Автор неизвестен - Krmulture in iran - страница 51

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The cultivation of fish and shellfish larvae under controlled hatchery conditions requires not only the development of specific culture techniques, but in most cases also the production and use of live food organisms as feed for the developing larvae. Very often it is a weak link in the development of larviculture. Aquaculture development is now largely inhibited by deficiency of live food for larvae of commercially important fish and invertebrates, as well as the vulnerability to various diseases of cultured aquatic organisms. Low resistance to different diseases is a result of poor and not diverse larvae food in many cases. Use of Artemia (cysts) is a most developed approach to solve a problem of live food in aquaculture. But it can't be alone live food organism in aquaculture. There are several reasons. We don't discuss them here. As example, Artemia nauplius is so large as first live food for some fish larvae.

There are a lot of different hypersaline lakes in the Crimea (Ukraine) (Shadrin, 2009; Shadrin et al., 2012). Many organisms inhabiting hypersaline waters are good objects for use as live food. Some of them are used now in larviculture, but other ones are can be used. We take a quick review of organisms living in hypersaline lakes of Crimea (excepting Artemia), which are perspective live food organisms.

Ciliated Protozoa Fabrea salina Henneguy (1889) (Ciliophora, Heterotrichida). Size can vary from 50 to 500 ^m, in Crimean lakes -130 - 320 nm; population density influences on size (Pavlovskaya et al., 2009). Halotolerant - from 30 to more 240 %e>; termotolerant - to more 40 °C (De Winter, Persoone, 1975; et al.). Cysts are resistant to salinity and toxicants; can reactivate at 165%c (Post et al., 1983; Pati, Belmonte, 2003). Can be mass cultured feeding microalgae and yeast at densities up

to 50-200 ciliates/ml in 7 days; generation time 12 h (De Winter, Persoone, 1975; Pandey, Yeragi, 2004). Fabrea salina is a good first food for larval red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Rhodesa & Phelpsa,

2008) and others.

Cladocera (Crustacea, Branchiopoda). There are 2 perspective species in Crimean lakes - Moina salina Daday, 1888 (Moinidae) (Zagorodnyay, Shadrin, 2004) and Daphnia atkinsoni Baird, 1859 (Daphniidae) (Shadrin et al., unpubl.). They both have resting stages (ephippiums), can rich high densities, halotolerant (to 120 %%) and termotolerant, not difficult for cultivation. They are commercial product for aquariumistic.

Copepoda (Crustacea, Maxillopoda). Study of Copepoda as live food for fish larvae began in 1970s in Japan and Ukraine (Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Dr. Ludmila Sazhina). In Crimean lakes there are representatives of 2 copepods orders (Calanoida and Harpacticoida) which can be effectively used in aquaculture.

Harpacticoida - copepods with very small size of adults < 0.5 - 0.8 mm. They can reach huge abundance, they are very tolerant to different factors, it's not difficult to cultivate of them. Cletocamptus retrogressus Shmankevich, 1875 is the most common and abundant Harpacticoida species in the Crimean hypersaline lakes. It's very halotolerant and can live under salinities to 290 %% (Anufriieva, Shadrin, 2012). It has resting stage. It's very easy to cultivate of it. Their nauplii are one of the best from the live food for smallest fish larvae.

Arctodiaptomus salinus (Daday, 1885) (Calanoida, Diaptomidae). It is a widespread and highly tolerant species - temperature (10-39 °C) and salinity (3 - 80 %), tolerates hypoxic conditions (Shadrin et al., 2008). It has resting eggs. It cans rich high densities using wide range of different food items. A. salinus yielded B-carotene, 4-keto-4'-hydroxy- B -carotene, astaxanthin (major carotenoids) and crustaxanthin. Astaxanthin is a king of the carotenoids, best antioxidant, a most valuable and expensive carotenoid. A. salinus can be a best source of astaxanthin for fish and crayfish larvae in aquaculture. High level of astaxanthin in food leads to improving of immunity.

We need to remember that the live food organisms also can be an effective vector of biologically active substances (nucleic acids, enzymes and probiotics) delivery to organisms of fish/crayfish larvae. We need to have a diversity of live food organisms to effectively develop larviculture!

References

Anufriieva E. V., Shadrin N. V. 2012. Crustacean diversity in hypersaline Chersoness Lake (Crimea) // Optimization and Protection of Ecosystems. Simferopol: TNU. - Iss. 7. P. 55-61. (in Russian)

De Winter F., Persoone G. 1975. Preliminary experiments with the ciliate Fabrea salina as a potential live food for mariculture purposes //10th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Ostead, Belgium, Sept. 17-23, 1975. V. 1. - P. 37-48.

Pandey B. D., Yeragi, S. G. 2004. Preliminary and mass culture experiments on a heterotrichous ciliate, Fabrea salina . // Aquaculture. - V. 232, Is. 1-4. - P. 241­254.

Pati A. C., Belmonte G. 2003. Disinfection efficacy on cysts viability of Artemia franciscana (Crustacea), Hexarthra fennica (Rotifera), and Fabrea salina (Ciliophora) // Mar. Biol. - V. 142 - P. 895 - 904.

Pavlovskya T. V., Prazukin A. V., Shadrin N. V. 2009. Species diversity and seasonal dynamics of quantitative development of infusoriums in hypersaline lake (Crimea) // Marine Ecological J. - V. 8, № 2. - P. 53-63. (in Russian).

Post F. J., Borowitzka L. J., Borowitzka M. A., Mackay B., Moulton T. 1983. The protozoa of Western Australian hypersaline lagoon // Hydrobiologia . - V. 105. -

P. 95 - 113.

Rhodesa M.A., Phelpsa R.P. 2008. Evaluation of the Ciliated Protozoa, Fabrea salina as a First Food for Larval Red Snapper, Lutjanus campechanus in a Large Scale Rearing Experiment // J. of Applied Aquaculture. - V.20, Is. 2. - P. 120-133.

Shadrin N.V. 2009. The Crimean hypersaline lakes: towards development of scientific basis of integrated sustainable management //13th World Lake Conference, Wuhan, China, 1-5 November, 2009: http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/wlc/wlc13/wlc13 papers 1 .html; http://wldb.ilec.or.jp/data/ilec/WLC 13_Papers/S 12/s12-1 .pdf

Shadrin N., Anufriieva E., Galagovets E. 2012. Distribution and historical biogeography of Artemia leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Anostraca) in Ukraine / Int. J. Artemia Biology. - 2012. - V. 2( 2). - P. 30-42. http://journalartemiabiology.com

Shadrin N.V., Batogova E.A., Kopeika A. V. 2008. Arctodiaptomus salinus (Daday, 1885) (Copepoda, Diaptomidae), rare species in the northwestern Black Sea was found as a common one in the Crimea coastal zone //Marine ecological J. - V.

7(2). - P. 86. (in Russian).

Zagorodnyay Yu.A., Shadrin N.V. 2004. Cladocera Moina mongolica is an abundant species in hypersaline lakes-lagoons of the Crimean peninsula //Marine

Ecological J. -V. 3 (2). -P. 90 (in Russian).

Effects of long-term selenium enriched yeast supplementation on immune tissues of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Raheleh Shahraki 11, Vahid Nejati \ Amir Tukmechi 2, Maryam Rohi 3

1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

2 Department of Pathobiology and Quality Control, Artemia and Aquatic Animals Research Institute, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

3 Department of Microbiology, Islamik Azad University, Urmia, Iran.

Introduction

Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for maintaining normal growth and metabolic function of fish (Hamilton, 2004). One major function of selenium is as an integral component of GPx, which protects cells and membranes from oxidative stress by catalysing the reduction of hydroperoxides and peroxides using reduced glutathione (Rider et al., 2009). Selenium deficiency can lead to growth depression, loss of appetite, mortality, peroxidative damage to cells and membranes and reduced host defence functions (Watanabe et al., 1997). In fish, it has been observed that organic Se is more readily absorbed, and more potent in terms of bioavailability and effects on health, than inorganic forms (Wang et al. 2007). Yeast is commonly used in aquaculture, either alive to feed live food organisms, or after processing, as a feed ingredient .Some extracts, like P-glucans, are used as immuno-stimulants, and more recently, living yeasts have been proposed as probiotics. (Stones et al., 2004). Selenium-enriched yeast (Se-yeast) is a common form of selenium used to supplement dietary intake of this important trace mineral. Se-yeast is capable of increasing the activity of the selenoenzymes and its bioavailability has been found to be higher than that of inorganic selenium sources (Kucukbay et al., 2009). However, it is well known that Se is used in the animal diet because of anti-stress effects and also because requirement is increased during stress (Sahin and Kucuk, 2003). selenium deficiency might result in growth depression, and Se supplemented diet

can improve growth performances of fish (Monteiro et al., 2007). The aim of this study was to investigate effects of dietary Selenium enriched yeast on immune tissues of rainbow trout.

Materials and methods

Briefly, S. cerevisiaewas was grown aerobically in a culture medium. then, the culture was incubated at 27.4°C for 12 h on a rotary shaker. After addition of sodium selenite the yeast cells were incubated for 48 h. The cells were harvested by centrifuged for 15 min at 3,000 rpm and then washed twice with Sterile saline to remove surface-bound Se. Finally, Yeast cell concentrations were determined with a Burker haemocytometer at three concentration cosist of 1x106, 1x107 and 1x108 CFU/ml. After spraying the yeast on commercial feed, pellets were dried at room temperature for 2 h and then they Each diet was fed to triplicate tanks four time daily for a period of 60 days.

Results

In this experiment, no recognizable changes were observed in the spleen and head kidney in the control group. All the tissue sections obtained from the spleen of experimental fish fed with selenium enriched yeast have expansion of the splenic white pulp and lymphocyte frequency was significantly higher in fish given Se-yeast than control fish. The highest numbers of lymphocyte were observed in fish fed by 1x108 CFU/ml selenium enriched yeast.

Discussion and conclusion

The aim of this investigation was to study the histopathologic changes in the spleen and head of the kidney of rainbow trout after exposure to selenium enriched yeast. The primary function of the immune system is to protect the body against invasion by pathogenic organisms and the development of malignancies (Gill and Walker, 2008). In teleost fish, the immune organs consist of the spleen, pronephros and thymus (Bancroft,

2002). In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that the selenium enriched yeast had ameliorative effect on tissues, this maybe mediated by its potent antioxidant activities which had the ability to restore the membranal structure and function of the cell organelles. Any abnormality state were not observed in our study and administration of selenium enriched yeast for long period has no toxicity effect on the the histology of the spleen and pronephros of rainbow trout. also, lymphocyte frequency was significantly higher in fish given Selenium enriched yeast than control fish. In conclusion, the results of this current study suggest that, at the levels of Selenium used in this experiment, dietary Se has improved immune system. Se supplementation can increase significantly lymphocyte levels in immune tissues.

Reference

Bancroft, J.D. and M. Gamble. 2002. Theory and Practice of Histological and Histochemical Techniques. Butter Worths, 211-220.

Gill, H and Walker, G. 2008. Selenium, immune function and resistance to viral infections. Nutrition & Dietetics. 65: S41-S47.

Hamilton, S.J. 2004. Review of selenium toxicity in the aquatic food chain. Science of the Total Environment, 326: 1-31

Kucukbay, F.Z., Yalak, H., Karaca, I., Sahin, N., Tuzcu, M., Cakmak, M.N. 2009. The effect of dietary organic or inorganic selenium in arainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under crowding conditions, Aquaculture Nutrition, 15: 569-576.

Monteiro, D.A., Rantin, F.T., Kalinin, A.L. 2007. Use of selenium in matrinx feed, Brycon cephalus. Braz. J. Anim. Health Prod, 8: 32-47.

Rider, S.A., Davies, S.J., Jha, A.N., Fisher, A.A., Knight, J. & Sweetman, J.W. 2009. Supra-nutritional dietary intake of selenite and selenium yeast in normal and stressed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Implications on selenium status and health responses. Aquaculture, 295: 282-291.

Sahin, K., Kucuk, O. 2003. Heat stress and dietary vitamin supplementation of poultry diets. Nutr. Abst. Rev. Ser. B: Livestock Feeds Feed, 73: 41R-50R.

Santos, A., Sanchez, A., Marquina, D. 2004. Yeasts as biological agents to control Botrytis cinerea. Microbiol. Res, 159: 331-338.

Wang, Y., Han, J., Li, W., Xu, Z. 2007. Effect of different selenium source on growth performances, glutathione peroxidase activities, muscle composition and selenium concentration of allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Anim. Feed Sci. Tech, 134: 243-251.

Watanabe, T., Kiron, V., Satoh, S. 1997. Trace minerals in fish nutrition. Aquaculture,

151: 185-207.

Effect of Various Levels of Soy Protein Concentrate (HP300) Replacement in Diet of Atlantic salmon on Growth and Survival Rate

Sharareh Jahanbin1*, Corne van der Eijk 2

1 M.Sc. in Fisheries, Vet-R Teb Company, Tehran, Iran

2 Nutritionist, Hamlet Protein, Horsens, Denmark * E-mail: shararehj ahanbin @ yahoo.com)

Purpose

To compare the growth of salmon fed with 4 different types of feed containing 3 different amounts of "HP 300" soy protein concentrate as a substitute for Canadian fish meal and maize gluten meal.

Materials and method:

All 4 types of feed contained 18 - 28 % fish meal (69 % CP) and 14 -49 % maize gluten meal (60 % CP) as protein sources, however, 2 experimental groups were fed diets containing 20 and 40 % HP 300 (diet

3 and 4) which were replaced by part fish meal and maize gluten meal in the control diet (see table 1). All diets contained 19,5 MJ digestible energy (DE)/kg feed, 22 g digestible protein (DP)/MJ DE and 170 g fat/kg. The dietary levels of essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals were above the recommended levels of NRC (1993). Feed was mixed, steam-pelleted, air-dried and screened prior to feeding. Fish were offered, manually, 3 - 5 meals a day during 09 - 16h, depending on age. Each meal was carefully fed near satiety as long as the fish continued feeding actively. Mortality was checked daily, feed intake weekly and live weight gain every 4 weeks.

Young Atlantic salmon (6 g/fish) were acclimatized in the laboratory for 3 weeks and randomly distributed into 12 tanks (60 1, aquablue fiberglass). The experiment was conducted for 4 periods x 4 weeks. The aquatic system was a flow-through at approx. 2 exchanges per hour and water temperature was maintained at 15 o C± 0,5 constant by injecting

hot water into the incoming water pipeline. Dissolved oxygen was kept above 7,5 mg/l by directly aerating in individual tanks, total ammonia-N below 0,5 mg/l and pH around 7,6. 12 hours lighting was provided with cool-white fluorescent light in a windowless basement laboratory.

Table 1. Diet composition

 

 

 

Control

Experiments

Diet

 

1

2

3

4

HP 300

%

0

0

20

40

Fish meal

%

28

18

18

18

Maize gluten meal

%

38

49

32

14

Dried brewer's yeast

%

6

6

6

6

Dried whey

%

11

11

8

6

Fish oil

%

14

14

14

14

Vitamin / mineral

%

2

2

2

2

Results

Table 2. Feed intake, live weight gain, and feed efficiency for the four diets

 

 

| Control

| Experimental

SEM

HSD

Diet

 

1

2

3

4

 

 

Feed intake

kg/100 fish

1,784 a

1,819 a

1,799 a

1,822 ab

0,020

0,091

Live weight gain

kg/100 fish

1,649 a

1,824 b

1,982 c

1,920 bc

0,032

0,144

Feed efficiency

gain/feed

0,924 a

1,003 ab

1,102 c

1,054 bc

0,018

0,079

SEM = standard error of mean (df = 8).

HSD = Tukey's honestly significant difference (p < 0,05).

Within the same row values not sharing a common superscript are significantly different.

The feed intakes were similar for all treatments, but weight gain and feed efficiency were significantly improved with supplementation of HP

300, particularly at a 20 % level.

Mortalities were low and ranged 1 - 3 dead per tank of 70 fish for a 16 week period. Partial replacement of fish meal with plant proteins, HP 300 and maize gluten meal increased the weight gain, highest with the group fed 20 % HP 300. Feed efficiencies were also improved.

There are several reports indicating that soya proteins can replace a large portion of fish meal in diets for Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout without reducing weight gain and feed efficiency. It appears that in this study HP 300 provided a higher level of the essential lysine to balance high methionine level in maize gluten meal which improved growth and feed utilization in Atlantic salmon. It may be possible to maintain the same performance while including HP 300 higher than 20 %, but less than 40 %. It was also noticed that pellet quality of HP 300 diets was improved. This has a practical significance for extrusion of salmonid diets.

References

AACC (American Association of Cereal Chemists), 1995. Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists, 9th edn. AACC, St. Paul, MN, USA.

Grisdale-Helland, B., Helland,  S.J.,1995. Methods to assess optimal nutrient composition of diets for Atlantic salmon. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 11, 359-362.

NRC, 1993. Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academic Press, Washington, DC.

Olli, J.J., Krogdahl, A., van den Ingh, T.S.G.A.M., Brattas, L.E., 1994a. Nutritive value of four soybean products in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Acta

Agric. Scand. A 44, 50-60.

Abstracts

Growth and survival rates of different Artemia populations from Turkey and Iran under identical culture conditions

R. Abdilzadeh1*, A.Eskandari2, R.Manaffar3, A. Mohammadyari4, S. Zaree5, S. Ebrahimi6, Y. Saygi7

1* Artemia & Aquatic Animals Research Institute, Urmia, Iran, Email: Danesh1026@yahoo.com,

Urmia-57135-165: Artemia & Aquatic Animals Research Institute 2,7 Biology Department, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey

3 Artemia & Aquatic Animals Research Institute, Urmia, Iran

4 Biology Department, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran

5 Biology Department, Urmia University, Iran

6 Biology Department, Payam noor University, Iran

Abstract

Brine shrimp, Artemia, is a small crustacean living in salt lakes, coastal lagoons and salt production plants. Several bisexual and parthenogenetic Artemia populations have been identified worldwide. However, not much is known about the differences in the life characteristics among Artemia populations under culture conditions. In this study, growth and survival rates of 6 and 4 parthenogenetic Artemia populations, respectively from Turkey and Iran, and one bisexual Artemia from Iran have been compared under similar culture conditions. The Artemia were cultured at salinity of 80 g/l and fed with a mixture of the alga, Dunaliella tertiolecta and fatty acid-enriched yeast for 15 days. Survival and total length of the Artemia were measured on days 3,7,11 and 15 of culture. Maximum (82%) and minimum (51%) survival were for Zanbil and Camalti, while maximum (8.93±1.61mm) and minimum (6.8±0.95mm) growth rates were for A. urmiana and Qom. However, there were no significant differences in survival among the studies Artemia populations (p<0.05). But there were significant differences in growth rate.

Keywords: Artemia, Turkey, Iran, survival, growth

Artemia urmiana Gunther, 1900 (Anostraca): historical biogeography, its possible future in Lake Urmia, and perspectives for aquaculture

E. V. Anufriieva, N. V. Shadrin

Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Sevastopol, Ukraine; E-mail: lena anufriieva @ mail.ru

Abstract

During more than 100 yeas A. urmiana was considered as an endemic of Urmia Lake. However A. urmiana was recently found in the Crimean (Ukraine) and Altai (Russia) (Shadrin et al., 2012). Also new data press to suggest that Urmia Lake was not an area of A. urmiana origin (Manaffar et al., 2011). Current changes of Urmia Lake and negative consequences of that attract a public attention. And it is good that people from the different sectors think about environmental problems. Discussing the problems of Urmia Lake some bodies speak and write about risks of full extinction of A. urmiana (Golabian, 2009; Pengra, 2012). A goal of our communication is to make some conclusion on A. urmiana future in Urmia Lake and world wide through summarizing of available data.

The origin of species A. urmiana is an intriguing question. Consider the known facts which indicate that Urmia Lake can not be the place of origin of this species (Manaffar et al., 2011): A. urmiana are considered to have branched ~ 11 million years ago, whereas the time frame for the formation of Urmia Lake is estimated to be 800-400 ka. Questions arise: Where did this species originally appear? When was it brought into Urmia Lake? The results of paleogenetic analysis of Artemia DNA recovered from Urmia sediment cores show that the cysts represent only a parthenogenetic type of Artemia from around 5,000 years ago (Manaffar et al., 2011). Consequently, A. urmiana were geologically recently introduced into Urmia Lake by birds. It was assumed that the

Crimea was an area of origin of A. urmiana (Shadrin et al., 2012). Consider the arguments in favor of this assumption. Certainly, it could not appear in modern hypersaline lakes of Crimea, where it was currently detected. Since the age of these lakes are only about 1.5-3 thousand years. However near the modern hypersaline Koyashskoye Lake, as well as near several other lakes, which we studied, there are deposits of more ancient salt lakes. Near the Koyashskoe Lake, as well as near several other hypersaline lakes in Crimea, we found stromatolites and oncolites, which indicate the presence of hypersaline lagoons/lakes here and in the Miocene. The Miocene (23.03 to 5.332 Ma) was the time of A. urmiana origin. We can imagine a temporary relay race, in which cysts are passed like as a baton from one hypersaline lake in the Crimea to another lake, which is younger. The Crimean peninsula is probably one of the centers of Artemia biodiversity formation; origin of A. urmiana - its separation from the common ancestor of A. salina and A. urmiana/A. franciscana -occurred in hypersaline paleolakes/lagoons of Parathetys in the Crimea and/or surrounding territories. The Crimea is located at the crossroad of the Mediterranean Basin and the different parts of the Paratethys. According to current geological data, Crimea is a remnant of the paleoisland arc in the Tethys that existed in the Mesozoic. It should be noted the Black Sea level rise (about 7 thousand years ago) - due to the waters from the Mediterranean Sea breaching a sill in the Bosporus Strait ~ 5600 BC - which flooded vast tracts of land, and today this land lays under Karkinitsky Bay (Black Sea) and the Sea of Azov. The Crimea is a remnant of the submerged land in the hypersaline water bodies of which, according to our hypothesis, there was the A. urmiana formation in the Miocene. A. urmiana cysts were transported by birds to the east and north and gave rise to the formation of all Asian Artemia species and populations.

Urmia Lake, the Crimean Peninsula, and Altai are in the same migration corridor of many bird species. It is shown that the most likely carriers of viable Artemia cysts between the Crimea and Urmia Lake are the following bird species Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), Redshank (Tringa totanus) and Pied Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta) (Khomenko,

Shadrin, 2009.). The same or other species of birds have carried out the transportation of cysts A. urmiana in Urmia Lake, and then - in lakes of the Altai. Migration of birds is the main vector of the spread and maintenance of the gene exchange flows between distant Artemia populations, which distribute spotty. The Pleistocene is the epoch from 2,588,000 to 11,700 years BP that spans the world's recent period of repeated glaciations. Repeated glaciations drastically narrowed the areas for the possible existence of A. urmiana, but not in the Crimea. The last Ice Age ended about 11-14 Ka that was due to warming and increased aridity of the climate, which led to the emergence of new regional distribution of salt lakes - the potential habitats of brine shrimp. A phase of intensive settlement of A. urmiana started (cyst dispersion by birds and wind). After the last ice age, most likely, from the region of Crimea and surrounding areas A. urmiana had been put in Urmia Lake (no more than 5 thousand years ago) and the Altai Lake (when?).

Data of historical biogeography of A. urmiana give us possibility to think that there are no risks for A. urmiana from current climate change and salinization of the lakes - Artemia habitats. Due to climate warming suitable for Artemia water bodies will be more during nearest future worldwide including Iran. Look at the problem from another side. As shown that Artemia well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. It has the best mechanisms of osmoregulation, two modes of reproduction, very resistant cysts and other mechanisms on different levels of organization, which give its populations possibility to survive in highest and variable salinities (Gajardo, Beardmore, 2012). Artemia nauplius and adults can survive under salinity to 300-350%c, and A. urmiana probably demonstrates highest halotolerance among Artemia species (Agh et al., 2008; KarbassiC:\D D°D+D%NtD.D1

N N.D%D»\iran\D>DuD^D°\i.iglr.2010.06.htm - aff1 et al., 2010; our data). These data also support above conclusion that there are no risks for A. urmiana from current climate change.

Salinization of Urmia Lake leads to decreasing of density and productivity of A. urmiana in the lake, and it is a risk for aquaculture

development in Iran. Harvest of Artemia cysts in Urmia Lake will decrease very much in nearest future. It can generate a problem of lack of live food for larviculture. That's why we need to develop technologies of Artemia mass cultivation.

Constructing separated small lagoons and ponds with regulation of salinity people can create new habitats for Artemia. Artemia productivity in that lagoons and ponds can be quite high. Some part of these new water bodies can act as the new feeding places for bird. Another part of these water bodies can be used for effective commercial production of Artemia cyst and biomass.

References

Agh, N.G., Van Stappen P., Bossier H., Seperhri V., Lotfi S.M., Rouhani R., Sorgelous P. 2008 Effects of salinity on survival, growth, reproduction and life span characteristics of Artemia populations from Urmia Lake neighboring lagoons // Pakistan J. Biolog. Sci., V. 11 (2), p.164-172.

Caudell J. N., Conover M. R. 2006. Behavioral and physiological responses of eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) to variation in brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) densities //Western North American Naturalist, V. 66 (1), pp. 12-22.

Gajardo G. M., Beardmore J. A. 2012. The Brine Shrimp Artemia: Adapted to Critical Life Conditions // Frontiers in Physiol., V. 3: 185; doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00185

Golabian H. 2009. Volumetric and hydro-ecological stabilization and permanence of Urmia Lake//Artemia 2009. Proc. Intern. Symp./Workshop on Biology and distribution of Artemia, Dec. 13­14, 2009, Urmia-Iran. P. 3-9.

Khomenko S.V. and Shadrin N.V. 2009. Iranian endemic Artemia urmiana in hypersaline Lake Koyashskoe (Crimea, Ukraine): a preliminary discussion of introduction by birds. Branta. Transaction of Azov-Black Sea ornithological station 12, 81-91 (in Russian).

Manaffar R., Zare S., Agh N., Siyabgodsi A., Soltanian S., Mees F., Sorgeloos P., Bossier P., Van Stappen G. 2011. Sediment cores from Lake Urmia (Iran) suggest the inhabitation by parthenogenetic Artemia around 5.000 years ago // Hydrobiologia, V. 671. № 1. P.

65-74.

Pengra B. 2012.The drying of Iran's Lake Urmia and its environmental consequences // UNEP Global Environmental Alert Service. February 2012. http://www.unep.org/pdf/GEAS Feb2012.pdf

Shadrin N., Anufriieva E., Galagovets E. 2012. Distribution and historical biogeography of Artemia leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Anostraca) in Ukraine // Intern. J. Artemia Biology, Vol 2, No 2,

No 2: 30-42

Colepods as live prey in larval nutrition: application and future prospective

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