Автор неизвестен - Krmulture in iran - страница 19
Effects of clove powder on the some hematological parameters are shown in Table 1. The fish which anesthetized with 750 mg/L showed higher values of Hct 9.40+0.78 % and RBC 0.78+0.12 (*106 mm-3) than those of in 500 mg/L 8.16+0.98 % and 0.57+0.05 (*106 mm-3) respectively (Table. 1). The rest of the indices (WBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC and PLT) didn't show any differences between two experimental groups (p>0.05).
Table 1: The effects of exposure to two dosages of clove powder on hematological parameters on Cyprinus carpio._
WBC (* 103mm-3)
Hb (g dL-1)
MCH (pg cell-1)
MCHC (g dl-1)
PLT (* 103 |iL-1)
Values are mean +S.D; values followed by different superscript letters in each row are significantly different at p<0.05 (ANOVA). MCV-mean corpuscular volume, MCH-mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC-mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, WBC-number of leukocytes, RBC- number of erythrocytes, Hb- hemoglobin, Hct hematocrit, PLT-number of plackets.
In this study, the significant increase (p<0.05) of red blood cells and hematocrit values after clove powder anesthesia was observed in 750 ppm experimental group in compare to the other group. Haemotological profiles of blood can provide important information about their internal environment (2). In fact, the blood parameters of teleost fish may be affected by acute or chronic stress. The increase may result from the release of immature red cells by the spleen and could be an immediate response to the acute stress mediated by catecholamines (6). Similar results were found in fresh water and marine fish species using other anesthetic agents (6). Hypoxia as a result of reduction in respiratory actions lead in physiological changes in the blood factors such as raising hematocrit and RBC to combat whit lowering in O2 in circulation for breathing and survival (7). Similar results were found in RBC and Hct
after using 2- phenoxyethanol as an anesthetic agent on common carp (2). The results indicates that increasing number of RBC, is the major factor which affect Hct value in the fish under defined experimental condition.
WBC was measured to evaluate clove powder effect in two mentioned dosage on fish immune system. It was showed that there was no significant difference between two groups, so, the results indicates releasing of WBC did not changed because of different dosage of clove powder as an anesthetic agent.
The data presented in this study reveal that use of clove powder at anesthetic dosage (500 and 750 ppm) have different effects on at least some blood parameters. Since the RBC counts and Hct values was significantly higher in fish exposed to 750 ppm of clove powder, the recommended dose will be 500 ppm without to elicit hypothalamus-pituitary-internal axis (HPI) in common carp.
Gholipour Kanani H., Mirzargar S. S., Soltani M., Ahmadi M., Abrishamifar A., Bahonar A., Yousefi P. 2011. Anesthetic effect of tricaine methanesulfonate, clove oil and electroanesthesia on lysozyme activity of Oncorhynchus mykiss. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 10: 393-402.
Velisek J., Svobodova Z., Piackova V., Groch L., Nepejchalova L. 2005. Effects of clove oil anesthesia on common carp (Cyprinus carpio).Veterinary Medicine
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Weber R.A., P6rez-Maceira J.J., Peleteiro J.B., Garcfa-Martm L., Aldegunde M. 2011. Effects of acute exposure to 2-phenoxyethanol, clove oil, MS-222, and metomidate on primary and secondary stress responses in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Aquaculture, 321: 108-112.
Imanpour M.R., Bagheri T., Hedayati S.A.A. 2010. The anesthetic effects Clove essence in Persian Sturgeon, Acipenser persicus. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 2: 29-36.
Ross L.G., Ross B. 1999. Anaesthetic and sedative techniques for aquatic animals, 2nd ed. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford. 159 pp.
Weber R A., Peleteiro J.B., Garcia Martin L.O., Aldegunde M. 2009. The efficacy of 2-phenoxyethanol, metomidate, clove oil and MS-222 as anaesthetic agents in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Aquaculture, 288: 147-150.
Bagheri T., Imanpour M R. 2011. The efficacy, physiological responses and hematology of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, to clove oil as an anesthetic agent, Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 11: 477-483.
Bolasina S.N. 2006. Cortisol and hematological response in Brazilian codling, Urophycis Brasiliensis (Pisces, Phycidae) subjected to anesthetic treatment. Aquaculture International, 14: 569-575.
Iversen M., Finstad B., McKinley R.S., Eliassen R.A. 2003. The efficacy of
metomidate, clove oil, Aqui-Sk and BenzoakR as anaesthetics in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts, and their potential stress-reducing capacity, Aquaculture, 221: 549-566.
Sudagar M., Mohammadi-Zarejabada A., Mazandarani R., Pooralimotlagha S. 2009. The Efficiency clove powder as an anesthetic and its effects hematological parameters on Roach (Rutilus rutilus), Journal of Aquaculture Feed Science and Nutrition, 1:1-5.
Svobodova Z., Pravda D., Palackova J. 1991. Unified methods of haematological examination of fish. Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, Vodnany, Edition Methods, 22. 31 pp.
Effect of Different Photoperiodic Regimes on the Survival and Growth of Beluga Sturgeon (Huso huso)
Hamid Eshagh Zadeh x, Soheil Eagderi1*, Gholamreza Rafiee \ Rezvanollah Kazemi 2, Bagher Mojazi Amiri 1
1 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 4314, Karaj, Iran
2 International Sturgeon Research Institute, P.O. Box 41635-3464, Rasht, Iran * Corresponding author: Soheil.eagderi@Ut.ac.ir
Effect of different photoperiodic regimes was evaluated on growth performance and survival rate of the Beluga (Huso huso) eleutheroembryo. Newly hatched prelarvae were stored in 5 round fiberglass 500l tank with photoperiodic regimes of 24L:00D, 18L:06D, 12L:12D, 06L:18 D, 00L:24D till 12DPH in three replicas. Light intensity was 200 lux during the experiment. Feeding was started from 8 DPH using live artemia nauplii. Higher total length, Body area, yolk area and survival rates for beluga prelarvae obtained in long-time photoperiodic regimes (24L: 00D, 18L:06D) treatments. The results showed that growth performance and survival rates are significantly influenced by photoperiodic regimes. Based on the result of this study, the photoperiodic regime of 18L:06D is suggested to gain best results in growth performance and survival rate during early development of the Beluga in aquacultural systems.
Declining the stock of sturgeon in their natural habitat i.e. the Caspian Sea, has been led to development of its artificial propagation program in hatcheries for both aquacultural and restocking proposes (Bronzi et al., 1999). During artificial propagation programs of sturgeon fishes, the production of larvae is most critical and important stage (Yasemi et al., 2011). Among sturgeon fishes, production of Beluga larvae (Huso huso) has drawn a great attention due to its high economic value and suitability for aquacultural propose.
Since, the main focus in aquaculture is applying the techniques to increase breeding, survival rate and growth performance (Verhaegen et al., 2007). Hence, the environmental factors such as light and temperature have been studied as important factors effecting growth and survival of fish larvae. Light was found an important stimulant during early development of sturgeon fishes in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis), Siberian sturgeon (A. baerii) and shortnose sturgeon (A. brevirostrum) (Zhuang et al., 202; Richmond and Kynard, 1995). Also, a swim up behavior toward light zone has been reported in genus Acipenser, Scaphirhynchus and Huso at the time of downward migration indicating important role of light and vision in their ontogenetic behavior (Boglione et al., 1997).
The importance of vision and light preference in prelarvae or eleutheroembryo of sturgeon fishes have been demonstrated in their behaviors such as orientation, scooling, rheotaxis, phototaxis, avoiding predators and habitat selection. However, there are differences in those behaviors depend on the ecological requirements of species and their life stage (Arnold, 1974; Olla et al., 1996; Kynard and Horgan, 2002; Rodryguez and Gisbert, 2002). Hence, this study was aimed to study the effect of different photoperiodic regimes as important environmental factor on survival rate and growth performance of beluga sturgeon eleutheroembryo.
Material and Method
This experiment was accomplished at the Dadman International Sturgeon Research Institute (Guilan, Iran).The samples were obtained from the artificial propagation of four (3 male and 1 female), nine years old farmed beluga sturgeon. Newly hatched larvae i.e. eleutheroembryo immediately were stored in 5 round fiberglass tanks (105x102x52) with different photoperiodic regimes including D24L:00D, 18L:06D,
12L:12D, 06L:18D and 00L:24D till completion of their yolk sac
absorption (12 DPH=day post hatching). The experiment was carried out in 3 replicas with stoking of 33 grams larvae (about 1800 larvae) per 500L tanks with water depth of 20 cm.
Light intensity was 200 lux during the experiment. The water was supplied from ground and river water with a discharge of 400 cc and 250 cc per minute, respectively. The water temperature, DO and pH of treatments were recorded 15.9, 7.7 and 7.8 during the experiment, respectively. Due to asynchrony in external feeding of prelarvae and to avoid starving and cannibalism, feeding was started from 8 DPH using live artemia nauplii (500 nauplii/larvae). Lost larvae were removed and counted daily in each tank in order to measure the survival rate. At the end of experiment, 30 larvae from each tank were sampled and fixed in 5% buffered formalin solution. Weight of larvae measured with an accuracy of 0.001. Left side of specimens were photographed using a stereomicroscope equipped with an 8mp digital camera (Cannon) and their total length (TL), body area (BA) and area of yolk sac (YA) were measured using Image J software.
At the hatching time (0DPH), mean of YA was recorded 6.58 mm2 and this value was reduced to 1.252 mm2 in 12 DPH and found a significant different between treatments (P<0.05). The treatment with longer-time light period (24L:00D, 18L:06D) displayed a greater effect than the short ones (12L:12D, 06L:18D, 00L:24D) on yolk sac absorption. Average maximum and minimum of YA in the prelarvae were recorded in 00L:24D with 1.49 mm2 and 18L:06D with 1.03 mm2, respectively.
Table 1- Average (mean ± SD) of growth parameters between treatments during experiment
Final weight (mg)
49.46 ± 2.25a
48.80 ± 4.7a
49.73 ± 3.2a
50.83 ± 4.8a
56.49 ± 5.7a
Initial weight (mg)
18.2 ± 0.001
18.2 ± 0.001
18.2 ± 0.001
18.2 ± 0.001
Final total length (mm)
22.83 ± 0.47a
23.54 ± 0.88ab
23.61 ± 0.62ab
23.82 ± 0.47ab
Initial total length
11.20 ± 1.1
11.20 ± 1.1
11.20 ± 1.1
11.20 ± 1.1
11.20 ± 1.1
Yolk sac area (mm2) Body area (mm2)
1.89 ± 0.54c
1.68 ± 0.46bc
1.68 ± 0.38bc
1.43 ± 0.384a
1.58 ± 0.37ab
45.36 ± 1.6b
42.44 ± 2.4a
41.44 ± 1.4a
41.75 ± 1.8a
41.44 ± 2.5a
60.83 ± 22.27a
76.86 ± 10.49a
83.71 ± 15.82ab
95.86 ± 0.60b
The mean BA was measured 14 .7160 mm2 at 0DPH and was reached to 42.486 mm2 in 12DPH and found significant differences between treatments (P<0.05). A higher BA was recorded in 00L:24D and this may be due their larger yolk sacs in compare to others one. A significant difference were observed between treatments in regard to TL (P<0.05).Average maximum and minimum TL were recorded in
24L:00D (24.0799 ± 0.56) and 00L:24D (22.8322 ± 0.47) treatments,
respectively. Results showed no significant differences between treatments in wet weight of larvae (P>0.05). Mortality in larvae was began at 0DPH and there was no significant different between treatments in terms of survival rate (P>0.05). As shown in Table 1, the long-time photoperiodic regimes (24L:00D, 18L:06D) increase the survival rate and maximum and minimum survival rates were recorded in 18L:006D
(95.86%) and 00L:24D (60.83) treatments, respectively.
The results of this study showed significant effect of different photoperiodic regimes on yolk sac area i.e. yolk sac absorption, body surface area, total length and survival rates of eleutheroembryo but no significant effect on their wet weight. Therefore, according to the results, long-time photoperiodic regime is led to faster absorption of yolk sacs, i.e. minimum YA and maximum BA in prelarvae. Since, the absorption of yolk sac is related to morphogenesis and metabolic processes, long
time photoperiodic regime can increase metabolism and growth performance (Blaxter and Hempel, 1966) as seen in beluga prelarvae. This results was in accordance to previous studies on the eleutheroembryo of Hadduck (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and those exposed to the photoperiodic regime of 24L:00D had smaller BA compared to 18L:06D and 12L:12D ones. In this study, increasing light intensity levels is led to decrease YA, but no BA (Downing and Litvak, 2002). In cod larvae (Gadus morha) the different photoperiodic regimes do not affect on absorption the yolk sac (Puvanendran and Brown, 2002).
Maximum TL i.e. best growth performance and survival rate were occurred in 18L:06D treatment, during early larval development. This finding was in accordance to light preference (positive phototaxis) and selection of white substrates in Siberian sturgeon (A. baerii) and Chinese sturgeon (A.sinensis) (Chai et al., 2006; Gisbert et al., 1999). Whereas, the low survival of Surubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans) in the 24L:00D photoperiodic regime has been given to increasing swimming activity and energy consumption (Campagnolo and Nuner, 2008). Also, Puvanendran and Brown (2002) pointed out increase of survival rate of Cod (Gadus morha) larvae in the D24L:00D photoperiodic regime during 0DPH to 28DPH in compare to 18L:06D and 12L:12D. However, from 28DPH till 42DPH was not found any difference between treatments in this species (Puvanendran and Brown, 2002). In addition, other studies on 6-month and one-year old Beluga showed the best effect 12L:12D photoperiodic regime on the growth performance and survival rate (Bani et al., 2009; Ghomi et al., 2010). Finally, it is need to be mentioned that dark-light cycles in fish farming changes depend on species based on its habitat and life history.
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The promotion of growth performance of Sturgeon larvae via using incorporated Artemia urmiana with profitable microorganisms
Jafaryan, Hojatollah x, Jafaryan, Samira 2*
1 University of Gonbad kavoos, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resources
2* Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Faculty of fishery
Probiotics can be defined as live microbial feed supplement, which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal balance (Fuller, 1992). Successful colonization in digestive system of larvae involves competition with the established microflora for attachment sites and nutrients. A number of recent researches indicated that A. urmiana nauplii had very high potential to carry beneficial microorganisms (probiotics) into the digestive tracts of cultivable fish larvae. Production of marine fish juveniles in commercial hatcheries still depends on the supply of live preys such as rotifers and Artemia. The brine shrimp Artemia spp. are common live food organisms which are used for the rearing of marine fish larvae. Optimization of zootechnical, nutriental and microbial factors of live foods can reduce the heavy mortalities of the fish larvae. As a preventive measure against infections and for promotion of growth factors of fish larvae, live prey, Artemia urmiana, was cultured and bioencapsulated with probiotics. A. urmiana nauplii graze differently at high bacterial densities, as the accumulated bacteria are more than the total amount of bacteria present in the solution during incubation.
A. urmiana nauplii are able to graze on bacteria, and the number of bacteria accumulated by A. urmiana depends on the bacterial strains used in the suspension of broth. It has been shown that some beneficial bacterial could be bioencapsulated into A. urmiana nauplii, and could have beneficial effects on the growth and survival rates of Acipenser persicus, A. nudiventris and Huso huso larvae.
The growth performance of Acipenser nudiventris larvae
The five species of probiotic bacillus (Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. polymixa, B. laterosporus and B. circulans) as bacterial blend under the commercial title of Protexin aquatic were used for bioencapsulation of Artemia urmiana. In this feeding experiment, the inistar-I A. urmiana nauplii were used to feed of A. nudiventris. A. urmiana nauplii were used as a vector to carry probiotics to digestive tract of A. nudiventris larvae. The Artemia were bioencapsulated in different levels of bacterial suspensions (1x105, 2x105 and 3x105 bacteria per milliliter (CFU/ml) for 10 h. Acipenser nudiventris larvae were fed based on 30% of their body weight with enriched A. urmiana nauplii six times a day. The results indicated that the microenriched A. urmiana nauplii by the probiotic Bacillus significantly increased final body weight (FBW), final body length (FBL), specific growth rate (SGR) and Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) in the experimental fish in comparison with the control (Jafaryan, et al., 2008). This experiment indicated that the probiotic bacillus highly increases the growth performances and different levels of probiotic bacillus could cause different effects on growth performance of Acipenser nudiventris larvae.
Micro enriched Artemia nauplii for feeding of Persian sturgeon larvae
Artemia urmiana cysts were donated by Artemia and Aquatic Animals Research Institute of Urmia University. Nauplii of Artemia urmiana were microenriched in three concentration of suspension of bacteria (1.09x105 CFU/ml, 2.2x105 CFU/ml and 3.18x105 CFU/ml). The results indicated that the probiotic Bacillus spp. were successfully incorporated into the A. urmiana nauplii during a period of 10 hours. The Persian sturgeon, A. persicus, larvae were fed with bioencapsulated A. urmiana nauplii in 30% of its body weight daily in experimental period of 30 days. All growth parameters had significant increase in comparison with the control. This resulted in a survival rate of 89%, final body weight of 1233 mg, feed efficiency of 43.96%, total amylase of 1.8 IU/mg protein, protease of 0.37 IU/mg protein and lipase of 1.66 IU/mg protein. The
values for the control were as 79.00 %, 901 mg, 31.99%, 0.87 IU/mg protein, 0.19 IU/mg protein and 1.01 IU/mg protein, respectively. Also, the survival time of Persian sturgeon larvae challenged with salinity stress increased significantly (Jafaryan, et al., 2006). Gatesoupe (1991) obtained similar results when he used Bacillus toyoi for feeding turbot, Scophthalmus maximus larvae. The maximum of final body length (FBL)(64.07 mm), specific growth rate (SGR) (10.18% body weight/day), thermal growth coefficient (TGC) , daily growth coefficient (DGC) and average daily growth rate (ADG) (84.42%) were observed in probiotic treatments.
Enhancement of feeding parameters of Huso huso larvae via bioencapsulated Artemia nauplii
In this study, the Artemia nauplii were used as a vector to carry the probiotic Bacillus to the digestive tract of Beluga larvae. Newly hatched A. urmiana nauplii were employed for early feeding of Beluga, Huso huso, larvae. This experiment was conducted in a completely random design in four treatments. The suspension of blends of probiotic bacillus are used in three concentration of (1x108 ' 2x108 and 3x108 )bacteries per liter in suspension of broth. Results showed that the carcass proximate compositions of the larvae were significantly increased. Enriched A. urmiana nauplii had significant positive effects on relative food intake, nitrogen retained efficiency, protein gain (g. day-1) and energy retained as protein (PD.KJ day-1) (Jafaryan et al., 2009b). Similar results were observed by Gatesoupe (1991) using B. toyoi in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), and by Swain et al. (1996) in Indian carps, in which improved growth factors and feeding efficiency were recorded. The results indicated that the probiotic bacillus had positive and significant effects on the protein efficiency ratio (PER), lipid efficiency ratio (LER), protein productive value (PPV) and carcass nitrogen deposition (CND) in experimental treatments in comparison with controled treatment(p<0.05) and also the levels of carcass dry matter, crude protein and ash significantly increased (p<0.05). The significant positive correlation
observed between the levels of carcass dry matter, ash, gastero somatic index(GSI) with CFU/liter of probiotic bacillus in suspension of broth. The experiment indicated that the probiotic bacillus efficiently affected the feeding efficiency and the levels of carcass nutrient compositions in Huso huso larvae.
Discussion and Conclusion
The incorporation of probiotics via live food constitutes a very important potential tool for supplying probionts to the larvae. One of the pathways for the entry of pathogenic bacteria into the cultivable fish larvae and their heavy mortalities in hatcheries is via live preys, e.g. Artemia nauplii. In many experiments, Artemia nauplius was used as a live food to feed larvae. Bioencapsulation of A. urmiana nauplii with fatty acids showed that it has a good performance for enrichment. However, there is not enough information regarding its performance in the enrichment with bacteria. The results of these studies showed that the nauplii are capable to be bioencapsulated with beneficial microorganisms. Therefore, the high potential of A. urmiana nauplii for micro-enrichment can be useful for the development of its applications in aquaculture. In all of trials, all the probiotic treatments resulted in growth performances and some of feeding parameters, better than of the control. The beneficial influence of probiotc bacillus on the feeding efficiency of Sturgeon larvae was completely observed. This suggests that the application of probiotics in feed of target cultivable fish larvae optimized the feed consumption and promoted growth parameters (Lara-Flores et al., 2003). The results of the present trials highlighted that Sturgeon larvae effectively could with probiotics show high efficiency in exploitation of nutrient compositions, promotion of body compounds, growth performance and survival rate when they were fed by incorporated Artemia urmiana with profitable micro organisms.
Fuller, R. 1992. History and development of probionts, p. 1-8. In R. Fuller (ed.), Probiotics. The scientific basis. Chapman & Hall, New York, N.Y. pp. 1-8.
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Jafaryan, H. 2006. The effects of bacillus bacteria as a probiotic on the growth factors, survival rate and digestive enzymes activity in the Persian sturgeon larvae by enrichment of Artemia urmiana nauplii. Ph.D.Thesis of Fishery. Gorgan University of Agri. Sci. & Natur. Resour.103 pp.
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Jafaryan, H., Makhdomi, N. and A. R. Davodipor. 2009b. The effects of probiotic bacillus for promotion of growth and feeding parameters in Beluga (Huso huso) larvae via feeding by bioencapsulation of Artemia urmiana. 6th International Symposium on Sturgeon. October 25-30, 2009. Wuhan, Hubei Province. China.
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Daphnia magna as a vector to carrying the beneficial microorganisms into the digestive tract of cultivable
Jafaryan, H.1, Jafaryan, S.2, Makhtomii, N.3*
1 University of Gonbad kavoos, Golestan, Iran
2 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Faculty of fishery
3 Shahid Marjani Sturgeon Propagation Center, Golestan, Iran * Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
One of the pathways for the entry of pathogenic bacteria into the cultivable fish larvae and their heavy mortalities in hatcheries is via live preys, e.g. Daphnia sp. Intensive rearing of marine fish larvae suffers from heavy mortalities, which may be attributed to bacteria introduced in the rearing system with live food (Keskin et al., 1994). The Daphnia magna is common live food organisms used for the rearing of marine fish larvae. These have been considered as possible vectors for the delivery of different substances, such as nutrients and probiotics. An incubation of live food organisms in a bacterial suspension consisting of one or several probiotic strains is a possible approach to caring of beneficial bacteria into digestive tract of fish larvae. Daphnia magna is one of the most important animals which attention by fish nutritionistis around the wourld. The initial establishment of a microflora in the larval stages depends, among other factors, on the microbiota associated with eggs and newly hatched larvae, microalgae, and live prey introduced into the system rearing system (Keskin et al., 1994). Several studies by the author indicated that some of the Daphnia magna, as a live food, had a good potential to carrying the beneficial microorganisms into the digestive tract of cultivable fish larvae.
Carrying beneficial Lactobacillus to digestive systems of Persian sturgeon larvae
Using D. magna nauplii in the process of bioencapsulation or enrichment by blends of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. delbrueckii subsp., L. acidophilus and L. rhamnosus as a commercial probiotic showed that this D. magna had a high potential to carry the produced suspension of bacteria. The high grazing rate of D. magna on bacteria illustrated that it can be used as a suitable vector to carry probiotic bacteria into the digestive tract of cultivable fishes. The results indicated that the probiotic Bacillus spp. were successfully incorporated into the D. magna during a period of 10 hours; the concentration of bacteria in broth was 1x105CFU/ml. When the Persian sturgeon, A. persicus, larvae were fed with bioencapsulated D. magna in 30% of its body weight daily. This resulted in final body weight of 604/55 mg, feed efficiency of 13.44% and Protein Efficiency Ratio of 6.71. All these parameters had significant increase in comparison with the control. The values for the control were as 542.45 mg, 12.06% and 6.03 respectively. Gatesoupe (1991) obtained similar results when he used Bacillus toyoi for feeding Scophthalmus maximus larvae.