Автор неизвестен - Krmulture in iran - страница 52
Behnaz Asadi Moghaddam1*, Mohammad Ali Nematollahi1
department of Fisheries, University of Tehran, Iran * b.assadi.m@.ut.ac.ir
Although aquaculture has become an increasingly important part of the world economy in recent decades, it is still facing problems of low survival rates and difficulties with metamorphosis in larval stages. Thus finding suitable live food alternatives has become a serious challenge in larviculture. Planktonic animals, especially rotifers, cladocerans, and copepods of the order Cyclopoida are the most important food items in aquaculture, and copepod nauplii are especially valuable for feeding fry. Copepods are major naturally occurring marine metazooplanktons and also the very important mediate link from primary producers to fish production in marine food webs. Higher nutritional value than Artemia, high levels of the essential highly unsaturated fatty acids plus superior quality and quantity of digestive enzymes are some of the most valuable advantages of using copepods as live prey. This short review highlights history of application and some advances of copepods as live prey for first-feeding of fish larvae, in an attempt to overcome some of the above-described problems.
Key words: copepod, fist-feeding, larviculture
Survey of changes in some pancreatic enzymes activity (trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase) of beluga (Huso huso) during larval ontogeny
Reza Asgari1*, Gholamreza Rafiee 1, Soheil Eagderi1, Farzaneh Noori2, Hadi Pourbagher1, Naser Agh2
1 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, P. O. Box: 31585 -4314, Karaj, Iran
2 Artemia and Aquatic Animal Institute, University of Uromieh, P. O. Box: 57153 -165, Uromieh, Iran
* Corresponding author: Reza Asgari :firstname.lastname@example.org
The development of panceratic enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, Lipase and amylase) were studied in Beluga (Huso huso) from hatching time till 50th day post hatching. Larvae for this study were maintained from Shahid Marjani Sturgeon rearing center- Gorgan province, Iran. Sampling was carried out immediately after hatching, 7, 14, 19, 24, 28, 35, 42 and 50 days post hatching (dph). The results showed that at the onset of exogenous feeding, trypsin and chymotrypsin decreased their specific activity after the onset of exogenous feeding, showing the importance of these types of enzymes in the cleavage of yolk proteins during the endogenous feeding phase. Furthermore, amylase enzyme activity increased immediately after the start of an exogenous feeding and then after 24 dph upward suddenly dropped this indicates that the development of pancreatic function in beluga larvae. The results obtained from this study showed that larvae of beluga in onset of exogenous feeding had an advanced digestive system to accept exogenous food and digest the formulated pellet feed.
Keywords: Beluga (Huso huso) - Trypsin- Chymotrypsin- Amylase-Larval ontogeny
Microbes as Positive Actors for More Sustainable Aquaculture
Affiliation: Lab Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center
Department Animal Production
Fac Bioscience Engineering
9000 Gent, Belgium
Due to large-scale use of antibiotics, many pathogenic bacteria have acquired (multiple) resistance, which render antibiotic treatments ineffective. Therefore, alternative treatments to control aquaculture disease are urgently needed (Defoirdt et al., 2011). In general terms either the overall robustness of the host can be increased or intestinal microbial numbers or activity can be manipulated. The presentation deals with two techniques to manipulate micobial numbers or activity. The disruption of quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been suggested as an alternative strategy to control infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquaculture (Defoirdt et al., 2004). Quorum sensing has been shown to regulate virulence expression in many bacteria in vitro (i.e. in bacteria grown in synthetic growth media). However, microbiologists are becoming more and more aware of the fact that bacteria behave differently in different environments (Virgin, 2007). Hence, the question that arises is whether and how quorum sensing regulates virulence of pathogens where it really matters: in vivoduring infection of a host. We found that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae (Defoirdt et al., 2005) and rotifers (Tinh et al., 2007). Very recently, we developed a method to monitor bacterial gene expression in vivo, during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp. Using this method, we found that there is a significant difference in the expression of quorum sensing-regulated virulence genes between
virulent and non-virulent isolates (Ruwandeepika et al., 2010). Finally, we found that quorum sensing also affects survival of burbot challenged to Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida (Natrah et al., unpublished).
The most important quorum sensing-disrupting agents reported thus far include compounds that interfere with quorum sensing signal detection and signal transduction, and signal molecule-degrading bacteria. We found that signal molecule-degrading bacteria isolated from aquaculture settings have a positive effect on survival of turbot and giant river prawn larvae cultured in non-gnotobiotic conditions (Tinh et al., 2008; Nhan et al., 2010). We are currently also studying the impact of metabolites produced by micro-algae that are frequently used in aquaculture on quorum sensing activity of Gram-negative bacteria (Natrah et al., 2011).
Poly-P-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a bacterial energy and carbon storage compound which exhibits a controlling effect on microbiota associated with aquaculture species. By means of PHB it was for example possible to control pathogenic activity in gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Halet et al., 2007) and to decrease the number of Vibrios associated with the larval culture of giant freshwater prawn (Dinh et al<;, 2010), resulting in higher survival of the trial animals. However, the influence of PHB on the intestinal microbial community as a whole has not yet been studied in depth. Indeed, the question remains if PHB allows managing the intestinal microbial community as a whole and if this can result in advantages to the host. Therefore, the effects of PHB on the microbiota composition in the intestinal tract of juvenile sea bass were examined by means of PCR-DGGE. It was found that juvenile sea bass cohabiting in the same tank were on average 87% similar regarding the intestinal microbiota. When subjected to the same treatment and environmental conditions but reared in different tanks, the compositions of the enteric communities diverged. The provision of PHB overruled this tank effect by sustaining a microbial core community in the gut that represented 60% of the total bacterial diversity at the highest PHB level of 10% (De Schryver et al., 2011).
In conclusion, the data we obtained thus far indicate that quorum sensing disruption and PHD feeding are valid alternative biocontrol strategies for aquaculture.
A Histochemical study of the development of the digestive tract of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) from hatching to fingerling
M. Batebi Navai1; B. Mojazi Amiri1; R.M. Nazari; M.A. Nematolahi1; M. Karaminasab1
1 Department of Fisheries Sciences. University of Tehran. P.O.BOX:31585-4314, Karaj, Iran
2 Shahid Rajaee Sturgeon Hatchery Center, Sari, P.O. Box 833, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran E-mail: M_karaminasab@yahoo.com
In this study, histochemical development of the digestive tract of Persian sturgeon during early life stages - from one-day-old to thirty-five-days-old (the time of fingerling) - was carried out using light microscopy. In newly hatched larvae the digestive tract is like a direct and undifferentiated tube that is stretched from the mouth to the anus. In Seven days after hatching larva, the alimentary canal became more differentiated and secretion started, with the appearance of goblet cells in the epithelium of the mouth, pharynx and esophagus. At this stage, a thin layer of neutral mucopolysaccharid components covered the digestive tract's epithelium surface. With the starting of exogenous feeding (9 days after hatching), the digestive tract became differentiated into mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach (glandular and non-glandular), primary, middle and posterior intestine, similar to those of adults. Protein components were seen particularly in the esophagus and gastric mucosal folds that disappeared with the increase of enzymatic activity of the stomach and intestine. In the intestine, in addition to starting exogenous feeding, goblet cells were surfaced in the middle part and especially posterior part and the secretory function of these cells began, and increased with the increasing of age. The results of this study indicate that ontogenetic development of the digestive tract of Persian sturgeon is similar to other Acipenserid species. Although differences during
differentiation of some of the structures of the digestive system such as the differentiation of taste buds in the mouth were seen, traces of the mouth and esophagus could be seen that can be effective at the start of external feeding time.
Epigenetic and it's importants in aquatic animals
Hamed Danesh fozoun1, Faraz Panjvini 2, Fatemeh Ghorbani 3
1 BSc student of University of Tehran, Iran, Karaj
2 MSc student of Persian gulf university, Iran, Bushehr 3Msc student of Isfahan university, Iran, Isfahan
Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in biology.On a molecular level, covalent modifications of cytosine bases and histones, and changes in the positioning of nucleosomes are commonly regarded as the driving epigenetic mechanisms. They are fundamental to the regulation of many cellular processes, including gene and microRNA expression, DNA-protein interactions, suppression of transposable element mobility, cellular differentiation, embryogenesis, X-chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting. Genomic imprinting, is an epigenetic gene-marking phenomenon that occurs in the germline, leads to parental-origin-specific expression of a small subset of genes in mammals and oviparus. The epigenetic imprints regarding the parental origin are established during male and female gametogenesis, passed to the zygote through fertilization, maintained throughout development and adult life, and erased in primordial germ cells before the new imprints are set. During embryonic development, epigenetic modifcations of DNA occur through various processes (e.g. DNA methylation and histone acetylation) and are assumed to facilitate differentiation into specific cell types. An epigenetic alteration can be defined as a mitotically and/or meiotically heritable change in the function of a gene without alterations in the gene sequence. Genes that are to be silenced from one of the parental alleles (i.e. expressed by only one allele) become methylated during the embryonic development in a process called imprinting. There is only limited evidence of genomic imprinting in oviparous species, such as fish. However, DNA methylation reprogramming was observed during the early embryonic development of zebrafissh (Danio rerio) in a recent study using an "anti-5-methylcytosine" antibody in immunohistochemistry and southwestern immunoblotting (MacKay et al.,
2007). This reprogramming of DNA methylation found in zebrafish is similar to the reprogramming during mammalian development. Vitellogenesis is the production of yolky eggs in oviparous species, and involves transport of gene products from the liver to the ovary where proteins are deposited in the maturing oocytes. Stromqvist et al., 2010 shows that exposure to EE2 results in an alteration of DNA methylation levels in zebrafish which warrants studies of epigenetic changes in fish toxicological studies. They have for the first time shown sex and tissue differences in the level of DNA methylation in adult zebrafish in a franking region of the vitellogenin I gene. Further, following exposure to 100 ng EE2/L during 14 days the DNA methylation levels they decreased in liver of both females and males. The results of them demonstrate the usefulness of the zebrafish as amodel organism for studying epigenetic processes and possible epigenetic alterations following exposure to chemicals. In zebrafish modulation of parental abiotic environment and nutrition confers increased resistance to the environmental stressor and alterations in cardiovascular arameters (stroke volume, heart rate, cardiac output and red blood cell concentration) to the subsequent generation. Pyrosequencing technology represents a tool to determinemethylation levels of multiple CpG sitesin specific genes of interest and shows that its applicability to investigate pollutant-induced alterations of methylation levels in fish. Genetic and epigenetic interactions between redundant genes in polyploid fish have probably infiuenced their evolutionary fate, leading to their current impressive biological diversity. Spontaneous polyploids have been observed in several phylogenetically distant orders, including both wild and farmed fish species. In the vertebrates, polyploid species are not exclusive to fish, since they have been reported in different groups, from amphibians to occasionally even in mammals. Polyploids can originate either from alterations of meiotic or mitotic processes in specimens within a species (autopolyploidy) or by reproductive contact among species (allopolyploidy). Regulatory changes in gene expression following tetraploidisation may result in epigenetic instability, because they are more likely to be deleterious than advantageous. The genetic sources of variation can be associated with the presence of the extra maternal set of chromosomes and can involve simple gene dosage (additivity) between chromosome sets or positive or
negative dosage compensation effects (heterosis), epigenetic mechanisms, and transcriptional co-suppression (negative gene dosage compensation). Studies on gene dosage compensation in the allotriploid endemic Iberian minnow showed that the allelic expression patterns differ between genes and between different tissues. Thus, it appears that in triploids rather than a whole haploid chromosome set (haplome) being silenced, regulatory mechanisms involve selective individual gene-copy silencing. Feng et al., 2011 expressed that The live cell clusters are located at the base of the antennules and antenna, as well as the cephalic lobe, implying an epigenetic mechanism of germ cell specification in Fenneropenaeus chinensis. These cells migrate to a dorsolateral position in naupliar and zoeal stages, and gradually enter the genital ridge at the mysis 1 stage. they findings show that the developmental expression pattern of "Fc-vasa-like" is different from that of other Crustaceans, and suggest an epigenetic mechanism of germ cell development in Chinese shrimp. The epigenetic mode, in which germ cell was conditionally specifed anddepended on inductive signals amongst embryonic cells at later embryonic stages, has been reported in the M. musculus (McLaren,2003; Saga, 2008), Stronglocentrotus purpuratus (Juliano et al., 2006;Voronina et al., 2008), Blatta germanica (reviewed by Extavour and Akam, 2003), Platynereis dumerilii (Rebscher et al., 2007), and Mnemiopsis leidyi (reviewed by Extavour and Akam, 2003). The expression pattern of "Fc-vasa-like", and the origin and migratory characteristics of germ cell suggest that the specification of germcell in F. chinensismay begin at the limb bud stage and display an epigenetic mode. Characteristics of the origin and migration of the germcell suggest that the specification of the germcell of F. chinensis is epigenetically induced, which is different from those reported for other Crustaceans.
Key words: Epigenetics, Imprinting, CpGIslands, Histone Modification, Nucleosome Positioning, fish, Crustacean
Effects of Immunostimulants and Vaccination in Control of Vibriosis in Shrimp larvae Litopenaeus
Dashtian Nasab A1*.,M.mehrabi2, V.Yeganeh3,B.Ghaednia,M.Mirbakhsh4
1'3'4'5 Iran Shrimp Research Center,Bushehr,Iran, P.O.Box:1374,
Email: adashtiannasab@ gmail.com 2 Iranian Fisheries Research Orgamzation'TehranJran' P.O.Box:14155-6116
Effects of a complementary feedstuff extract from see weeds (Laminaria digitata and Ascophylum nodosum) that containing 1% alginic acids as shrimps stimulating of immune system and a commercial vaccine containing of five strains of vibrio spp. (V. anguillaruml, 2, V. parahemolyticus, V. harvey, V. vulnificus) as multi vaccine that was inactivated with formalin in control of Vibrio harvei(vibriosis) was used(by Artemia enrichment).The test shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei in larvae stage(Z1-PL1 ) fed by complementary feedstuff and post larvae stage (PL1-PL10) exposed in vaccine and fed by complementary feedstuff and juvenile (from 30th day to 40th day) as booster dose exposed in vaccine and fed by complementary feedstuff comprised control group. The other condition in test and control group was the same. Both groups after 40 days exposed in 109 of Vibrio harvei suspension for 10 minute. The clinical signs and mortality recorded during 10 days. The results showed the survival rate of test group that they use of complementary feedstuff and vaccine was higher than the control group and it was significant (p<0/05). The result also show the number of V.harvei colonies in hemolymph of test groups after 24 hours and 48 hours of exposing in bacterial suspension was less than control groups.Results show that complementary feedstuff containing alginic acid and vaccine can control sever mortality of vibriosis when stress occurred in shrimp farms.
Key words: Immunostimulant , Vaccination, Litopenaeus vannamei, Control, Vibriosis.
Effects of Immunostimulants and Vaccination on survival and growth In Shrimp larvae
Dashtian Nasab A1.,E. Keshtkar2, M.A.Nazari3, V. Yeganeh4
1' 2' 3' 4 Iran Shrimp Research Center, Bushehr, Iran, P.O.Box:1374, Email: adashtiannasab@ gmail.com
Effects of a complementary feedstuff extract from see weeds (Laminaria digitata and Ascophylum nodosum) that containing 1% alginic acids as shrimps stimulating of immune system and a commercial vaccine containing of five strains of vibrio spp. (V.anguillarum1,2,V.parahemolyticus,V.harvey,V.vulnificus ) as multi vaccine that was inactivated with formalin in in shrimp hatchery was used(by Artemia enrichment).The experiment was carried out in four groups: control (feed by Chatocerus and Tetraselmis algae and Artemia fransiscana),second group was feed the same diet plus seeweeds Immunostimulate, the third group was feed the same diet plus vaccine, and 4th group was feed the same diet plus Immunostimulte and vaccine. The test shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei in larvae stage(Z1-PL1 ) fed by complementary feedstuff and post larvae stage (PL1-PL10) exposed in vaccine and fed by complementary feedstuff .Results showed the survival rate of 4th group that they use of complementary feedstuff and vaccine together was higher than the control and other groups and it was significant (p<0/05). Growth factors was significantly (p<0/05) highest in 2nd group in compare the other groups. Results showed that complementary feedstuff from seeweeds and vaccine is usefull for shrimp hatcheries.
Keywords: Immunostimulant, Vaccination, Litopenaeus vannamei, survivsl, growth.
Effects of See weeds in control of White spot disease (WSD) in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
Dashtian Nasab A1*., M.Afsharnasab2, M.R.Mehrabi3, V.Yeganeh
13'4 Iran Shrimp Research Center,Bushehr,Iran, P.O.Box: 1374 Email: adashtiannasab@ gmail.com
2 Iranian Fisheries Research Organization, Tehran, Iran, P.O.Box:14155-6116 Abstract
Complementary feedstuff extract from Laminaria digitata and Ascophylum nodosum that containing 1% alginic acids as shrimps stimulating of immune system for control of WSSV is used in this study.The test shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei in larvae stage(Z1-PL1)' post larvae stage (PL1-PL10) and juvenile (from 30th day to 40th day) fed by complementary feedstuff comprised control group. The other condition in test and control group was the same. Both groups after 40 days exposed to wssv by oral inoculation. The clinical sign and mortality recorded during 10 days. The results showed the survival rate of test group that they use of complementary feedstuff was higher than the control group and it was significant (p<0/05). The result also showed the mortality observed in test group that they use of complementary feedstuff 48 hours later than the control group. This study can led us to new methods for control of White spot disease of shrimp.
Keywords: Seeweed, Ascophylum nodossum, Laminaria digitata, Litopenaeus vannamei, Control, White spot disease.
Intensive production of Artemia biomass in concrete pools with low food cost
Addres: Gorgan - shahid beheshti street - management of caviar fishes of fairs of golestan province - postal (zip) code: 85899-49166 - Tel: 0171-2241124 - Fax: 01712239600- Mobile no.: 09113756369 - Email: email@example.com
Artemia Is known as a valuable food source for feeding fish larvae and shellfishes in production centers that is harvested directly and indirectly from natural environment and soil pools. The world's need to cyst is 3000 tons which is increased by 20% per year. Each year about 150 tons of cist is being imported and 50 million dollars of money is exported. This is when the amount of cist sources in Uremia Lake is reduced from 400 cists to 10 in each liter per year. According to the problems regarding the reduction of natural resources under periodic harvesting in direct different seasons and years, nowadays researcher's effort to production of cist. Countries like United States, China and Brazil are the greatest cist producers in the world. According to the problems mentioned above, in years 2002 to 2003 for the first time in the world the project of ((Creating Artemia full life cycle (cist- nopleus and instaz to t adult artemia and vice versa) in concrete pools was programmed)). According to the project's results, we attended to producing massive and compacted cist's biomass and adult artemia. In the next session with the available facilities in Anahita of Golestan production center, after refilling the pools with water which were later exacted, regarding their fertility by injecting special food formula (algae concentrate and minerals) physical and chemical factors like the amount of ppt and saltiness were controlled. The Special formula which is injected into the pools is consumed by Artemia directly and indirectly during the raising process. The saltiness of water was changeable by using common salt stones from 15 ppt since the start of
adaptation to 32 ppt. With injection of food combinations the water's pH ratio was determined rang of 8 to 8/5, but at the moment of increasing the acidic place's biomass that we could change by Bicarbonate and increasing water, so we can change ph to the needed level. According to the uncovered pools, the temperature factor was dependent to environments' temperature and was changeable from 5 degrees in the winter to 35 degree in the summer. I shall remind that at the time of adaptation in spring the temperature is determined at 17 degrees. According to the existing resources of cist and biomass from the last project, after the preparation of pools, in different situations regarding the release of biomass artemia which includes different situations (Cist -Adult artemia - Nopleus and instar in different situations) was presented. By creating different shocks regarding the saltiness, Oxygen, Temperature and depending on the kind of need about forcing the pools to produce the needed biomass (Cist and live Artemia) for harvesting biomass artemia from story leveled nets with different ponds (biggest at top and smaller ones at lower levels) is used in a way that by washing the total harvested cist we got to the needed biomass. The maximum harvestable biomass was 4 kg per each cubic meter in a week in normal situations, and this number can be increased to 20 kg per month by setting exact amount of saltiness, pH, oxygen. The produced cists in this project have a high percentage of pureness and quality and don't need any purifying. The results of this project can solve our researcher's and producer's problems about having low food cost by independency in producing artemia and preventing form production of polluted cists. s reminiscent of the results of this project in 2008 was used for dense development projects.
Tags: Artemia - cist- Concrete pools - Compacted - Creating Artemia full life cycle
Elder expert in charge of harvesting marine products in golestan province management of caviar fishes affairs.
Comparison of Carcass Quality of Two Cyprinid Fish, Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio and Kawar, Squalius lepidus
Salar Dorafshan, Samira Moslehi and Fatemeh Paykan Heyrati
Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 8415683111, Iran, sdorafshan@ cc.iut.ac.ir
General characteristics of carcass quality including total ash, protein and lipid of dry weight of two cyprinid fish, common carp, Cyprinus carpio and Kawar, Squalius lepidus was investigated using standard methods on 10 two years old fish from each species, mean weight 45.4 ± 4.3 g and 21.6 ± 3.5 g of common carp and Kawar respectively. The results showed that common carp had higher amount of protein (50.16 ± 2.1 % of dry weight) as well as ash (18.03 ± 0.71 % of dry weight) in comparison of Kawar which showed 40.5 ± 3.2 % and 12.4 ± 0.71% total protein and ash respectively (p<0.05). While the value of total lipid of both species, common carp (20.44 ± 1.19%) and Kawar (22.6 ± 3.08%) did not showed any significant differences (p>0.05). In general, the results of this study, showed similarity between some common carcass quality between two cyprinid fish, common carp as cultivated species and Kawar as a wild species in the Zayandehrood river, Isfahan, Iran.
Keywords: Common carp, Cyprinus carpio, Kawar, Squalius lepidus, Carcass quality.
Growth, survival and color of Flower horn fish larvae fed with Artemia and artificial food
Mohammad Hassan Elahi & Assoc. Prof. Dr. Che Roos Saad Abstract
Four treatment diets was used for Flower horn fish larvae, namely Diet 1(Commercial Pellet) Diet 2 (formulated artificial diet), such as fish and shrimp meal 50% skimmed milk, soybean, heart cow, wheat powder, vitamin premix 50%, Diet 3 (nauplii) and Diet 4 (decapsulate of Artemia). In Puchong farm of Universiti Putra Malaysia each treatment was replicated three times. The fish larvae were divided randomly in twelve aquarium tanks (30x20x30) stocked with 60 Flower horn larvae and fed four times daily (8.00, 11.00, 14.00 and 17.00h). The crude protein content in pellet was 45.34%, artificial diet 43.21%, Nauplii 54.13% and decapsulate of Artemia 56.27%. After 8 weeks, the average weight gain of fish fed with diets 1 to 4 was: 2.17, 1.92, 2.96, and 3.41 gr, respectively. The survival percentage of fish fed diet 1 to 4 was 75.21%, 71.11%, 83.88%, 85.55%. The redness of color fish fed diet 1 to 4 was measured 5.24, 1.58, 2.33, and 4.11, respectively. The weight, length and survival between artificial foods, decapsulate and nauplii were significantly different (P<0.05). However, there was not any significant difference between micro pellet and artificial food as well as between decapsulate and nauplii of Artemia. After 8 weeks feed conversion ratio (FCR) ,specific growth ratio (SGR) of fish fed diets 1 to 4 were significant among different diets (P<0.05). The colors of fish use with decapsulate value and pellet food were significantly (p<0.05) higher than two other foods. In addition, fish fed decapsulate of Artemia was higher the growth, survival and coloration of flower horn fish.
Developing a novel canola protein concentrate with unique specifications at an international level through biotechnological approaches
Mehrdad Farhangi, Omid Safari, Chris Carter, Bagher Yakhochali, Parvin shawrang and Sunghul Charles bai,
A novel canola protein concentrate (NCPC) was developed as part of a new research program using biotechnological techniques. This project was successfully conducted via a fund provided by the Iran National Science Foundation. Six Iranian and three international research centers (Australia, UK and South Korea) successfully collaborated. Using a unique biotechnological approach model the protein content of canola meal was significantly increased whereas the concentration of some antinutritional factors (ANFs) including phytic acid and glucosinolates were significantly decreased. The main limitation of the plant protein concentrates that have been produced so far is the concurrent concentrating of ANFs with increased crude protein content. The main advantage of the current technique is reducing the level of some ANFs that are the primary limiting factors in poultry and fish nutrition. The research employed a mixed model of physical, chemical and biotechnological processing methods to increase the crude protein content of NCPC (based on dry matter) up to approximately 87%. This compares to a maximum reported 72% crude protein content of canola protein concentrate so far developed using the current common methods. The Essential Amino Acid Index (EAAI) of NCPC was significantly higher than other similar products and it could be considered as an appropriate alternative feed to fish meal. NCPC has been used effectively at up to 30% in rainbow trout feeds with excellent results. Due to the current limitations in terms of the availability of fish meal, production of this concentrate could be a good answer to the increasing demand of aquaculture industry to fish meal at an international level. NCPC
provides an exciting new protein source for aquafeed industry and help to address the critical issues of fish meal replacement. In addition NCPC could be used in poultry industry and convince canola farmers to expand their production due to earning higher income. Using an optimization process, the commercial production of this product would be possible at large scale.
Characterization and applications of bacterial S- layer proteins and evaluation of this layer as an effective vaccine candidate in fish Larviculture
Fattahi, F.1*, Mirvaghefi, A.1
1 Department of Fishery and Environmental, Faculty of Natural Resource, University of
Tehran, Karaj, Iran. * Email: Fatemehfattahi@yahoo.com
Fish disease is a major risk factor in commercial aquaculture with millions of dollars lost annually. Control of diseases caused by various bacteria can be difficult because of the existence of antibiotic resistance and heterogenicity between strains of bacteria. It has been suggested that the use of vaccines in intensive fish culture systems is much more desirable for controlling fish diseases than using antibiotics and other therapeutic agents. S- layer are monomolecular crystalline arrays identified in hundreds of different species from the domains of Bacteria and Archaea as the other most structure of the cell envelope. Localization of the S- layer protein on the surface of the bacterium and its contribution infection could be one reason why this molecule elicited protection against bacteria in fish. Therefore S- layer protein may be important factors involved in both heterogenicity and pathogenicity and as target vaccine development. These new vaccines contain only the important component required to include immunity in the hosts and they have no ability to in the aquatic environment.
Keywords: S- layer protein, Fish disease, Vaccine development
Length - Weight relationship, pondral index and growth pattern in female catla (Catla catla) brooders
Hosseinzadeh Sehafii H.1, Eskandari GH.2, Khodadadi M 3, Ayati Behbahani Sh.4*, Mortezevizadeh S.A.2
1 Iranian Fisheries Research Organization,Tehran 2South Iran Aquaculture Research Center, Ahvaz 3Islamic Azad Ahvaz University 4Khozestan science and Research University *Email: Ayati.firstname.lastname@example.org
Carp culture is the one of the most important activities for cover the human food demands. Nowadays total production is more than 22 million tons. Catla (Catla catla) is one of the most commercially valuable species of Indian major carps for the fast growing and therefore has great economic importance. In the study pondral index were calculated by dividing weigh to the power of length, also Length- Weight relationship were analyzed by power equation model during 2011-2012. Growth pattern in female Catla brooders were tested by comparing the power of length with constant 3 Totally 20 fish were capture by net vetch and anesthetized with Fnvksy of ethanol, total length (mm) and weigh (g.) were measured carefully by the digital scale and biometric board. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using regression and t- student tests. Pondral index was 1.6 that is over the constant 1 which means the good growth index in the ponds. Average total length was 498.75+22.50 cm and total weight was 2046.25+289.09 g. Logarithmic length-weight relationship were represented as W= 43.70Lo.319 and R2=0.97 that revealed significant positive Length- Weight relationship. Catla shows isometric growth pattern on behave of comparing power of length (0.319) with constant 3 by t -test analysis.
Keywords: catla, length-weight relationship, pondral index, isometric, Catla catla
Effects of replacing dietary fish meal and oil with plant sources on growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae reared at two water
Reza Jalili1, Naser Agh*2 and Forouzan Bagherzadeh Lakani1
1 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Iran
2 Department of Fisheries, Artemia and Aquatic Animals Research Institute, Urmia University, Iran
Corresponding author. E-mail address: agh1960 @ gmail.com
An experiment was performed to examine the effect of replacing fish meal and with plant sources on growth performance in rainbow trout fry larvae reared at two water temperatures. The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry used in this experiment came from a batch of eyed (embryonic) eggs from a commercial fish farm of domestic origin. Fry were reared in our laboratory hatchery from eggs to the beginning of the experiment, according to Rollin et al. (2003). Hundred fish with average weight of 100+5 mg were stocked in 12 tank (8 L) supplied with freshwater at a flow rate of 1.5 L min-1. Light/dark cycle was 12 L:12 D. The pH (7.3-7.7), temperature (14-15°C) and dissolved oxygen level (7.5-7.8 mgL-1) of each tank were monitored daily. Four experimental diets with similar protein, lipid and energy content were formulated to contain different protein sources to replace fish meal. The control diet contained only the Kilka meal and oil (Clupeonella sp.) as the primary sources of protein and lipid (FM). The other experimental diets contained 100% plant protein and vegetable oil (PP). The experimental plant protein sources included wheat gluten, corn gluten and soybean meal. Rainbow trout with a mean initial weight of 0.1+0.005 g were fed experimental diets for 60 days. The temperature 15°C and 20°C level of
each group were monitored daily. Results showed that 100% fish meal and oil replacement with plant sources in 15°C (0.59+0.05) and 20°C (0.93+0.04) did negatively affect the final growth rate and SGR compared to control groups (FM) in 15°C (1.63+0.1) and 20°C (1.34+0.03) (P < 0.05). Final body weight and SGR were significantly higher in fish fed diet with FM group in 15°C (1.63+0.1 and 2.02+0.04, respectively) compared to 20°C group (1.34+0.03 and 1.88+0.02, respectively) (P < 0.05). But this indices were significantly lower in fish fed diet with PP group in 15°C (0.59+0.05 and 1.28+0.05, respectively) compared to 20°C group (0.93+0.04 and 1.61+0.04, respectively) (P < 0.05). Hepatosomatic index (HIS) was significantly higher in fish fed diet with PP group (4.89+0.5) compared to FM in both temperature (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in Viscerosomatic index (VSI) among treatment groups (P > 0.05). Results showed growth indices decreased significantly by substitution of 100% fish meal with plant protein source as sole source of protein in the diet of rainbow trout (Francesco et al. 2004; Palmegiano et al. 2006; Santigosa et al. 2008). It is proposed that inclusion of higher levels of plant ingredients in salmonids diets has adverse effect on fish performance in two temperatures.
Key words: Plant source, Growth, Temperature, Rainbow trout, Fry.
Effects of replacing dietary fish meal with plant protein sources on growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry
Reza Jalili1, Naser Agh*2, Saied Hajinejad2 and Forouzan Bagherzadeh Lakani1
1 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Iran
2 Department of Fisheries, Artemia and Aquatic Animals Research Institute, Urmia University, Iran
* E-mail address: agh 1960@ gmail.com
An experiment was performed to examine the effect of replacing fish meal with plant protein sources on growth performance in rainbow trout fry. The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry used in this experiment came from a batch of eyed (embryonic) eggs from a commercial fish farm of domestic origin. Fry were reared in our laboratory hatchery from eggs to the beginning of the experiment, according to Rollin et al. (2003). Hundred fish with average weight of 100+5 mg were stocked in 9 tank (8 L) supplied with freshwater at a flow rate of 1.5 L min-1. Light/dark cycle was 12 L:12 D. The pH (7.3-7.7), temperature (14-15T) and dissolved oxygen level (7.5-7.8 mgL-1) of each tank were monitored daily. Three experimental diets with similar protein, lipid and energy content were formulated to contain different protein sources to replace fish meal. The control diet contained only the Kilka meal (Clupeonella sp.) as the primary sources of protein (FM). The experimental diets contained: (1), 100% fish meal (FM) (2), 50% fish meal + 50% plant protein (50FM/50PP) and (3) 100% plant protein (PP). The experimental plant protein sources included wheat gluten, corn gluten and soybean meal. Rainbow trout with a mean initial weight of 0.1+0.005 g were fed experimental diets for 60 days. Results showed that 50% fish meal replacement with plan protein (1.73+0.08 and 2.06+0.03) did not negatively affect the final growth rate and SGR compared to control
group (1.63+0.1 and 2.02+0.04) (P > 0.05). However fish fed 100% plant protein (PP) resulted in decreased final body weight and SGR (0.7+0.02 and 1.4+0.02, respectively). Hepatosomatic index (HIS) was significantly higher in fish fed diet with PP group (4.89+0.5) compared to FM and 50PP/50PM groups (2.12+0.08 and 2.15+0.1, respectively) (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in Viscerosomatic index (VSI) among 50FM/50PP (18.9+1.2) and PP (14.2+0.5) groups compared control group (16.3+2.2) (P > 0.05). Results showed that substituting 50% fish meal with gluten-based protein (50 FM/50PP) does not adversely affect the fish growth. This is in accordance with replacing 30 and 35% fish meal with wheat gluten in Atlantic salmon and Atlantic halibut respectively (Storebakken et al. 2000; Helland and Grisdale-helland, 2006) and 50% fish meal with corn gluten in Atlantic salmon (Mente et al. 2003). However, growth indices decreased significantly by substitution of 100% fish meal with plant protein source as sole source of protein in the diet of rainbow trout (Francesco et al. 2004; Palmegiano et al. 2006; Santigosa et al. 2008). It is proposed that inclusion of higher levels of plant ingredients in salmonids diets has adverse effect on fish performance.