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Well.Scient.Pub. Oxford, London, U.K.365P.
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Jasim, Ali A. (1988) Reproductive biology of Barbus sharpeyi, Gunther 1874 (Pisces, Cyprinidae) south Al-Hammar marsh. Iraq, Thesis submitted to Agriculture Coll. Univ. of Basrah, 89pp.
Moazedi, Jaleel (2000) Induced spawning and monoculture of bunnei in earthen ponds ,Iranian Fisheries Organization - Khuzestan fisheries research center (2000) First national symposium on Barbus Fishes of Iran, Abstract(in Persian)
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Effects of dietary xylo oligosaccharide on fatty acid profile of Artemia franciscana
Khadije Najafi*1, Naser Agh2, Mehran Javaheri Baboli3, Behzad Khafaji Rad1
*1Department of fisheries, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khouzestan Iran
2Artemia and Aquatics Research Institute, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran 3Department of Fisheries Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khouzestan, Iran
Live food has proved to be important in Larviculture of fish and shellfish from many aspects. Larvae of many species cannot utilize commercial diet either due to small mouth size, particle size, and immobility of the particle. Commercial feed at many instances cannot even fulfill the nutritional requirements of the fish larvae. Live food is more acceptable by many fish and shellfish larvae because it acts as natural prey organism for them and has specific advantages over particulate diet. Moreover, live food may be enriched by different nutrients such as fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, antibiotics, vaccines, probiotics and prebiotics to act as a carrier of these nutrients to the larvae. This characteristic of Artemia nauplii has added to its importance in Larviculture (Bengeston et al., 1991; Watanabe et al., 1983, Gatesoupe, 1994).
Prebiotics are defined as "non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, which can improve the host health" (Gibson and Roberfroid 1995). They are not digested by enzymes of the upper gastrointestinal tract, but instead selectively fermented by some types of intestinal bacteria in the large intestine of humans (Gibson & Roberfroid 1995). or animals (Flickinger & Fahey 2002; Patterson & Burkholder 2003). Prebiotics can stimulate growth and/or metabolic activity of beneficial bacteria and suppress potentially deleterious ones, thus modifying the composition of the
intestinal microflora (Crittenden 1999). In this work we used xylo oligosaccharide to study its probable effects on improving fatty acid profile of Artemia franciscana.
Meterials and Method
Cysts of Artemia were hatched according to standard method (Sorgeloos, 1986). 500 newly hatched nauplii were transferred to each cylindro-conical containers containing 1 liter of 80 ppt brine water. The containers were placed inside an aquarium incubator at 28°C. Four feeding treatments each in 4 replicates were tested: Treatment (1) control diet consisting wheat bran powder and Dunaliella salina, Treatments (2, 3 and 4) control diet + 10, 30 and 60 mg xylo oligosaccharide/day respectively. The Artemia were cultured for 30 days. All Artemia were harvested and analyzed for fatty acid using standard protocol by a gas chromatography (Lepage and Roy, 1984). The results were finally analyzed statistically using SPSS-ANOVA.
The results of fatty acid analysis is shown in Table 1 and Fig.1
According to the results obtained, supplementation of Artemia fed with 10 mg xylo oligosaccharide/day/L culture medium significantly increases SFA fatty acids (P < 0.05), whereas a significant decrease of these fatty acids were observed in group fed 60 mg prebiotic/L/day
compared to control. N-3 PUFA, N-6 PUFA, N-3 HUFA and total HUFA
increased significantly in group fed 10 mg prebiotic/L/day compared to control group. It was concluded that supplementation of Artemia feed with 10 mg prebiotic/L/day significantly improves all major fatty acids. It seems that supplementation of a little amount of Artemia feed with prebiotic xylo oligosaccharide can alter the quality of Artemia so that an
Artemia species suitable for fresh and brackish water fish larvae may be used for marine Larviculture too.
Table 1. Fatty acid profile of Artemia franciscana fed different experimental diets
mg fatty acid/g tissue
CON ■ lOppm 30ppm 60ppm
Fig. 1. Major Fatty acid groups of Artemia franciscana fed different experimental diets References
Bengeston, D.A., leger, P.H. and sorgeloos, P., 1991. Use of Artemia as food source for aquaculture, pp: 250-280: Artemia Biology. Brown, R.A., sorgeloos, p., Trotman, C.N.A (Eds). CRC Press, Inc, Boca Rotan Florida, USA, 347p.
Bengtson, D.A.; leger, P. and Sorgeloos, P. (1991). Use of Artemia as a food source for aquaculture, in: Artemia Biology. R.A. Brower; P. Sorgeloos and C.M.A. trotina (Eds), 1st Edn., PP.: 256-285 (CRC Press, Florida, USA). 14.
Crittenden, R.G. 1999. Prebiotics. In: Probiotics: A Critical Review. G.W. Tannock, ed. Horizon Scientific Press, Wymondham. p. 141-156.
Flickinger EA, Fahey Jr GC (2002). Pet food and feed applications of inulin, oligofructose, and other oligosaccharides. Br. J. Nutr., 87: S297-S300.
Gatesoupe, F.-J., 1994. Lactic acid bacteria increase the resistance of turbot larvae, Scophthalmus maximus, against pathogenic vibrio. Aquat. Living Resour. 7, 277282.
Gibson GR & Roberfroid MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125,. 1401-1412.
Lepage, G. and Roy, C.C., 1984. Improved recovery of fatty acid through direct transesterification without prior extraction or purification. J. Lipid Res., Vol. 25,
Patterson J.A., Burkholder M.K., Prebiotic feed additives: rationale and use in pigs. Proceedings of 9th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs,
Banff. Canada.(2003): 319-331.
Sorgeloos P., Lavens P., Leger Ph., Tackaert W. & Versichle D. (1986) Manual for the culture and use of brine shrimp Artemia in aquculture. Laboratory of brine shrimp Artemia in aquaculture, State University of Ghent, Belgium pp: 319.
Watanabe, T., Kitajima, C., Fujita, S. 1983. Nutritional values of live organisms used in Japan for mass propagation of fish: a review. Aquaculture 34, 115-143.
Culture of chironomid larvae on different feeding substrates to feed farmed fish fingerlings
Nezami Baluchi, A. 1*; Pourali Fashtomi, H.R.2; Soheil Naghshi, S.3; Yazdani Sadati, M.A.4; Peykaran Mana, N.5; Seyed Hasani, M.H.6
1* Fisheries Expert in Breeding and Cultivation, International Sturgeon Research Institute, Rasht, Iran, Postal Code: 41635-3464, Email: nezami 141@ yahoo.com
2, 4 Member of Scientific Staff, International Sturgeon Research Institute
3, 5, 6 M.Sc in Fisheries engineering, International Sturgeon Research Institute
This study was carried out at the International Sturgeon Research Institute in order to produce chironomid larvae on three different enriched substrates. Three replicates were used for each treatment. Nine, 50 L plastic tanks were used, and the rearing system was supplied with well water and equipped with aeration systems. Bottom substrate in the first treatment consisted of coastal sand without any food and additives. 30% of bottom substrate in the second and third treatments was enriched with fish meal, wheat meal and soybean meal. The protein and lipid contents were considered to be 35% and 12%, respectively in the second treatment and 45% and 20%, respectively in the third treatment. Results obtained from this study revealed that the third substrate improved culture of chironomid during the rearing period. Based on the growth of chironomid pupae, adult midges appeared at the end of the second week of rearing. Hence the third substrate with the total organic matter (TOM) 30.1 ± 5.4 was introduced as the best substrate for breeding and cultivation of chironomid larvae. To evaluate the quality of chironomid larvae produced, 180g of chironomid samples in the third treatment were transferred to the laboratory at the end of the experiment, and analyzed for protein, lipid, carbohydrate, energy and other compounds.
Blood worms (Chironomidae) are the most important aquatic insects which are distributed in all different water reservoirs. Chironomid is belonged to Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Diptera and Family Chironomidae. Chironomids like the other insects have four life stages including egg, larva, pupa and adult. Chironomids have different feeding habits consuming a large variety of food such as algae, scraps and associated microorganisms, macrophytes, wood practices and invertebrates (Berg, 1995). The chironomid larvae are known as blood worms due to the presence of hemoglobin in their bodies (Borror et al., 1989). Consumption of live food by fish larvae and fingerlings is dramatically effective in decreasing larval mortalities. Culture of live food like chironomid for feeding fish larvae is now developing all over the world and has become an integral part of fish rearing (Agh, 2002). The addition of high energy feeds to enrich rearing substrates of larvae is effective in improving the quality of chironomid larvae (Habashy, 2005).
Materials and methods
Three replicates were used for each treatment. Nine, 50 L plastic tanks were used, and the rearing system was supplied with well water and equipped with aeration systems. Bottom substrate in the first treatment consisted of coastal sand without any food and additives. 30% of bottom substrate in the second and third treatments was enriched with fish meal, wheat meal and soybean meal. The protein and lipid contents were considered to be 35% and 12%, respectively in the second treatment and 45% and 20%, respectively in the third treatment. Data from each treatment was subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS (ver.17) and Excel (ver.2010) for windows. When there were significances, the group means were further compared with Duncan's multiple range test.
The mean temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration and pH were recorded at 16.4 ± 1°C, 6.08 ± 0.9 mg/l and 7.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The water flow rate was maintained at 0.2 liter per second. The results of this study indicated that the mean biomass in the third substrate had a twofold increase compared to the first treatment after 15 days of rearing. There were no significant differences among treatments using one-way analysis of ANOVA. Duncan's multiple range test showed that there was a significant difference between the third and first treatments. The chironomid larvae were completely red in color and showed gentle S-shaped movements.
Discussion and conclusion:
Berg (1995) reported that the color of chironomid larvae guts depends on food type. Rasmussen (1985) recorded that the growth rate of Chironumus riparius when fed on organic enrichment with microdetritus significantly enhanced its growth, for densities less than 2.8 cm2 and in contrast, the enrichment had no effect on another species of chironomid known as Glyptotendips paripes. Data obtained from this study revealed that there were significant differences in the nutrient level of chironomid carcass. In this study crude protein content of chironomid carcass (55.7±0.3 %) was higher than that (48%) reported by Azari Takami in 2010. The food value of chironomids was studied by Sugden (1973) who reported a value of 65% protein for chironomid larvae (Habashy, 2005). The protein content was estimated at 55.7% in this study. The relatively high protein content of up to 73.6% with the high digestibility was represented by De La Noue and Choubert in 1985. It was suggested by Armitage (1995) that the preference of bottom feeder organisms for chironomid larvae and pupae as food source is related to their high energy content (% mean value; moisture content 86, protein 48 to 55, lipid 14, carbohydrate 23, chitin 4, ash 9 with an utilization energy of 4.1 to 6.1 k Cal/g). Rasmussen (1985) studied the effect of density and micro-detritus enrichment on the growth of two species of chironomid
larvae (Chironumus riparius and Glyptotendips paripes) in small ponds over the 25-days experimental period and found that density effect significantly on their growth both with and without organic enrichment. The negative effect of density was observed at the end of the rearing period in this study(Nezami Baluchi, 2010).
Vos et al. (2000) reared larvae of midge Chironumus riparius on different food items and found that both quality and biochemical composition of food influenced growth of midge larvae and maximum length attained by larvae reared on fish food was higher than maximum length reached on food items of plant origin (algae, living leaves of aquatic plants) after one week rearing period. Further investigations on the third substrate in this study revealed that number of deformities from chironomid pupae to adult midges was estimated to be one individual per hour in 16.5 °C. The time of chironomid larvae and pupae maturation was not simultaneous. In a biomass of 62 g in rearing tanks or 350 g/m2, 58 % of chironomid population was in the pupae stage and 25% and 16 % of them were in larval and midge stages, respectively. The results obtained from the first two stages of experiment indicated that conducting this project with all above mentioned including food items and isolation of adult midges from the population is important.
Agh, N., 2002. Biology and ecology of Artemia in Urmia Lake. Final report of State Scientific Research Council. National research program. No. 1443. 130p.
Azari Takami, Gh., 2010. Breeding and cultivation of sturgeon caviarian fish. University of Tehran Press. 401p.
Berg, M.B. 1995. Larval food and feeding behavior. In: P.D. Armitage; P.S. Cranston; L.C.V. Pionder (editors) The chironomidae; Biology and ecology of Non-biting mides. Chapman and hall. London. UK. PP. 423-435.
Habashy, M. 2005. Culture of Chironomid larvae (Insect- Diptera-Chironomidae) under different feeding system. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 31. (2) : 403418.
Nezami Baluchi, A., 2010. Culture of chironomid larvae on different feeding substrates to feed farmed fish fingerlings. Bachelor of Science Thesis in Breeding and Cultivation of Aquatic. Mirza Kochak Khan Technical and Higher Education Center for Fisheries Science and Technology. 47 p.
Rasmussen, J.B. 1985. Effect of density and micro detritus enrichment on the growth of chirinimid larvae in a small pond. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science.
Effect of replacement of fish meal by plant meal (Azolla pinata) on growth performance and body composition of oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense)
H.A. Noverian , A. Nasrollahzadeh
Fisheries Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Guilan, Iran
'Corresponding authors E-mail: email@example.com Introduction
Farming of oriental river prawn, has been extensionally develop in southeast Asia since 1990; in which the china is the main producer (Kutty 2005). According to the FAO figure the world oriental river prawn production reached to 20000 mt/year (FAO 2009).
The nation range of the oriental river prawn, comprises of China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam and Tiwan (Cai and Shokita 2006). The present not records a well-established population in Anzali lagoon (Iran), a long the southern shores of the Caspian see (De Grave and Ghane 2006). Despises its small size, has the species has high aquaculture potential, as it con with stain low winter temperature and cumbered exclusively in fresh and braking water and also can be reenroll to commercial size in fresh and saline water (Kutty 2005). Hence, oriental river prawn is a good candidate for aquaculture throughout in Iran.
As aquaculture continents develop, the requirement for high quality protein sources such as fish meal is inevitably increased. Azolla is a potential alternative plant protein sources because of the relatively high protein content (25-30%) and low cost compared to fish meal has been successfully used for replacement in poultry and also some aquatic animals (Tacon and Jackson 1985). In the context of surveying alternative protein sources for aquatic animals, growth performance, food efficiency and the muscle body composition ware the main parameters for evolution. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of
replacement of fish meal by Azolla powder in diets on growth and feed efficiency of oriental river prawn.
Materials and methods
The experiment was conducted in an indoor system comprising 12 circular fiber glass tanks with flat bottom water quality such temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were maintain, 26 ± 2°C, 7.7 ± 0.3 and 5.2 ± 0.4 mg/l respectively. Prawns were obtained from Siahderwishan River in Guilan province and stocked in the experimental system for acclimation.
Diet was preparation according to formula described by Noverian and Mohmmahi (2008). The well dried Azolla powder was incorporated to practical diet.
The data obtained were analyzed by one way ANOVA interaction, using SPSS and Excel software Duncan multiple range test employed to find our the significantly different treatment at 5% (P < 0.05).
Final body weight (FBW), protein efficiency ratio (PER), food conversion ratio (FCR) and survival of the prawn are shown in Table 1. Replacement of fish meal by Azolla powder did not affect growth and feed efficiency of prawn whom received control basal, 4 and 8% Azolla inclusion (P > 0.05). The poor growth performance and feed efficiency were observed in T4 with 12% Azolla powder (P < 0.05). Body chemical composition was unaffected in basal diet and also prawns whom received different level of Azolla powder (P >0.05).
Table1. Growth performance of oriental river prawn fed experimental diets for 60 days (mean ± SE, n=3)
Diet Azolla %
Control (basal diet)
1.83 ± 0.16a
1.85 ± 0.24a
3.57 ± 0.62a
1.64 ± 0.44a
Survival (%) 95±3a 92±4a 90±3a Means in the some row with different super scripts (a,b) are significantly different (p<0.05).
I BW: Initial body weight (g) FBW: final body weight (g).
PER: average weight gain (g) / mass protein consumed (g) FCR: amount of dry feed of offered / wet weight gain (g)
Table 2: Chemical composition of Azolla meal (analysed at Nutritional lab, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan)
Nitrogen free extract
Although, Azolla as a source of protein and macro element like Ca, P, K, Na, Fe was used in land domestic animals and some fishes (Lumpkin and Plucknett 1980), but rarely included in commercial aqua feeds of prawn. The utilization of Azolla powder for fish (Tilapia mossambica) up
to 15% has been reported (Sithara and Kamalaveni 2008) but the inclusion of 12% Azolla powder in fresh water prawn caused poor growth and feed efficiency it is due to higher convent of fiber in Azolla which could not be tolerated by prawn. The result of our experiment disagree with the above result whom found higher inclusion. Several factors such as digestibility, different variety of plant protein, anti-nutritional factors fiber can affect in replacement of plant protein stand of fish meal in the diet of aquatic animals (Shafaeipour et., al 2008), Soltan, et al. 2008, reported that Nile tilapia able to replace a mix of different plant protein source fin stead of fish meal even up to 20% in its diet. There are many reports about replacement of fish meal by soya bean, bone meal, meat meal and poultry by product for fish and shrimp (Refsite, et al. 2000; Carter and Hauler 2000; Yang, et al. 2004). In the authors' opinion Azolla powder could replace up to 8% fish meal protein in the diet for oriental river prawn without significant negative effect on the growth and survival.
Cai, Y and Shokita, S (2006) Report on a collection of freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: caridea) from the Philippines, with description of four new species. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54: 245-270
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De Grave S and Ghane A (2006) The establishment of the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense (de Haan, 1849) in Anzali Lagoon, Iran., Aquatic Invasions Vol 1, 4: 204-208
FAO (2009) Fishstat Plus (v.2.32) 02.03. 2009. FAO, Rome.
Kutty MN (2005) Towards sustainable freshwater prawn aquaculture-lessons from shrimp farming, with special reference to India. Aquaculture Research 36: 255263
Lumpkin TA and Plucknett DL (1980) "Azolla. Botany, physiology and use as green manure" Economic Botany 34: 111-153.
Noverian H, Mohmmadi M (2008) The effects of different levels of protein on growth indices of juvenile oriental river prawn. 7: 111-122
Refstie S, Kors0n 0 J, storebakken t, Baeverfjord G, Lein I and Roem AJ (2000) Differring nutritional responses to dietary soybean mealin rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar). Aquaculture 190:
Shafaeipour A, Yavari V, Falahatkar B, Maremmanzi JGH, Gorjipour E (2008) Effect of canola meal on physiological and biochemical parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture Nutrition 14: 110-119
Soltan MA, Hanafy MA, Wafa MIA (2008) Effect of replacing fish meal by a mixture of different plant protein sources in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L) diets. Global Veterinaria 2: 157-164
Tacon AGJ, Jachson AJ (1985) Utilization of conventional and unconventional protein sources in practical fish feeds. In: Cowey CB, Mackie AM, Bell JG, editors, Nutrition and feeding of fish. London. UK: Academic press: 119-145
Yang Y, Xie S, Lei W, Zhu X (2004) Effect of replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal in diets on the growth and immune response of Macrobrachiun nipponense 17: 105-114
Sithara K, Kamalaveni K (2008) Formulation of low-cost feed using azolla as a protein supplement and its influence on feed utilization in fishes, Journal of Current
Biotic 2: 212-219
Effects of salinity and culture media on the concentration increament of N. oculata algae
Esmaeil Pagheh1, Jassem Ghafleh Marammazi2*, Mojtaba Zabayeh Najaf abadi3
1,3 Bandar Imam Khomani marine fishes research station, Bandar Imam Khomani,
Koozestan, I. R. Iran. esmaeilpaghe @ gmail.com 2 Southern of Iran fisheries research center, Ahwaz, Koozestan, I. R. Iran.
This study have been carried out to determine the best salinity and culture media for better rearing and further concentration of N. oculata. The experiment including 12 treatment with 4 salinity levels and 3 kinds of culture media. Each treatment include 3 replicates of 0.5 liter Erlens. The algae cultured for 6 days under the satandard conditions. Results indicates significant differences ( P<0.05 ) between the salinities , media and their reciprocal effects. Mean while highest concentrations observed for 20 ppt salinity and CONWAY media.
Keywords: Nannochloropsis oculata, salinity , media
The genus Nannochloropsis D. J. Hibberd (Eustigmatophyceae) includes Nannochloropsis oculata (Droop) D. J. Hibberd as the main species . The species of the genus are characterized by small cells with a simple morphology and typically live in salt water habitats with the exception of N. limnotica ( Suda et al. 2002 ).