, 186 and treatment 7, 202 numbers of eggs collected. Average number of eggs from each treatment consisted of 10 female ovipositor with two repeat. The only live food is used in treatment 1 and results show that 195 number of eggs collected, vegetarian feed than treatment 2 and treatment 3 further shows that the plate is use. Then the use of live food production spawning of the crayfish has been better. Food of the plate which is used in treatment 3 and than in group 2 that better results are obtained using only the combining the feed. Also, treatment with better results than treatment 4 and 5 the plates used in the treatment of five feed and live better achieved compared to treatment 4. Treatment of compound 6 also vegetable plate is less than live feed and plant has obtained results. Finally, the combination of live feed and plant feed and plates, feed has achieved better results than all other treatments. The results suggest the
possible need for more research on methods that can be done in brood stock female crayfish eggs show. Cray fish feed formulation and feed components required for a wider investigation will be conducted. The production of live feed for crayfish more work to be done in terms of research.
Keywords: Cray fish Aras, plates of feed, live feed, plant feed, seed generation Crayfish
Aras river crayfish has the growth up in river in the past years and nearly 200 tons product gathered in the river and has been exported to other countries. Since the last trading is price of between 7 to 13 US$ per kg and recent thinking about growing the organism in rivers. It's available for a very limited number of eggs produced Security number is required number of small Cray fish required to maintain a large number generator.This study examines the impact of food and nutrition, king prawn brood stock before mating and then using eggs make it possible to realize the impact of feed Cray fish and effects to creation number of eggs.
A freshwater crayfish egg that usually produces between 50 and 500 is the number. But averages can impose 200 number mentioned. This study examines would be the different treatments and the food.
Information collected from treatments in the laboratory.
Materials and Methods
In this research in Bandar Gaz Cray fish farm in the coast Caspian Sea has been carried out in a closed environment. 10 pieces in each experimental treatment considered and female crayfish feeding on
different treatments is as follows. A total of 7 treatments total of 70 pieces and repeat 2 times, 140 pieces have been used. The mean average weight was 88 g.
Table 1 can be referred to the chemical conditions of the water. Water for all breeders are the same and as follows.
Table 1: Chemical characteristics of water in the study
250 parts per million of calcium carbonate
Table 2 refers to the food components have been tested. Live feed on snails and earthworms in a big pond these two compounds are mixed together in equal parts and used as Food live. Its food for 2 weeks prior to spawning brood stock has been. In the field of plant foods and sugar water plant, Aloe Vera has been used for aquatic species. Using a combination of these two herbs that have been used in plant foods. Meal plate of food that can be used for brood stock trout.
Table 2: Evaluation of test food and feed ingredients for shrimp brood stock Cray fish Aras
Type of Food
Species of aquatic plant Elodea
Plate of feed
In Table 3 it can be seen that the number 7 has been tested treatments. Used in the assessment of treatment 1 and treatment 2 only live food and plant food used in treatment 3 is only used plates.
In treatment 4 combination of live food and plant food used and combined treatments of live food and plates 5 and 6 combined treatment plant foods and plates and treated 7 ultimate combinations of all three types of food has been used. 0.4% average food consumption and body weight of 88 g average body weight of spawners.
Iran-Larvi, 11-12 December 2012-Karaj
Table 3: Status of food components in experimental treatments
Plate of feed