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An Analysis of the Tendency of the Members of Fishery Cooperatives in Alborz Province towards Sustainable Aquaculture
Moslem savari*1, Reza Ebrahimi maymand2
1 MS.C student of rural development, Tehran University, Karaj, Iran
2 MS.C student of rural development Science Research university, Tehran, Iran * Corresponding E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
This study was conducted with the overall aim to analyze the tendency of the members of fishery cooperatives in Alborz Province towards sustainable aquaculture. The research's statistical population would contain all members of active cooperatives in the field of aquaculture, Alborz Province (N=69).The sample size was estimated using the census methodand questionnaires were sent to all the members. Finally, 65 individuals completed and returned the questionnaire. The research's main instrument to collect data was a researcher-made and pre-tested questionnaire whose reliability by a panel of experts and its viability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data analysis was carried out by the software SPSSwin18. The results showed that the majority of study members would enjoy a moderate tendency towardssustainable aquaculture, and they wouldn't possess favorable attitudes and knowledge tosustainable aquaculture, either. Moreover, the results of correlation analysis indicated that there was a positive and significant relationshipbetween the attitude and knowledge of the study members with their tendency towards sustainable aquaculture. In addition, according to the results of factor analysis, the barriers tosustainable aquaculture can be classified into three factors; 1- supporting, 2-professional and educational, and 3- input constraints.
Key Words: Aquaculture, Rearing Larva, Proliferation of Aquatic fish, Fishery Cooperatives, Alborz Province
Along with the rapid growth of food production in the world, modern aquaculture is also growing. This growth is combined with the changes from absolute reliance on the development of production technology toemphasis on the economic and environmental sustainability of aquaculture activities.The increasing awareness of aquaculture byfisheryexperts and making responsible aquaculturepolicies, principles and regulationsbythe policymakers in this professionwill lead to a sustainable landscape in this field(Stickey andMc Vey). Like all the rearing systems in land, theaquaculture facesmany challengessuch as increasing competition over scarce resources like water, land and foodresources, environmental degradation of reserves,lack of institutional andlegal support and recentlyadverse publicityresulting from the limited cases ofenvironmental degradation, and social chaos caused by some specific aquaculture activities (FAO, 1997). The sustainability of aquaculture looks forward to the management and evaluation methods through careful and accurate planning, so that, this technique becomes more practical, new species emerge,hunting and fishing continue to decline, anddemand and tendency towards aquacultureis heavily increasingto meet the food and economic needs. Looking at the patterns of global development, we find that an increase in aquaculture production will need to allocate more resources to the use of this technology.These resources include coastal waters, groundwater, rivers, lakes, and marine ecosystems away from the beach.Recent experiences have shown thatthe disturbance and indefinite development of aquaculture can cause the serious degradation of environment as well as unforeseen economic and cultural impact on the surrounding communities.Increasing evidences point out poor planning, professional status, and management of aquaculture activities. However, success in achieving the economic short-term goalsis not consideredsustainable for long-term. Fisheries and aquaculture experts in theimplementing sectors of multiplying and culturing aquatic fish are the guild forces that should be at the forefront of aquaculture production directing and restraining thecompliance of the
practices, principles and rules of sustainable aquaculture. It's of great importance to be aware of the difficulties and obstacles for the sustainable aquaculture to extend this activity. Thus, little research has been undertaken in the world some of which we will refer to here:
Shang and Tisdell (1997) have presented different definitions and explanations for aquaculture. They'd recognize sustainable aquaculture as a system of culturing aquatic fish that is in a harmony with other economic activities which are using natural resources. It's obvious that this activity should providenet, reasonable, relatively stable, and optimally profitable for the manufacturer and communitycompared to other economic activities that use the similar natural resources. They would state that a lack of codified and viable rules is one of the most important difficulties of this part.
Udoto and Flowers (2001) and Williams et al (1997) undertook a research with the aimto determine the attitudes of elected agricultural education teachers towardsustainable agriculture and concluded that the level of teachers' attitudes toward sustainable agricultureis positive, but their perception of economic profit was incompatible with the sustainability. In other words, they'd considersustainability as opposed to the economic profit. Another problem related to sustainability from the perspective of study individuals, therefore, was attitudinal problems.
Jayaratne et al (2001) carried out a study on the attitudes of Ealt Iowa's extension educators to sustainable agriculture. The findings suggested that the term sustainability has been in existence as a vague concept for manyeducators of agricultural and natural resources extension.So, one of the major obstacles to sustainability is a lack of proper awareness of sustainable.
Mokhtari A. et al (2007) in a study titled "The attitude of fisheries experts to aquaculture" concluded that the most important obstacles to achieving sustainable aquaculture are the lack of government support foraquaculture and low levels of technical knowledge concerning aquaculture.
In this regard, this study was conducted with the overall aim of analyzing the tendency of fishery cooperatives members, Alborz
Province, towards the sustainable aquaculture. In order to accomplish this, the following specific objectives will be followed.
1- A survey of personal and professional characteristics of the studied members of cooperatives;
2- A survey of the extent to which the members tend to the sustainable aquaculture, from the perspective of study individuals;
3- A survey of the attitude of the members of study cooperatives towards the components of sustainable aquaculture;
4- A survey of the knowledge of the members of study cooperatives towards the components of sustainable aquaculture;
5- An analysis of the obstacles to the sustainable aquaculture from the perspectiveof studied cooperative members.
Materials and Methods
This study is qualitative in terms of nature, applied in terms of purpose, and a descriptive survey in terms of data collection. The research's statistical population would contain all members of active cooperatives in the field of aquaculture in Alborz Province where 9 cooperatives with 69 members are engaged in this field (N=69).The sample size was estimated using the census methodand questionnaires were sent to all the members. Finally, 65 individuals completed and returned the questionnaire.The research's main instrument to collect data was a researcher-made and pre-tested questionnaire.The questionnaire consisted of three parts: the first part was about the individual characteristics of the study members of cooperatives; the second part was related to the items that assess the knowledge of the members of production cooperatives aboutsustainable agriculture; the third part was related to the items that assess the membersknowledge ofthe components of sustainable aquaculture; and the fourth part of the questionnaire were the items involving the obstacles to sustainable aquaculture. A panel of experts including the professors of Rural Development department,as well as the experts on fisheries cooperatives in Alborz Province were used to determine the reliability of questionnaire and based on their
comments and suggestions, the necessary corrections were made to the questionnaire. Cornbach's alpha coefficient test was used to determine the questionnaire's viability based on which the values for attitude, knowledge, and obstacles to sustainable aquaculture parts were 0.79, 0. 84 and 0.75, respectively.Considering the fact that each of Cornbach's alpha values is higher than 0.7, then,the questionnaire had a good viability to undertake the research.
To classify the attitude and knowledge of the studymembers of fisheries cooperatives, the difference of Standard deviation of mean or ISDM was used as follows (Gangadharappa, 2007).
Unfavorable: A<mean- Sd
Moderate: Mean- Sd<B<mean+ Sd
Favorable: C>mean+ Sd
In order to analyze the data in both descriptive and inferential statistics,software SPSS under Windows 18 version was used.Thus, in the descriptive statistics section, mean, frequency, percentage, and standard deviation and in the inferential statistics section, correlation coefficient tests were used.
A survey of the personal and professional characteristics of study members of cooperatives
The average age of the study members was 35 yearswhoseyoungest were21 years old and theiroldest 55 years old. In terms of gender, amongst 177 managers of study cooperatives, 17 ones, i.e. 9.6 percent, were females and 160 ones, i.e. 90.4 percent, males, and 58.6 percent of study experts had a diploma. The study rate of extensional periodicals and other stuff on sustainable is in average 1.2 hours per week. A survey of the extent to which the members tend to the sustainable aquaculture, from the perspective of study individuals
The frequency distribution of respondents in terms of the extent to which the members of fisheries cooperatives tend to the sustainable aquaculture has been represented in Table 1. According to the results
obtained from the table, the highest frequency value (33.84%) is related to the individuals who have offered their tendency at a moderate level. Therefore, the members' tendency towards sustainable aquaculture is positioned at a moderate level.
Table 1- A survey of the level of the ability to create small businesses among the students
The level of ability
A survey of the attitude of the members of study cooperatives towards the components of sustainable aquaculture
In order to prioritize the items related to attitudes toward sustainableaquaculture components, the variation coefficient was applied. The results of this section have come in Table 2. Based on the results obtained from Table 2, it can be said that the study members would enjoy a favorable attitude to the items "The aquaculture possessing sustainable attributes cause the lowest degradation on the environment" and "Sustainable aquaculture is consistent with thecommunity's needs and protects the rights of futuregenerations", whilst they don't have a favorable attitude to the items "I'd really enjoy the publications and information subjects in this field" and "There are informationresources and centers in the field of sustainable aquaculture within the country".
In order to classify the attitudes of the fisheries cooperatives members to sustainable aquaculture, Alborz Province, the scale ISDM was applied as the same way it was expressed in the research methodology. The results of this section have come in Table 3.
According to table 3, it can be observed that only 24 people (69/47%) of the members of fisheries cooperatives of Karaj City, Alborz Province, would enjoy a favorableattitude towardssustainable aquaculture. While 31 people (69/47%) would have a neutral attitude and 10 people (38/15 percent) an unfavorable attitude toward sustainable aquaculture.On this
basis, it can be stated that the majority of the fisheries cooperatives members, Alborz Province, wouldn't have a favorable attitude to sustainable aquaculture, because the attitude of 41 individuals (07/63 percent) to sustainable agriculturewas neutral and unfavorable.
Table 2-prioritize the items related to theindividuals' attitudes regarding the sustainable aquaculture components
-The aquaculture possessing sustainable attributes cause the lowest
degradation on the environment
-Sustainable aquaculture is consistent with the community's needs
and protects the rights of futuregenerations
-Sustainable aquaculture is more suitable to developing countries than developed countries
-Sustainable aquaculture rates the lowest of social tension
-Sustainable aquaculture contributes to social and economic justice
-Aquaculture possessing sustainable attributes has long profitabilitybeside rising costs
-In sustainable aquaculture, the techniques and technologies tailored to its position should be used
-Sustainable aquaculture preserves the natural reserves and aquatic biodiversity
- There is no other appropriate solution exceptsustainable
aquaculture to preserve the natural resources against the adverse
environmental effects in this profession
-There are information resources and centers in the field of
sustainableaquaculture within the country
-I'd really enjoy the publications and information subjects in this field
Scale 1-low 2-very low, 3-medium, and 4-high, 5-very high
Table 3-Grouping the respondents based on their attitudes towards sustainable aquaculture
Average: 25/32 minimum: 5. 25 maximum: 49 SD: 21
A survey of the knowledge of the members of study cooperatives towards the components of sustainable aquaculture
In order to prioritize the items related to the knowledge of people
regarding sustainable aquaculture components, the variation coefficient was used.The results of this section have been presented in Table 4.Based on the results of thissection, it can be asserted that most of the knowledge of individuals is related to the item "Culturing clams, purifying plants, and algae in the farms' exit channel leads to the nitrogen fixation and reduction of organic load from the exit of bathes" and the least is related to the item "The effluent of aquatic farms, centers and workshops isone of thecontaminating sources of environment".
Table 4: Prioritizing the knowledge components of sustainable aquaculture from the perspective of respondents_
* Knowledge components of sustainable aquaculture
-Culturing clams, purifying plants, and algae in the farms'
exit channel leads to the nitrogen fixation and reduction of
organic load from the exit of bathes
-Breeding of several aquatic species which do not compete
for food also increases the productivity of resources
-Feeding the farmed aquatic fish on the herbal origin foods
made of natural raw ingredients
-Construction of aquaculture complexes can be considered a
step in the direction of sustainable aquaculture
-Observing proper intervals in enriching the pool water
-The cultivation of aquatic filtering fish like creamy tilapia
fish contributes to the better management of the sediments of
-Designing of offshore aquaculture systemscauses less
destructive ecological effects than the onshore aquaculture
-Combined cultivation of fish in paddy fieldsis considered
one of the influential biological methods in sustainable
-Planning or zoning of aquaculture is a symbol of sustainable
-Breeding new andexotic species leads to the biodiversity
change,incidence of illnesses, and ultimately a threat to the
community's public health
-Enhancing the quality of fish food, with the aim of reducing
organic load, can contribute tothe sustainability of
-The effluent of aquatic farms, centers and workshops is one
of the contaminating sources of environment
* Scale 1-very low, 2- low, 3-medium, 4-high, 5-very high
Also, in order to group the knowledge of the members of agricultural production cooperatives in Karaj City, ISDM Scale was used. The results of this section have been presented in Table 5.
Table 5-Groupingthe respondents on the basis of their knowledge towards sustainable aquaculture components_
Levels of knowledge
Average: 18/41 minimum: 6/25 maximum: 65SD: 15
According to Table 5, it can be observed that amongst the studied individuals in Alborz province, only 7 cases (10.78 percent) of the members of fishery cooperative would enjoy a high knowledge regarding thesustainable aquaculture components, whilst 36 cases (55.38 percent) moderate knowledge and 22 cases (33.84 percent)would have low knowledge of thesustainable aquaculture components.On this basis, it can be stated that the majority of the fisheries cooperatives members, Alborz Province, wouldn't have favorable knowledge towards sustainable aquaculture, because the knowledge of 58 individuals (89.22 percent) towards sustainable aquaculture components was low and moderate.
An analysis of the obstacles to the sustainable aquaculture from the perspectiveof studied experts
The analysis of Impediments to sustainable aquaculture from the study experts' point of view was the next case tostatistical analysis.Factor analysis was used for this purpose. To determine the data appropriateness for factor analysis, KMO coefficient and Bartlett's test were used.KMO value0.818and the Bartlett test valuewas equal to 621.122 (p = 0.000) that was significant at the one percent level, thereby showing that the data wasappropriate for factor analysis.In this analysis, two factors were extracted with eigenvalues greater than 1 that would explain 44.634 percent of the totalvariance offactors. The remaining 55.336 percent was related to the factors that were not identified in the analysis. Regarding
the eigenvalue in Table 6, they were extracted with the eigenvalue greater than one. Factor No. 1, withthe eigenvalue 4.25 and variance 17.122, makes the highest contribution to explaining the total variance of factors.
Table 6: The number of fired factors and the contribution of each of them
Number of factor
Varimax Factor Rotation is used to contrast more obviously the factors. The factor load for each variable isgiven in Table 7after the factor rotation.Having reviewed the items (variables) related to each factor and their factor load, the factors were named in this way: 1-Supporting, 2- Professional and Educational, 3- Input.
Table7- The factor analysis ofbarriers to sustainable aquaculture
-Lack of Government support
-Lack of proper facilities in this field
-The high price of inputs
- Financial loss resulting from the use of sustainable
-The low level of literacy of breeders of aquatic fish
-Notholding educational courses in the field of sustainable aquaculture
-The beliefs, attitudes and experiences of thebreeders of
-Problems related to soil and water
- Technical and technological limitations available for
-Limited access to the compatible technologies with the
The correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship between the knowledge and attitude with the tendency of study members
towards sustainable aquaculture. The results of this section have been presented in Table 8.
Table 8- The study of the relationship between the knowledge and attitude of respondents with their tendency
The results of table 8 showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the attitude and knowledge of the cooperative members with their tendency towards sustainable aquaculture. That is, the more favorable knowledge and attitude the study members have to sustainable aquaculture, the higher is their tendency towards sustainable aquaculture.
According to the estimation of the Global Grocery Organization,on average, each person needs 70 grams of protein a day whose 21 grams should be provided from animal sources.Red meat, white meat (including poultry and seafood), dairy product are theonlyprotein sources necessary for human. On the other hand, as fishing is done more excessively than the certain number of aquatic fish, the generation of aquatic fish can be endangered,if this trend continues.Fishing industry has reached its maximum capacity and it doesn't meet thedemands of increasing world population. The specialists of Fish StocksExploitationSciences conclude that the only solution to increase fisheries production to meet the ever increasing population is to develop sustainably this industry.Therefore, any attempt to develop sustainably fishery industry such as the examination of the tendency of fisheries cooperativesmembers, their attitude and knowledge, and obstacles to the sustainability of this industry is really significant and necessary. In this regard, this study was
carried out with the overall aim of analyzing the tendency of themembers of fisheries cooperatives, Alborz province, towards sustainable aquaculture. The results showed that the subjects aren't of high interest in the sustainableaquaculture. The results regarding to the study of the attitudes of study members indicated that they didn't have afavorable attitude to sustainable aquaculture. The results obtained from this section are not consistent with the studies by Udoto and Flowers (2001) and Williams et al (1997). However, the study individuals don't enjoy favorable knowledge in this respect. In addition to these results, the factor analysis classifiedthe obstacles to sustainable aquaculture into three factors: 1-supporting, 2- Professional-educational, 3-Input. This study is consistent with the one by Abkenari et al (2007). In this regard, the following recommendations are suggested:
• Some poor public policies should be modified and repaired in the direction of support from aquatic fish breeders. Implementation of financial policies makes aquatic fish breeders to apply the recommendations of fishery experts with greater confidence to achieve sustainable aquaculture.
• Economically sustainable aquaculture operations and enhancing of the interest of various aquaculture sectorswill facilitate the adoption of sustainable aquaculture technologies by the small andlow-income aquatic fish breeders.
• Due to the lack of knowledge in this respect, it is recommended that in-servicetraining classes are held for members.
Bardach, J.E. (eds.). Sustainable Aquaculture, pp.127-148. New York, John Wiley & Sons.
FAO. (1997). Aquaculture Development. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Technical guideline for responsible fisheries, No. 5. Rome.
Jayaratne, K. S. U., Martin, R. A. and De Witt, J. R. (2001). Perceptions regarding sustainable agriculture: Emerging trends for educating extension educators. Proceedings of the 17th annual conference, AIAEE2001, Louisiana, USA.