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Materials and methods
Sampling was carried out using electro-shocker device with the voltage between 200 and 300 volts monthly from August 2010 to July 2011 in the Babolrood River (Northern Iran). The river is 88 km long, its
average slope is 3.2% and the river's total current is 560 million cubic meters a year(www.babolsarshora.ir). The river's bed is made of gravel and pebbles, and the surrounding vegetation comprises of dense trees. The total sample size was 206 specimens. Collected specimens were stabilized in the lid containers containing 10% formaldehyde solution and were transferred to the laboratory for biometry. Total length measured to the nearest 1 mm and total weight to the nearest 0.01 g. Age was determined using their scales (Bianco 1987). Sex determined visually. Diameter of 60 randomly selected eggs of 25 rip female in IV maturity stage was measured under the microscope with 40x zoom and recorded. Mean egg diameter was calculated (Biswas 1993). Absolute fecundity (the total number of the ripe eggs in a fish's ovary) and relative fecundity (number of each fish's eggs relative to its weight or length) determined (N i k o l s k i i 1963). Additionally, Gonadosomatic Index (GSI) and Hepatosomatic Index (HSI) calculated for both sexes separately. All analyzes were done using SPSS 18 statistical software program.
Mean total length of females and males was 109.65 ± 1.33 (SD) mm and 103.46 ± 1.78 (SD) mm respectively (Table 1); females were longer than males. Mean total weight of the females and males was 17.87 ± 1.03 (SD) g and 16.06 ± 1.9 (SD) g respectively (Table 1).
Table 1: Mean length and weight of females and males of Kura barbel in Babolrood, southern Caspian basin
Mean TL ±SD
Mean W ±SD
Weight-length relationships were significant with high correlation coefficients. WLR's shoed positive growth models for considered groups
of the species in the river (figures 1, 2 and 3).
200 150 100 50 0
- = 1.879x + 75.49 R2 = 0.894
20 40 Total weight(g) 60
Fig. 1: Correlation between total length and total weight of female Kura barbel in Babolrood River- southern Caspian basin
200 150 100 50 0
y = 2.693x + 67.26 R2 = 0.931
10 20 Total weight(g) 30
Fig. 2: Correlation between total length and total weight of male Kura barbel in Babolrood River- southern Caspian basin
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£ 150 tu>
0 5 10 15 20 25
Fig. 3: Correlation between total length and total weight of fry Kura barbel in Babolrood River- southern Caspian basin
In studied population, the maximum age group was 3+. The highest number of female was the 1-year age group (58.14%), the same pattern was observed in males with different percentage, 76% for total abundance. The lowest number was observed in the 3-years age group (1.16%). In males, there was no 3+ age group specimen (Table 2).
Table 2: Abundance (% of total number) of age groups in Barbus lacerta 's in southern Caspian basin_
The sex ratio of female to male fish was 1.1:1, with an approximate of 46.8% males and 53.2% females. Therefore, females are dominant over males in Babolrood. Based on 25 rip females, the mean diameter of the measured eggs was 0.57 ± 0.03 mm (SD). The maximum absolute fecundity was 8250 and the minimum 624 egg, with an average of 4360±21.96.
y = 3.314x + 59.55 R2 = 0.945
Table 3: Absolute fecundity and relative fecundity of studied Kura barbels in Babolrood
Minimum relative fecundity
Maximum relative fecundity
Average relative fecundity
Minimum absolute fecundity
Maximum absolute fecundity
Average absolute fecundity /standard deviation
Gonadosomatic Index (GSI)
Considering GSI, the highest values were observed in April (mean GSI of 12.68 for females and 8.98 for males), indicating spawning period of the species is around April (extended from March to May) in the river. Based on observations, one small increasing in GSI occurred in October, this may implies autumn ripens of females.
May Jun Jul Agu Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr Months
Fig. 4: GSI plot of males and females Kura barbel in Babolrood River-souther Caspian basin
Table 5: Condition Factor (CF) of studied Kura barbels based on their gender in Babolrood
1.6 1.4 1.2 1
0.6 0.4 0.2 0
May Jun Jul Agu Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr
Fig. 5: Mean Condition Factor of female Kura barbels in Babolrood River-southern Caspian
1.4 1.2 1
0.S 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
May Jun Jul Agu Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr
Graph 6: Mean Condition Factor of male Kura barbels in Babolrood River-southern Caspian
The information provided in this study the first one for the species in the Babolrood River. The results indicated that the species has some unique characters different from those of other populations in different
distribution areas. Solak (1989) pointed out this species reaches to a maximum of 300 mm total length, 460 g total weight and 5 years old in Areas river of Turkey. While base on Coad (2008), this species has found with 166.53 mm, 76.87 g, and up to 3 years in southern Caspian basin in Iran. These reveal that the species has different length, weight and ages in different range areas distribution. The age relations of a certain population are different from another population of the same species and the same reserves by different ages. In addition, the number of males is higher than females at the beginning of life, but the relation reverses at older ages. . Such a fact indicates the dominance of females population over males. The age ratio of fish is different among species, populations, and throughout the years between the same species. Shaji'ee et al. (2009) studied on Barbus capito in the Caspian Sea and found the female to male ratio of 1:3; in other words, 58% of the studied fish were male and 42% were female. Al-Mukhtar et al (2006) carried out an investigation on Barbus sharpie in Iraq's Howaiza and observed a 1:1 ratio; 50% of the studied fish were female and 50% were male. It is possible that the frequency of females is naturally lower than males vice versa. The size of eggs among different species is varied; also, in a certain population, its size may vary in different years. Furthermore, the temperature and the saved food in female fish's body may affect the egg's size; such an effect is also varied in different species. Some evidence, nevertheless, shows that the egg's size is not highly affected by food levels (Eskandari 1999). Coad (2010) reported that mean egg diameter of Kura barbels in the southern Caspian basin is 1.1 mm. This is different from that of results of this study. Maghsoodlou (2010) observed a mean egg diameter of 1.1 mm for Barbus grupus in Shapur River (Bushehr province, Iran). In our study, the egg's diameter had two climaxes that indicate the GIS period. The maximum climax was in the early March, and the other climax occurred in October. Many researchers have pointed out that fecundity depends on some factors such as length, fish's weight, gonad's weight, age and environmental conditions (Biswas 1993). As the results of these studies have shown, the absolute fecundity of the same species is varied and inconstant. The level of fecundity in different species, different
populations of a certain species, and different years is varied; some factors like food, precipitation, the salinity of water, and genetic variations affect its levels (Unlu & Balci 1993).The relationship between the fecundity and fish's weight is linear; the dependence of fecundity on weight is more than on length (Biswas 1993). The mean weight of females in Babolrood is 17.87 ± 1.03 g. the ovary's weight of a fish is measured together with its eggs; fecundity increases as the ovary's weight increases (Biswas 1993). GSI can be used as the criterion for determining the spawning season (Biswas 1993). The Gonad GSI is variable on the range of 1% to 47% and the significant decrease of gonad GSI is the reason for the short period of spawning (King 2007). Kura barbels may spawn two or three times a season, which are identified by the mature eggs in the ovary. Of course temperature is effective on the cessation of spawning as a water temperature of higher than 20° C or lower than 14° C causes the cessation of spawning (Bogutskaya and Banarescu 2003).The spawning time of Kura barbels of this study and its comparison with its close relatives suggest that the spawning time of the fish in Babolrood was from February to May. Coad (2008) has reported that Kura barbels of southern Caspian Sea spawn from March to May. Banarescu and Bogutskaya (2003) have reported that this time is from March to July. Further, Barak (1983) suggests that Barbus luteus in Garma lagoon, Iraq, spawn in April and May. Based on CF results, it can be concluded that Kura barbels are in a good conditions regarding their weight. In addition, the condition factor for females was higher than that of males. CF was increasing until spawning, and started to reduce by the time of spawning and afterward. They start feeding immediately after spawning so their CF would increase. CF before spawning and sometime before the increase in GSI increases. As GSI reaches its maximum, CF starts to reduce (Biswas 1993).Rankin et al. (1983) reported that, in the cycle of reproduction, a portion of necessary energy for increasing CF is supplied by feeding and another portion is supplied by the consumption of energy reserves in the liver and muscles. Also, the variations observed in different months originate from the seasonal changes in gonads, intensity of feeding, age and gender (Biswas 1993).
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The early life history of some commercial fish larva family in Iranian coastal waters of the Persian Gulf
Mahnaz Rabbaniha 1*, Fereidoon Owfi 1, Simin Dehghan 2, Mohsen Norinejad 3
1 Iranian Fisheries Research Organization (IFRO), P.O.Box:14155-775, Tehran, Iran
2 South Aquaculture Research Institute (SARI), Ahwaz, Iran
3 Iran Shrimp Research Institute (ISRI), Bushehr, Iran * Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Research studies on identification of larval fishes in Iranian waters of the Persian Gulf goes back to 1995, aimed to identification and abundance of fish larvae in Khuzestan, Hormozgan and Bushehr southern provinces of. On the base of mentioned subject, study and research about life cycle of commercial fish species. There have been a few studies on Ichthyoplankton in the Persian Gulf. Nellen (1973) did sample larval fishes on the northern and eastern side of the Persian Gulf as part of a larger Indian Ocean survey. Houde and et al. (1986) were made this survey in Kuwait waters and on two cruises from stations off Saudi Arabia and in southern the Persian Gulf.
Material and method
Studied area: It was included the inshore waters with less than 10 m of depth. The survey of early life history was done in 3 steps (in Khuzestan province), 5 steps in Bushehr waters and case study in Hormozgan province (Fig.1).
Figure1- Situation of sampling stations in Iranian coastal provinces
Cruise & ichthyoplankton sampling: Totally, 10 cruises for fish larvae sampling were made from September 2001 to August 2007. Ichthyoplankton was sampled by bongo-net plankton sampler that towing obliquely (Smith & Richardson, 1977). Samples fixed in 5% formalin in seawater then were separated similar samples in base of morphometric and meristic parameters and identified (Leis & Rennis, 1983, Houde et al., 1986 and Leis & Transky, 1989). The data for larvae were converted to numbers per cubic meter. The data also were standardized to numbers in 10m2 of sea surface by the method given in (Smith & Richardson,
Totally 119006 larva samples were collected and identified in 54 family. Some commercial fish larva which identified included: Sillaginidae, Sparidae, Sciaenidae, Bothidae, Scomberidae, Sphyraenidae, Gerreidae, Platycephalidae and Lutjanidae.
Sillaginidae: The myomers are 33-37, lack of gas bladder during daylight, gut which is initially straight and coils during flexion, very reduced head spination, with lightly pigmentation and a single row of melanophores along the ventral midline of the trunk and in tail in larger larva (Fig.2).
Figure 2 - Sillaginidae larva, post flexion, (TL = 11 mm)
Sparidae: The larva types are diverse but the main characters are: the myomers are 24, triangular gut without prominent gas bladder, moderate to small gap between anal fin and anus and pigmentation is light (Fig.3).
Figure 3 - Sparidae, post flexion, (TL = 11 mm)
Sciaenidae: Body is robust, the myomers are 25, triangular gut and head spination, the pigmentation light to moderate (Fig.4).
Figure 4 - Sciaenidae, pre flexion, (TL = 2.2 mm)
Bothidae: Head profile is straight to concave, mouth small, body laterally compress, large flat urohyal plate, large prominent liver (Fig.5).
Figure 5- Bothidae, pre flexion, (TL = 3 mm)
Carangidae: This family is a large and diverse; in this case body deep, dorsal fin is included spin / ray (Fig.6)
Figure 6 - Carangidae (Alectis sp.), post flexion, (TL = 6.6 mm)
Scomberidae: This family is a large and diverse in this genus, the myomers are 31, the gut is triangular, eye is round and large, head without any spin (Fig.7).
Figure 7 - Scomberidae (Rasrtelliger Sp.), (TL = 6.4 mm)
Sphyraenidae: Larvae are elongate, laterally compressed, myomers 24, and the gut is straight and long (Fig.8).
Figure 8 - Sphyraenidae, post flexion (TL = 4.2 mm)
Gerreidae: The myomers are 23; weak head spination, distinctive pigmentation, and protractile mouth with its long ascending premaxillary process (Fig. 9).
Figure 9 - Gerreidae, post flexion (TL = 7.2 mm)
Lutjanidae: The myomers are 23; gut is tightly, early - forming head spination and spins of the pelvic and dorsal fin (Fig.10).
Figure 10 - Lutjanidae, pre flexion (TL = 3.2 mm)
Lethrinidae: Head with strong spin, a supra-occipital crest that serrate with spination; gut is short and deeply coiled (Fig. 11).
Figure 11- Lethrinidae, pre flexion (TL = 2.4 mm)
Mugilidae: Head without spin, body with heavy pigment and with two dorsal fin
Figure 12 - Mugilidae post flexion (TL = 5.4 mm)
Synodontidae: Gut with patch pigment, gut is long and straight (Fig.13).
Figure13 - Synodontidae, pre flexion (TL = 2.7 mm)
The results of all studies of fish larvae in the Iranian waters of Persian Gulf in three southern provinces was shown,119006 Number of larval samples were collected and identified in 54 families(Rabbaniha,2007). Sillaginidae is belonging to inshore waters and was found it in Bushehr waters more than others area. Sparidae was found in all area and spawning in all months and collected from sandy - muddy substrata. Sciaenidae was found from all studies with higher abundance in Hormozgan waters in all month. Bothidae with less percentage in study area with two peak in spring and autumn and didn't find from Khuzestan.
Carangidae was collected from all study area in all month, whereas there were many varieties of species with different behavior, they were collected from different habitats. Scomberidae only reported from Bushehr waters in the warm period and from rocky coral habitat. Sphyraenidae did not find from Khuzestan and with more abundance from Bushehr province in warm period and rocky-coral habitat. Spawning of Gerreidae is only in Bushehr waters in warm period and autumn with more abundance in warm.
Lutjanidae was collected from all area from rocky-coral habitat in warm period except from Khuzestan waters. Lethrinidae is belonging to rocky- coral habitat and only from Bushehr waters. Mugilidae was reported from all study area with more abundance in cold period. Synodontidae only was collected from Bushehr waters with more abundance in rocky-coral habitat.
I wish to thanks Dr. Edward D. Houde (Maryland University) and Dr. Jeffry Lies (New South Wales University) for their help in confirm of identification of fish larvae.
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Nellen, W., 1973. Kind and abundance of fish larvae in the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf (The biology of the Indian Ocean).Springer - Verlag, Frankfurt.1
Rabbaniha,m., 2007. Identification, Diversity and Distribution pattern of fish larvae in Kharg & Kharko Corallian Islands Ecosystem - Persian Gulf, by GIS method. Ph.D thesis. Azad University.336 PP.
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The effects of B.licheniformis and B. laterosporus on the growth parameters in Common Carp (Cprinus carpio) larvae
*F. Rahmani1, H. Jafaryan1, Ebrahimi, P. 1, Ghiasi, M.2
1 Departement of fishery, University of Gonbade kavos, Iran
2 Ecological institute of Caspian Sea, Sari, Iran
*Author for correspondence e-mail: Hojat.Jafaryan@gmail.com
The bacterial flora in the larval gut originates from bacteria associated with the eggs, the water in the rearing tanks, and the live food (Ring0 and Birkbeck 1999). The positive effect of probiotics depends on both the action mechanisms and the capacity of colonisation, that is to say, its ability to reach, remain, or reproduce in the place where the effect is required (Planas et al., 2004). Optimization of zootechnical, nutritional and microbiological factors can reduce the heavy mortalities and promote the growth performance during the rearing of marine fish larvae (Olsen 1997). Probiotics might be used in two ways in aquaculture: by introducing a specific bacterial flora to the digestive system of the fish via the diet, or by inoculating the beneficial bacterial flora into the rearing water. Though probiotic are widely used in animal husbandry, little has been done to incorporate them into aquaculture (Lara-flores et al., 2003). The main strategy in use today is supplementation of the bacterial probiotics in the feed of immature fishes, for increase the growth parameters (Ghosh et al., 2003). However, this study was designed to evaluate the use of a bacteria mix containing Bacillus licheniformisi, B. subtilis, B. polymyxa, B. laterosporus and B. circulans as probiotic supplements in diets of Common Carp (Cprinus carpio) larvae. This research was done in June and July of 2012 in aquaculture laboratory of university of Gonbade kavos.
The spores of Bacillus licheniformisi, B. subtilis, B. polymyxa, B. laterosporus and B. circulans were obtained from protexin Co. The starting diet of Biomar was used for feeding of Common Carp larvae. Five diets were formulated to be isoenergitic, isolipid (12% Crude lipid) and isoprotein (55% Crude protein), but contain different levels of concentration of probiotics. Three concentrations of probiotic bacillus (1x106, 2x106 and 3x106 CFU/g) in these diets were used respectively. A diet containing Biomar feed, without the probiotic bacillus, was used as a control diet (CF). The experimental diets (F1, F2 and F3) were mixed with designed bacterial suspension (spore of bacillus and yeast) and dried at 40°C in incubator for 5 h. Fifteen circular fiberglass tanks (capacity of 10 liters) with three replicates for experimental and control treatments, were used in this trial. Thirty five fish were randomly allocated into each of tanks. Initial weight of fish larvae was 200.25+ 20.12 mg. Common Carp larvae were fed based on the 5% of their body weight for three times a day with diets of F1, F2 and F3 in experimental treatments and control diet (CF) in control treatment respectively. In the final of experiment, every larva from each tank was sampled and their total body weight and body length, were measured. Some growth parameters of Cprinus carpio larvae were calculated based on their data of biometery.
The supplementation of probiotics bacillus in experimental diets also produced the best growth parameters with values statistically better than the control parameters in Common Carp (Cprinus carpio) larvae (table1).
Table1. Growth and feeding performance of Common Carp larvae in different treatments
Initial Weight (mg)
Final Weight (g)
Final Length (cm)
4.30 ± 0.29a
Condition Factor1 (%)
1.82 ± 0.15b
1.74 ± 0.18b
1.95 ± 0.21a
Specific Growth Rate2 (%)
6.72 ± 0.88a
Daily Growth Coefficient 3
1.90 ± 0.26a
1Condition factor (CF) = 100x [(g final weight of fish)/ (total length of fish- cm) 3].
2Specific growth rate (SGR) = 100x [ln final weight of fish-ln initial weight of fish)]/days of feeding.
3Daily growth coefficient (DGC) = 100x [(final body weight0333- initial body weight0333)/ days of
The beneficial influence of probiotic bacilli on final body weight of Common Carp larvae, were completely observed. The highest final body weight (1.63 g) and length (4.30 cm) were obtained in experimental treatment of F3. The body weight increased in experimental treatments of larva had significant difference in comparison with control treatment (p<0.05). In experimental treatments the Condition factor (CE) significantly increased in comparison with control treatment (p<0.05) The probiotic bacilli had significant positive effects on the specific growth rate (SGR) and Daily growth coefficient (DGC) in comparison with control treatment (p<0.05) and the best results obtained in experimental treatment of F3. A positive significant correlation obtained between the supplementation of concentrations of probiotic bacillus in diets and growth parameters of Common Carp larvae (p<0.05).