B I Las - The public administration of exogenous and endogenous risks of regional development in post-crisis period - страница 102

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The reasons for the selected harmful to the environment model of economic development in our country are shortsightedness, incompetence and corruption of the political elite, easy and quick profit-seeking companies and individuals, unawareness of the true importance of the preserved environment by the majority of people, etc. There is no civilian control and management of natural resources in our country. Bulgaria takes the last place in the EU not only with regard to the level of GDP per capita, but also concerning knowledge on environmental protection and green business.

The State should educate people about the green economy. If they realize the importance of preserved nature, the idea of conservation and restoration of natural resources will get political support through their voting power. I do not support any political power and will not do it until there is such one with an explicit program for building a green economy in our country - the environment protection and the economic revival as well. Party interests are short-term and are shared by a small circle of people; national interests are long-term and much broader than the next government office term. Universal interests are higher than national interests, since they are related to the survival of human species[36].

Humanity has destroyed or endangered the existence of one fifth of the species on Earth. Bulgarian Black Sea waters fall into the second most polluted category. The negative effects of business activity on the environment in our country are a fact, despite the population decline and the relatively low absolute level of GDP per capita. Therefore, the natural resources of our country must be protected with a special legislative initiative.

Green economy means creating higher benefit with less use and no loss of resources. Green and traditional economies are incompatible concepts for many reasons[37]:

"Ecology - Economy" is based on long-term interests of society and the industrial economy - based on the interest of businesses to maximize their profits in short term;

• The traditional economy is based on the mass consumer culture that encourages the waste of natural resources;

• The market does not realize the importance of preserved environment, since it possesses enormous quantitative characteristics.

The transition from traditional to green economy requires a green economic policy. "Green economic policy" is a specific type of management of labor supply, products and services, which from a macroeconomic perspective is an objective with a long-term planning horizon of an appropriate "green" structure of national economy. In terms of the global financial crisis that began at the end of 2007, the main concerns of politicians who make economic decisions are the economic growth and employment. They are worried about food shortages due to the rebellious nature, which can cause global inflation and economic slowdown - unemployment. Moreover, the struggle to maintain the economic growth is justified by the argument "jobs". Of course, these are serious concerns that cannot be left unanswered, since our country has an open economy, heavily dependent on global economic situation. In Bulgaria, however, the problem of "unemployment"[38] and (or) inflation stands differently, because the country has a shortage of skilled labor. This shortage will lead to labour demand in the future and new jobs creation. The State should manage the creation of new jobs and staff in order to be sure that they are suitable for the green economic structure we strive to achieve. Education is crucial for the appropriate macroeconomic management and labour demand. Newly created jobs and staff must not destroy, but preserve and reproduce environment, i.e. shortly said, the new jobs preserve the nature. They may be far more environmentally friendly or even favored by nature in comparison with "traditional" industrial production, whose environmental price is high and we all pay it. It could be stated that the current economic development of Bulgaria does not comply with its resource potential, it even destroys it.

Shortsighted economic policy of Bulgarian governments can lead to irretrievable loss of precious natural resources that are competitive advantages of our country on the world market. The government signed contracts to implement environmentally hazardous energy projects with Russia, leaving areas with unique natural features outside the protection of the European Program "NATURA". Bulgarian Investment Agency honors mostly construction companies with the title "Investor Class A", beaches and national parks are being massively built up.

Considering the above mentioned, some authors rightly pose the question: "What are we going to have in 2023, when according to some scenarios oil peak will be reached and energy prices will increase sharply?" Of course, the answer is construction of pipelines in cooperation with Russia and perhaps two nuclear power stations. In addition - we will have destroyed area. Destroyed opportunities for recreation of labor resources, international specialized tourism, organic agriculture, wildlife reserves, sustainable fisheries, herbs, etc. - just the things that would be then sought. And the popular knowledge economy, which should start building from now on - it will be gone. Since in Europe emission standards will become far more stringent, we will have to import, among others, also environmental equipment -machinery from Austria and Germany instead of the ability to produce such. Ultimately, it is not necessary to produce it; we can purchase it using the profit of something else we do well. What is worse is that we will have to import even most simple ideas, to which we could come alone, but we just neglect them. The idea of a green economy can hardly flourish by itself, because we do not want to stop using traditional materials, but we want to create conceptual products. This requires funds, which must be first found and then effectively invested. Moreover, if the seed is a world-recognized need for sustainable and human economy, and the soil is internal feature and external demand for "green" at high prices, the watering can, through which the "live-giving liquid" could be poured, is the government economic policy. State enterprises have proved ineffective and the government in the huge number of cases should not directly manage the funds raised. However, the State should directly regulate economic direction providing a good environment: institutions and incentive measures[39].

Furthermore, mass consumer culture on Pseudo-American model was formed under the indifferent gaze of the public institutions, which led to sharp increase in consumer spending with a direct negative impact on the environment.

The lack of environmental assessment in loan disbursement and utilization reflected in indiscriminate and harmful to the environment construction. Bulgarian politicians widely use terms suck as: "sustainable development", "environmental standards", "responsibility towards

future generations", "environmentally friendly economy", but a comprehensive state environmental protection policy is absent. The reasons are many and varied, (see Figure 2):

The Government does not want to have problems introducing unpopular

far the business ліні population environment measures

Reasons for tlie lack of state environment otection policy

Government officials directly benefit from the plundering and destruction of unprotected natural resources

Iu the Bulgarian politicians minds the green idea means denial of trouble-free making monev

Figure 2. Main reasons for the lack of state environment protection policy Indeed, as we look deeper into the above various kinds of reasons for the lack of a comprehensive state environment protection policy, it seems to have one haunting question: Who would be the politician opposed to the unimpeded making money? Resistance, however, is mandatory from an economic perspective, as this „unimpeded" making money is related to destruction of wealth at a much higher value than the income received, for which wealth "entrepreneurial" politicians and businessmen do not even suspect. Green products become more expensive, when suppliers realize their actual value. The higher the sellers evaluate their green products, the higher will be the price that the buyer is willing to pay for them. Bulgarian population begins to understand intuitively the high economic value of the preserved environment and green products, but it is still far from its full realization.

The primary task of the State, which is not currently implemented, is to increase awareness of the environmental and economic value of pure nature.

There are all prerequisites for successfully building a green economy (see Figure 3):

The Government noes not want to have problem; introducing unpopular

for the business and population environment measures

Reasons for tlie lack of state environment protection policy

Government officials directly benefit from the plundering and destruction of unprotected natural



In the Bulgarian politicians minds the green idea means denial of trouble-free making monev

Figure 3. Prerequisites for successfully building a green economy

Having in mind the above stated we should loudly say that we have "the greatest biodiversity in Europe", which must be protected and multiplied. We would be hardly satisfied if the main we deal with is to translate European laws into Bulgarian, to harmonize our legislation and win foreign funding under "programs". Furthermore, it is hardly believable that anyone could consider seriously the fact that the construction of eco trails and wind generators on protected areas can be classified as major projects, moreover, that funds under the Operational Programme "Environment" are not Bulgarian.

Finally, ecology became part of the society's agenda and politicians from London to Seoul began to spend billions on clean technologies, which - according to them - create new jobs. Nevertheless, if we all do not accept the risk to hurt us a little more than we expected, the green revolution can end before it has really started.

The American president Barack Obama expressed his great expectations for the environmental agenda with the promise to invest $ 150 billion in green technology over the next decade. "It will help us transform our industry and bring the country out of the economic crisis, creating 5 million new green jobs, which are going to be well paid and can not be exported," he said in November. A similar call for international "Green New Deal" (a reminder of Roosevelt's New Deal during the 1930's) towards "low carbon recovery" made the British Prime Minister Gordon Brown. UN requires one percent of global GDP to be invested in environmental initiatives. Rich countries like Canada, Japan and South Korea follow the call spending billions to promote environmental projects and green businesses. Even the U.S. Congress discusses various measures to reduce greenhouse gases - from regulatory measures such as increasing fuel efficiency of automobiles or requiring electricity companies to produce most of the energy using renewable sources, to carbon taxes and a cap-and-trade system for power stations.

From the environmental point of view, many of the ideas discussed here are justified. It is doubtful, however, that they offer opportunities to quickly restart the economy. What does it mean? First, the global financial crisis was caused by very different problems -the real estate bubble burst and lending from St. Petersburg to San Francisco, the related implosion of the heavily indebted international banking sector and the resulting collapse of the real economy. These urgent issues will not be resolved by switching to hydrogen vehicles and installing solar roof panels. Second, in the light of truth we must admit that eco laws both create and destroy jobs. In the U.S., for example, because the country relies on cheap coal-fired power plants, restrictions on carbon emissions will lead to higher energy prices. (How much higher remains an open question.). Companies with older technologies or working in the energy intensive industries will have to make higher production costs, which may lead to termination of their activity or looking for new ways to do their business outside the country, where electricity prices are lower and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are not so strict.

Bulgaria is a small country and the best way to integrate into the global economy is finding a market niche based on national competitive advantage. Such a niche is undoubtedly the green economy. It is the most logical way for the development of Bulgarian

economy, it promises good profits to producers of broad strata of Bulgarian society. Through the green economy can be simultaneously implemented the goals of existence, economic objectives, social objectives, as well as objectives of cultural maturation of the nation. The economic value of green environment is greater than the economic value of the smoking chimneys and holiday complexes. This economic value is destroyed by unfair, shortsighted and without any concern for the national interests attitude of the politics, government and business in Bulgaria. Consequently, the State authority loses large amounts, ideology, political doctrine, as well as opportunities for national consolidation and wealth in the future.

Unfortunately, we still cannot boast an adequate environmental policy. This could be seen from the disturbing trends in the utilization of EU funds for environmental infrastructure projects in the first months of 2010, which in the opinion of the Commission are crucial to successful implementation of "Environment" and ISPA programs. A positive result can be achieved only if the efforts of the central administration are supported by competent and responsible actions of the municipalities, but such actions of the municipal and regional structures related to the utilization of EU funds have not been yet a focus of public interest. So far, experience shows that the quality of local project preparation and management is crucial - both for their successful implementation and for their failure.[40]

The preparation of the National Green Investment Scheme has started after the Parliament approved the amendments of the Environmental Protection Act. The government concept of green investments includes active sales of gas emission reductions under Art. 17 of the Kyoto Protocol, as well as companies' actions in relation to the final adoption of the Second National Allocation Plan for emission allowances, which will secure the full participation of Bulgarian companies in the European markets for trading with carbon quotas. It is highly possible that the expectations of the Ministry of Environment and Water of Bulgaria for revenues of 400 million euros in the National Trust Eco Fund are to be realized, despite the unfavorable market situation of free emissions. The funds will be used for subsequent financing of environmental projects in the sphere of energy efficiency, transport, waste management, etc. Long-term effects of the program are to encourage businesses to participate in the so-called green economy and create conditions for additional employment and new green jobs. Such an approach in the development of national economies is also stimulated by the European Commission priorities formulated in the Community Development Strategy 2020.

[1] http://www.bank.gov.ua/.

[2] http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua/.

[3] http://www.bank.gov.ua/.

[4] Режим доступу: http://www.bank.gov.ua/Bank_supervision/Econom_norms/2002.htm

[5] Поляков В.П., Московкина Л.А. Структура и функции центральных банков. Зарубежный опыт: учебное пособие - М.: ИНФРА-М,

1996, с. 79.

[6] Diana Farrell, Susan Lund, and Leo Puri, India's financial system: more market, less government, «The McKinsey Quarterly», 2006, Number 3, pp. 87.

[7] См. Финансово-кредитный энциклопедический словарь. Под ред. Грязнова, А. Г. М.: Финансы и статистика, 2002, стр. 186.

[8] См. http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/wir2009_en.pdf. World Investment Report. 2009.

[9] См. http://www.ev.com/FR/fr/Services/Advisorv/European-attractiveness-survev South Central Europe FDI Attractiveness Survey - 2009.

[10] См. http://www.ey.com/FR/fr/Services/Advisory/European-attractiveness-survey .South Central Europe FDI Attractiveness Survey - 2009.

[11] См. http://www.unctad.org/.

[12] См. http://www.czechinvest.org/

[13] См. http://www.weforum.org/issues/global-competitiveness

[14] См. http://www.unctad.org/.

[15] Индекс экономической свободы предусматривает оценку денежно-кредитной политики, банковского дела и финансов, черный рынок, зарплаты и цены.

[16] См. http://www.heritage.org/index/

[17] См. http://www.unctad.org/

[18] См. http://www.itdh.com

[19] См. www.bank.lv.

[20] См. http://www.unctad.org/

[21] См. http://www.unctad.org/

[22] См. http://www.tnsglobal.pl/

[23] См. http://www.unctad.org/

[24] См. http://www.unctad.org/

[25] См. http:llwww.japti.sil

[26] См. http:llwww.unctad.orglenldocslwir2009_en.pdf. World Investment Report. 2009

© Стьопочкін А.І., 2011

[27]. For the purposes of this study it is not necessary to go into "the deep waters" when clarifying the terminological nature of the "green economy". Therefore we accept, without claim to comprehensiveness, that it is defined as good for the environment. The word "green" may also be replaced with ecological or environmental, while the term "ecological economics" is a combination of ecology and economy. From a human perspective, ecology is the idea of what surrounds us. Economy, broadly speaking, is a human matter. In the broadest sense it is a scientific principle: economy of the universe, economy of psychology, economy of nature, economy of happiness. Human society has been developing on the basis of the economy; the human culture is even higher. Only human existence has greater importance than the economy. "Ecological economics" is understood as the attitude of the conscientious owner towards natural resources. However, who is the conscientious owner? - The man, in one form or another. That's why ecohomics is a promising area. For details see: Sabev, D. "The Green Economic Alternative for Bulgaria". Economics, Vol. 1, 2008, p. 24.

[28]. Todorov, I. Achieving sustainable development through European economic integration, reforming the international financial system and building a "green" economy. Dissertation, p. 122.

[29]. Todorov, I., op.cit., p. 122-123

[30]. It is known that certain aspects of preserved environment (aestheticism, awe, curiosity - devoid of measurable economic benefit) may not be realized by the impersonal institution on the market, for which the prices are a regulator of economic activity. Also, we should not overlook the destructive component of human kind, as well as the frequent refusal to cooperate because of mistrust in "the neighbour", a task described as the so-called "prisoner's dilemma". This does not exhaust the factors for conflicts of human inertia. Most importantly, however, is that this situation could be changed as the green economy (the basis of the green economic policy is the environmental education) has higher comparative value versus the traditionally collapsing, as well as post-industrial economy causing its indirect "suffocating pressure". Sabev, D., op. cit., p. 23.

[31]. The definition differs from the idea of "'less harmful than the rest products on the market", since there is no ecological utility of such an idea.

[32]. Zahariev, El. "The Green Economy - Determinant in the Development of the Economic Policy Adequate to the Challenges of XXI Century". In „Horizon 2020 to Economic and Business Knowledge". Volume I, Svishtov: "D. A. Tsenov"- Academy of Economics, 250­262.

[33] . For details see: Sabev, D., op. cit., p. 26.

[34] Ibid., p. 24.

[35]. Sabev, D., op. cit., p. 25.

[36]. Ibid., p. 25.

[37]. Todorov, I., op. cit., p. 124 -125.

[38]. In terms of human economy, it is difficult to determine what is the lesser evil - unemployment or inflation. Moreover, they can occur simultaneously in a period of stagflation.

[39]. Sabev, D., op. cit., p. 26-27.

[40]. See: The Economy of Bulgaria - April 2010. Report of the CED: http://www.ecom.bg/.../iconomikata na bulgariya_yanuari_2010_g

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B I Las - The public administration of exogenous and endogenous risks of regional development in post-crisis period