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Several other studies have shown similar effects of pesticides on gills difference fish species. in a similar the present study, degenerative effects in the gill epithelium has been reported in Gnathonemuspetersii exposed to atrazine (Alazemi et al., 1996).
Gill tissues injuries can be divided into two groups: direct and indirect (Richmonds and Dutta, 1989). For example, the observed epithelial damage of the gill is direct responses induced by the action of pesticide. The defense responses noticed are lifting up of the epithelium and lamellar fusion. The lifting of the epithelium raises the distance between the toxicant has to travel to reach the blood circulation. Lamellar fusion a rejoinder that it reduces the amount of sensitivity gill surface area.
All the histopathological observation indicated that exposure to sublethal concentrations of diazinon caused destructive effect in the gill R.tuilus.This changes also to several days after transfer of fish to sea water free pollution in them was found, that this matter can cause stress or even mortality occurrence in the fingerlings. This stress in early stage of life can be weakened fish later in life, so that may not offset this weakness and this issue can result in failure sea reaching project.
Alazemi B, Lewis J, and Andrews E (1996) Gill damage in the freshwater fish Gnathonemus petersii (Family: Mormyridae) exposed to selected pollutants: an ultrastructural study. Environmental technology 17, 225-38.
Bagheri F (2007) Study of pesticide residues (Diazinon, Azinphosmethyl) in the rivers of Golestan province (GorganRoud and Gharehsou)[Thesis]. Type, M. Sc. Thesis, Tehran University of Medical Science. Tehran, Iran,
Coad BW (1980) Environmental change and its impact on the freshwater fishes of Iran. Biological Conservation 19, 51-80.
Fairchild WL, Swansburg EO, Arsenault JT, and Brown SB (1999) Does an association between pesticide use and subsequent declines in catch of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) represent a case of endocrine disruption? Environmental Health Perspectives 107, 349.
Kiabi BH, Abdoli A, and Naderi M (1999) Status of the fish fauna in the south Caspian Basin of Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 18, 57-65.
McGeer JC, Szebedinszky C, McDonald DG, and Wood CM (2000) Effects of chronic sublethal exposure to waterborne Cu, Cd or Zn in rainbow trout. 1: Iono-regulatory disturbance and metabolic costs. Aquatic toxicology 50, 231-43.
Richmonds C and Dutta H (1989) Histopathological changes induced by malathion in the gills of bluegillLepomis macrochirus. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 43, 123-30.
Shayeghi, M.. HOSSEINI, M..ABTAHI, M. (2006). The determination of dimethoate
insecticide residues upon the cucumber product (Fars Province). Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 27: 30-35.
Yildirim MZ, Benli A, Selvi M, Ozkul A, Erkog F, and Kogak O (2006) Acute toxicity, behavioral changes, and histopathological effects of deltamethrin on tissues (gills, liver, brain, spleen, kidney, muscle, skin) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings. Environmental toxicology 21, 614-20.
Gonadosomatic index and egg diameter variations in the king nase inhabiting Bibi-Sayyedan River of Semirom, Isfahan, Iran
Fatemeh Kiani*, Yazdan Keivany, Fatemeh Peykan-Heyrati, Omidvar Farhadian
Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan, University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran * E-mail: email@example.com
Some aspects of reproductive biology of the king nase, Chondrostoma regium, a cyprinid fish, were investigated. Some 333 specimens of female king nase were collected in Bibi-Sayyedan River from March 2010 to March 2011. The gonadosomatic index and egg diameter were measured. The gonadosomatic index showed a gradual increase from May to March with a peak in March. Eggs were released at once. Based on the high GSI index in March and sharp decline during the next few months, it can be concluded that this species has a short spawning period in spring. The egg diameter ranged between 0.267 and 1.70 mm with a mean of 0.65±0.01mm (±SE). These variations are consistent with the variation in the gonadosomatic index.
Keywords— Biology, Chondrostoma, Cyprinidae, reproduction
Knowledge of the biology and reproduction of fish is one of the most effective tools for fisheries management. Thus, a more detailed study of fish life cycle and its reserves are necessary (Sparre et al., 1988). This guarantees the survival of a species to reproduce successfully. Reproduction success is the most important property that can adopt
individuals and populations in the course of evolution. In other words, reproduction is a basic physiological phenomenon by which living organisms survival is guaranteed. Chondrostoma regium belongs to the order Cypriniformes and the family Cyprinidae. This species was reported from Tigris basin, including Bazoft, Koohrang and Karun rivers. King nase is an omnivorous fish mostly feeding on insect larvae and eggs (Gumus. et al., 2002). The purpose of the present study was to investigate some reproductive features of this fish, such as, gonadosomatic index, egg diameter and the relationship between these two factors.
Materials and Methods
To study the reproductive characteristics of the king nase in Bibi-Sayyedan River of Semirom, Isfahan, 333 female specimens were collected from March 2010 to March 2011. The sampling was performed using seine nets, gill-nets and cast nets. Fish samples were taken on ice to the Fisheries Laboratory, Isfahan University of Technology, to perform biometric measurements on them. The gonadosomatic index was calculated by GSI = Gonad weight (g) / Body weight (g) * 100 formulae (Biswass, 1993). Egg diameter was measured by inspecting 250-300 eggs under an ocular micrometer each month. For statistical analysis of data, ANOVA followed by Tukey's and Duncan's multiple range test at the level of 0.05 in Excel 2007 and SPSS 18 was used.
Fig. 1. The monthly gonadosomatic index values and their standard deviations in female king nase samples from Bibi-Sayyedan River of Semirom, Isfahan, Iran.
# ✓ s
The gonadosomatic index in females showed a gradual increase from May to March with a peak in March. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between March and February, and between March and April (Fig. 1). According to our results, C. regium females release their eggs at once. Based on the high GSI index in March and sharp decline during the next few months, it can be expressed that this species has a short spawning period in spring. In this study, egg diameter ranged between 0.267 and 1.70mm. The average diameter of eggs was 0.65±0.01mm (±SE). Mean egg diameter in March was the highest and showed a significant difference with all other months of the year (p<0.05). Average egg diameter showed that eggs start to enlarge in May and peak in March, during the spawning period. These changes are consistent with changes in the gonadosomatic index levels (Fig. 2). Based on our results and observations, the ovary of this fish is a synchronous type of ovaries.
Fig. 2. Comparison of the monthly gonadosomatic index values and egg diameter variations in female king nase samples from Bibi-Sayyedan River of Semirom, Isfahan, Iran.
Discussions and Conclusions
Given the trend of GSI, egg size and visual observations of the ovary, spawning is a short period from the late March to early April in spring. Sexually mature in females occure at age 1 year and spawning tensely
occurs in March because of more favorable environmental conditions such as temperature, salinity and pH. Food, increase in temperature and day length accelerate gonadal activities. In the study of the reproductive biology of Sir Dam king nase in Turkey, GSI values showed that Sexual maturity period was April to late June. Sexual maturity was attained in the second year in both sexes (Kara and Solak, 2004). Oymak (2000), based on GSI variations, announced that in Ataturk Dam it reproduces in April-July and sexual maturity in females occurs at 3 years. §evik (1997) found that in Euphrates River, spawning occur during March and sexual maturity in females attained at age 4 years. Reproductive cycle in fish is controlled by environmental conditions, especially temperature and photoperiod. Egg size varies among species and populations due to water physicochemical conditions such as water temperature, salinity, pH, stored food, water flow, and endocrinology during egg development in the ovaries. This can affect the size and quality of the eggs (Ozcan, 2009). In general, the results of macroscopic studies on gonad, GSI and egg diameter measurements, indicated that C. regium spawns in late winter and early spring during a short period and synchronously.
We would like to thank all the people who helped us during the field work and fish sampling. This study was financially supported by Isfahan University of Technology.
Biswas, S.P. 1993: Manual of methods in fish biology. Absecon Highlands, 157 pp.
Gumu§, A., Yilmaz, M. and Polat, N. 2002. Relative importance of food items in feeding of Chondrostoma regium Heckel, 1843, and its relation with the time of annulus formation. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 26(3): 271-278.
Kara, C. and Solak, K. 2004. Some Biological Properties of Chondrostoma regium (Heckel, 1843) Inhabiting Sir Dam Lake (Kahramanmara§). Kahramanmara§ Sutgu imam University Journal of Science and Engineering, 7: 13-19.
Oymak, S. 2000. Ataturk Baraj Golu'nde ya§ayan Chondrostoma regium (Heckel, 1843)'un buyume ozellikleri. Jornal of Zoology, 34: 41-50.
Ozcan, G. 2009. Reproductive biology of the endemic and threatened Menderes Nase, Chondrostoma meandrense Elvira, 1987, in Western Anatolia. Zoology in the Middle East, 46: 61-67.
§evik, R. 1997. Ataturk Baraji-Suriye Siniri Arasindak Sular (Firat)'da Ya§ayan Chondrostoma regium 'un Buyume Ozellikleri Uzerine Bir Ara§tirma. Akdeniz Baltkgilik Kongresi, izmir, 555-562s.
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Effect diet protein and fat ratio on growth and physiological changes of Caspian Kutum (Rutilus frissi kutum, Kamenskii, 1901)
Zahra Mahmoodi*, Hamid Alaf Noverian, Bahram Falahatkar, Majid Reza Khoshkholgh
Student, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1144
Sowmeh Sara, Guilan, Iran
* Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dietary protein content is the most important factor affecting growth performance of fish and feed cost (Lovell, 1998). Protein utilization for fish growth can be improved by partially replacing protein with lipid or carbohydrate in the diet (Kim & Lee, 2005). The physiological status of intensively farmed fish is an integral part of evaluating their health status. Diet composition, metabolic adaptations, and variations in fish activity are the main factors responsible for seasonal changes in physiological variables (Cnaani et al., 2004; Abdel-Tawab et al., 2010). Kutum (Rutilus frissi kutum) is an economic fish in the southern parts of the Caspian Sea. A little has been studied on nutritional needs and physiological alterations in this species under culture conditions. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the effect of dietary protein level, fat level, and their interaction on growth, feed utilization and physiological alterations of Kutum juvenile.
Material and method
Nine dietary treatments with various concentrations of protein (30, 35 and 40) and fat (10, 12, 14) levels were examined (Table1). Fish (1.15 ± 0.01 g) were reared in 27 aquaria (35 L) for 56 days at 24 ± 0.5 °C with continuous aeration. Each tank contained 25 fish with three replications per dietary treatment. Fish were fed according to their appetite four times per day. The body weight of each fish was measured every 2 weeks
interval. Two-way ANOVA and tukey's test were performed to find significant differences among treatments.
Table 1: Composition of experimental diets_
The effect of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth and physiological alterations of Kutum is shown in Table 2. The dietary protein and lipid levels, but not their interaction, significantly affected the growth performance of Rutilus frissi kutum. Weight increased with increasing dietary protein level up to 35%, and then decreased significantly. Fish growth increased significantly with increasing levels of dietary lipid. Glucose of fish was not affected by either dietary protein or dietary lipid level. Triglycerides were significantly higher for fish fed diets containing 30% protein and 10 and 12% fat. Cholesterol was significantly lower in fish fed the 35% protein and 10% fat.
Table 2: Growth performance and physiological change of Caspian Kutum fed diets with different ratio of protein:fat for 56 days.
glucose (mg gr-1)
Triglyceride (mg gr-1)
Cholesterol (mg gr-1)
2.15 ± 0.05
10 ± 0.04
46 ± 1.58
1.52 ± 0.05
44 ± 0.28a
149 ± 0.81a
53 ± 5.19
280 ± 21a
48 ± 3.46ab
2.31 ± 0.03
1.16 ± 0.03
48 ± 2.8
1.6 ± 0.09
37 ± 0.1abc
124 ± 1.48bacb
58 ± 3.91
294 ± 16cad
43 ± 6.35aabbc
2.35 ± 0.11
1.27 ± 0.1
50 ± 5.04
1.65 ± 0.16
40 ± 2.43abbc
72 ± 0.77bc
57 ± 7.5
194 ± 2.3cd d
45 ± 2.88acb
1.24 ± 0.07
50 ± 3.68
1.44 ± 0.1
26 ± 0.411*
60. ± 0.8c
61 ± 0.57
178 ± 16.16d
30 ± 0.00bcc
2.36 ± 0.02
1.27 ± 0.02
50 ± 1.43
1.41 ± 0.04
30 ± 0.35bc
116 ± 0.71aab
59 ± 7.7
271 ± 20aabbc
38 ± 2.3bacb c
2.6 ± 0.12
1.35 ± 0.1
58 ± 5.7
1.66 ± 0.16
35 ± 0.08abc
150 ± 0.45aab
68 ± 1.15
252 ± 14bacbcd
44 ± 1.73aabbcc
2.12 ± 0.06
0.99 ± 0.05
43 ± 1.1
1.06 ± 0.03
26 ± 0.29c
125 ± 1.00ab
70 ± 3.46
202 ± 12bcd
42 ± 0.00abc
2.31 ± 0.05
1.15 ± 0.1
60 ± 6.45
1.50 ± 0.16
45 ± 0.27bac
165 ± 2.16aa
56 ± 2.3
224 ± 11aabbccdd
53 ± 1.73aba
2.35 ± 0.09
1.2 ± 0.06
48 ± 2.84
1.21 ± 0.07
28 ± 0.15bc
133 ± 0.65a
64 ± 2.3
239 ± 12abcd
50 ± 2.3ab
In this experiment, the appropriate protein level for a Caspian Kutum was determined 35 percent. Noveyrian et al. (2005) conducted a research on the effect of three protein levels (25, 30, 35) on Kutum (2g) which the optimum protein level for the maximum growth was determined 35 percent. The results of this experiment demonstrates that in any fat ration, weight increased with increasing dietary protein level up to 35%, and then decreased significantly. Ozorio et al. (2009) did an experiment on two-banded seabream (Diplodus vulgaris) which showed that up to 45 percent protein increase, there is growth increase and upper than 45 percent there is growth decrease. The reason might be because at excessively high dietary protein level, the free amino acids accumulated in body fluids may become toxic (Harper et al., 1970) or the metabolic cost of nitrogen excretion may reduce growth (Jauncey, 1982; Vergara et al., 1996). The low protein efficiency and protein retention was seen in the fish which were fed with high protein level; except the treatment with 35 percent of protein and 12 percent of fat which shows that protein amount in its high levels is used as a source of energy (Kim et al., 1991; Hidalgo & Alliot, 1998). We can find this case in the studies of Dabrowski (1977) and Countinho et al. (2012). In this study, in protein level of 30 percent, by increasing ration's fat, fat retention was decreased; that increasing fat part in supplying energy for the fish might be the reason for it (Peres & Olivia-Teles, 1999 ). The results of Ozorio et al. (2009) showed that by increasing protein, fat retention is increased. In fact in higher protein levels; because the most energy is supplied by protein, fat retention is increased. The results of this study also show that the maximum fat retention is seen in the 12, 14 percent of fat in the fish fed with 35, 40 percent of protein. Diets with low amount of fat and high carbohydrates increase fatty acids and triglyceride synthesis (Hudgins et al., 2000). In this research the highest amount of triglyceride was seen in the treatments with 30 percent protein and 10, 12 percent fat; which had higher amount of carbohydrates than the other treatments. Diet with high protein level decreased the synthesis of free fatty acids and at the same
time increasing cholesterogenesis (Yeh & Leveille, 1969; Rosebrough et al., 1999). In the present study, in 12, 14 percent of fat level, the highest amount of cholesterol was of the treatments with the highest amount of protein. In the fat level of 10 percent, the highest cholesterol amount in Kutum body which was fed with 30 percent protein, was observed. The studies of Adamidou et al. (2011) and Countinho et al. (2012) indicated that by protein decrease and ration's carbohydrates increase, blood cholesterol amount of sharp snout seabream was increased; shows that cholesterol is synthesized by carbohydrates.
The current study shows that whitefish, is an omnivorous specie with average protein need of 30
percent. And it seems that it has a need of quite high fat level of 14 percent in diet comparing with the other species of minnow fish. In this experiment , fat increase cuts down protein consumption. It was concluded that the ration with 35 percent of protein and 14 percent of fat has a good functioning in whitefish dries in this range of weight. Although, the validity of these results requires further research in order to be able to get to an appropriate ration considering growth and appropriate quality of the carcass for the Caspian Kutum.
Abdel-Tawwab, M., Ahmad, M., Khattab, Y.A.E., Shalaby, A.M.E. 2010. Effect of
dietary protein level, initial body weight, and their interaction on the growth, feed utilization, and physiological alterations of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Aquaculture, 298: 267-274.
Adamidou, S., Rigos, G., Mente, E., Nengas, I., Fountoulaki, E. 2011. The effects of dietary lipid and fibre levels on digestibility of diet and on the growth performance of sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo). Mediterranean Marine Science, 12: 401—412.
Cnaani, A., Tinman, S., Avidar, Y., Ron, M., Hulata, G. 2004. Comparative study of biochemical parameters in response to stress in Oreochromis aureus, O. mossambicus and two strains of O. niloticus. Aquaculture Research, 35: 14341440.
Countinho, F., Peres, H., Guerreiro, I., Pousao-Ferreira, P., Oliva-Teles, A. 2012. Dietary protein requirement of sharp snout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo, Cetti1777) juveniles. Aquaculture, 356-357: 391-397.
Dabrowski, K. 1977. Protein requirements of grass carp fry (Ctenopharyngodon idella).
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Hidalgo, F., Alliot, E. 1988. Influence of water temperature on protein requirement and protein utilization in juvenile sea bass, Dicentrachus labrax. Aquaculture, 72:
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Jauncey, K. 1982. The effect of varying dietary protein level on the growth, food conversion, protein utilization and body composition of juvenile tilapia, Sarotherodon mosambicus. Aquaculture, 27: 43-54.
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Kim, L.o., Lee, S.M. 2005. Effects of the dietary protein and lipid levels on growth and body composition of bagrid catfish, Pseudobagrus fulvidraco. Aquaculture, 243: 323-329.
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Noveyrian, H.A., Mostafazadeh, S., Toloie, M.H. 2005. A study on various protein levels on growth indices (SGR, WG, PGR, FCR and PER) of Rutilus frissi kutum. Pajohesh & sazandegi, 68: 61-68.
Ozorio, R.O.A., Valente, L.M.P., Correia, S., Pousao-Ferreira, P., Damasceno-Oliveira, A., Escorcio, C., Oliva-Teles, A. 2009. Protein requirement for maintenance and maximum growth of two-banded sea bream (Diplodus vulgaris) juveniles. Aquaculture Nutrition, 15: 85-93.
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Development Of Search Behaviorial Reaction And Olfactory Sensitivity To Food Chemical Signals In Ontogeny Of Ship Sturgeon (Acipenser Nudiventris) Of Kura Population
Mamedov Ch.A.1, Kasumyan A.O. 2
Azerbaijan Research Institute of Fisheries, 16 Demirchi-zadeh St., 1008 Baku, Azerbaijan, tel / fax: (+ 99412) 4963037; m email@example.com; Department of Ichthyology, Moscow State University, 119899 Moscow, Russia
The study of behavioral responses of sturgeons related to their feeding activity the early stages of development is important to clarify the general rules of the formation of the behavior of fish, as well as for solution of applied issues, primarily related to the technology of artificial breeding of sturgeon fish. Daily rhythms of feeding, dependence of the behavior on various external factors of different nature and on the inner motivational state of the fish, ethological peculiarities of reactions are important components of feeding behavior of various species of sturgeon, which must be considered while developing the technology.