B I Las - The public administration of exogenous and endogenous risks of regional development in post-crisis period - страница 32

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сохранение природной среды

Экологический туризм предполагает соблюдение определенных, достаточно жестких правил поведения и обязательств по отношению к туристической зоне. По образному определению, экотуризм - это что-то среднее между неторопливой прогулкой и экстримом.

В 2002г был проведен первый Всемирный саммит по экотуризму в Квебеке, в котором приняли участие более 1000 человек. ООН провозгласила 2002г Международным годом Экотуризма.

В 2007г прошла Глобальная конференция по экологическому туризму (GEO 07) в Осло. Подобные конференции будут проводиться через каждые 5 лет.

Экотуризм представляет собой развивающееся направление в индустрии туризма, по-разному трактуемое в разных

странах:

узкая трактовка экотуризма господствует в странах, обладающих обширными территориями - Канаде, США, Австралии; широкая - в странах Западной Европы, обладающими ограниченными ресурсами «дикой природы». Существует 2 подхода к выделению экологического туризма:

1 экотуризмом называется путешествие в нетронутые, «экологически чистые» уголки природы;

2 обязательное соблюдение экологических правил и норм туристами и организаторами туризма в отношении используемых территорий.

Стратегическая цель экологического туризма - лимитированная потребностью сохранения окружающей среды рекреационная деятельность.

Основные цели экотуризма могут быть сгруппированы по двум направлениям:

* обновление духовных и физических сил человека, обеспечение полноценного отдыха в условиях природной среды,

* экологическое образование, воспитание собственной ответственности за судьбу экосистемы. И ее компонентов.

Факторы, развития мирового рынка экотуризма:

* развитие активных видов туризма:

* мода на подвижный образ жизни,

* появление новых видов туристических услуг,

* переполненность традиционных туристических центров;

* факторы, сдерживающие спрос на туруслуги:

* экотуристы избегают места наибольшего скопления туристов,

* требования экотуристов гарантий полной безопасности путешествия.

* недостатки в продвижении имиджа экотуристических местностей;

* факторы, сдерживающие предложение на экотуруслуги:

* недопустимость превышения предельно допустимой нагрузки на природные туристические ресурсы,

* сложности в развитии туристической инфраструктуры в труднодоступных районах,

* недостаток в хорошо подготовленных гидах-проводниках.

Основные принципы экологического туризма Международного общества экотуризма (TIES):

* помнить об уязвимости Земли;

* оставлять только следы своих ног, уносить только фотографии;

* познавать мир, в который попали: культуру народов, географию;с минимальным потреблением энергии,

уважать местных жителей;

не покупать изделия производителей, которые подвергают опасности природную среду; всегда следовать только по протопанным тропам; поддерживать программы АО защите окружающей среды; использовать методы сохранения окружающей среды; патронировать организации, содействующие защите природы; путешествовать с фирмами, которые поддерживают принципы экотуризма. По мнению специалистов, тур или маршрут экологичен, если (основные признаки): экологичен транспорт, используемый туристами, пища туристов экологически чиста и полезна,

мусор собирается специальным образом и поступает на экотехнологическую переработку, привалы, особенно костры устраиваются только в специально оборудованном месте,

отели, кемпинги и т. п., где останавливаются туристы не нарушают экологически устойчивое развитие окрестного

ландшафта;

* отели, кемпинги и т. п. построены из экологически безвредных материалов, воды (стоки и выбросы очищаются, отходы утилизируются);

* уважительное отношение к местным культурным традициям;

* участие туристов в решении местных экологических проблем;

* прибыль от экотуризма остается в местном бюджете. Многообразие видов экотуризма можно разделить на два основных типа:

* экотуризм в границах особо охраняемых природных территорий (акваторий) -классическое направление в экотуризме;

* экотуризм вне границ особо охраняемых природных территорий (акваторий) -широкий спектр экологически ориентированного туризма

Экологические туры можно классифицировать по многим признакам:

* по способу передвижения участников,

* по продолжительности,

* по отношению к границам страны проживания туристов и др. Виды экотуризма различаются по двум основным признакам:

' по основной цели экотуризма

' наблюдение и изучение «дикой» или «окультуренной» природы с обучением экологическим знаниям; отдых в окружении природы с эмоциональными, эстетическими целями; лечение природными факторами; спортивные и приключенческие цели; ! по основному объекту экотуризма

' ботанические, зоологические, геологические туры и т.д.; спелеологичесие, водные, горные туры и т.п.; эколого-этнографические, эколого-культурные туры; агротуры

География экологического туризма своеобразна:

* если основные международные туристические потоки направлены из развитых стран в развитые (среди принимающих стран лидируют Франция, США, Испания, Италия),

* то экотуры осуществляются главным образом из развитых стран в развивающиеся (в данном секторе туризма среди принимающих стран лидируют Кения, Танзания, Эквадор, Коста-Рика, Непал, также Австралия, Новая Зеландия и ЮАР).

* В развитых странах Европы и Америки экотуристы часто путешествуют по своим странам. Наиболее популярными в Европе экотуристическими направлениями являются Норвегия, Исландия, Швеция, Ирландия и Италия.

Количество экотуристов с каждым годом увеличивается.

Таблица 1

1970

198O

1990

2000

2010

2020

113

154

190

215

287

325

* Благодаря программе WWOOF (Добровольные работники на органических фермах) получил развитие агроэкотуризм на взаимовыгодной основе: обмен труда (работа на ферме 4 - 6 часов в день) на жилье и питание, которое предоставляет фермер. В настоящее время WWOOF работает в 53 странах мира, Украина пока отсутствует в этой сети.

В настоящее время в Украине получили развитие следующие виды экотуризма

Таблица 2

* научный экотуризм, который включает экспедиции ученых, летнюю практику студентов, путешествия с целью сбора научной информации о посещаемом регионе.

Основным регионом развития научного экотуризма является Крымский полуостров (Бахчисарайский государственный историко-археологический заповедник, Херсонесский национальный музей-заповедник и др).

* познавательный экотуризм - этнографические, палеонтологические путешествия, наблюдения за жизнью животных, а также птиц (ЬігаЧуаІсшівд)

Дельта р. Дунай на острове Малый Татару, орнитологическая школа на Кинбурнской косе, единственный в Украине сад бабочек в Севастополе и др.

* рекреационный экотуризм - отдых на природе с познавательной целью

Может развиваться повсеместно

* агроэкотуризм отдых на фермах

Наибольшее распространение получил в Карпатах

Развитием агроэкотуризма в Украине занимается неправительственная организация «Союз содействия развитию сельского зеленого туризма в Украине», которая собирает данные о развитии данного вида туризма в разных регионах страны, занимается его рекламой и п

опуляризацией, проведением конференций, тематических выставок, тренингов и т.п.

Развитие в Украине сельского туризма позволило бы решить проблему занятости населения (один турист обеспечивает до 10 рабочих мест), что, например, явилось основой для развития подобного вида туризма в Донецкой области в Добропольском районе.

Развитие экотуризма в национальных парках и биосферных заповедниках Украины осуществляется по таким видам:

* экскурсии маркированными экологическими тропами с коротким отдыхом,

* научно-познавательный туризм,

* спортивно-оздоровительный туризм,

* сельский экотуризм, осуществляемый на территориях природно-заповедного фонда.

Основными природно-заповедными территориями Украины развития экологического туризма являются:

Таблица 3

Природно-заповедные территории Украины развития экотуризма_

Название

год создания

площадь га

направления экотуризма

Карпатский

н.п. Ивано-Франков-

ская область

1980

50 303

гора Говерла, развитая структура стационарных заведений рекреации, 12 научно-познавательных маршрутов, эколого-экскурсионные тропинки общей протяженностью 400 км.

«Гуцульщина»

н.п.п. Ивано-

Франковская область

2002

32 271

Источники минеральных вод, горнолыжные трассы с подъемниками

Синевер н.п.п. Закарпатская область

1989

40 696

Озеро Синевер на высоте 989м над уровнем моря, единственный в Европе Музей лесосплава, оборудованы экологические тропы, конные и веломаршруты

Сколовские Бескиды н.п. п. Львовская область

1999

35 684

Буковые леса 170-180 летнего возраста, возможности для развития научно-познавательного, сельского туризма

Подольские Татры н.п.п. Хмельницкая область

1996

261 316

Татры - остатки коралловых рифов неогенового периода, аналога геологического прошлого в Европе не существует, запасы минеральных вод типа «Нафтуся», «Миргородская», 21 рекреационное заведение

Шацкий          н.п.п. Волынская область

1983

32 515

Зона регилированной рекреации составляет 25% парка, оборудованы экологические тропы, информационные пункты, размещены 56 баз отдыха, санаториев, пансионатов.

Святые  горы н.п.п. Донецуая область

1997

40 448

Редкие экотопы - меловые наслоения с реликтовыми меловыми соснами, соленые озера с лечебными сульфидными иловыми грязями, более 170 оздоровительных учреждений. Святогорский Успенский монастырь, Николаевская церковь ХУ11 в.

Азово-Сивашский н.п. п. Херсонская область

1993

52 154

Спортивно-любительское рыболовство (севрюга, осетр) и охотничий туризм; в соответсвии с Рамсарской конвенцией 1971г охраняются водно-болотные угодья международного значения

н. п. - национальный парк

н. п. п. - национальный природный парк

Выводы: Экологические проблемы привели к росту экологического сознания, что отразилось на отношении к природной среде во время отдыха, однако, в Украине экотуризм пока не является технологически оформленным бизнесом, отсутствует эффективное его управление. Необходима разработка региональной политики в сфере экотуризма с учетом специфики регионов, т. к. данный вид экологического бизнеса комплексно решает экологические, социальные и экономические проблемы. Несомненно экотуризм может стать фактором устойчивого развития территории. Основными направлениями деятельности могут быть:

* разработка региональных и локальных программ развития экотуризма;

* проведение маркетинговых исследований в области экологического туризма на локальных территориях;

* инвентаризация потенциальных объектов экологического туризма, создание баз данных в экотуризме кадастров туристических ресурсов;

* разработка экотуристических маршрутов для разных секторов потребителей туристических услуг;

* подготовка кадров туроператоров и турагентов в области экотуризма.

РЕЗЮМЕ

В статье проанализированы теоретические основы и практические возможности развития экологического туризма, как вида экологического бизнеса, в мировой практике и на территории Украины. Ключевые слова: экологический бизнес, экологический туризм.

РЕЗЮМЕ

У статті проаналізовані теоретичні основи і практичні можливості розвитку екологічного туризму, як виду екологічного бізнесу, у

світовій практиці і на території України.

Ключові слова: екологічний бізнес, екологічний туризм.

SUMMARY

In clause theoretical bases and practical opportunities of development of ecological tourism, as kind of ecological business, in a world practice and in territory of Ukraine are analyzed. Keywords: ecological business, ecological tourism.

СПИСОК ИСТОЧНИКОВ:

1. Дмитрук О.Ю. Екологїіний турізм: сучаснї концепції менеджменту і маркетингу.- К.: Альтерпрес, 2004.-191с.

2. Дроздов А.В. Основы экологического туризма.- М.: Гардарики, 2005.- 271с.

3. Колбовский Е.Ю. Экологический туризм и экология туризма.- М.: Академия, 2006

4. Панов И.Н. Эколгический туризм // География.- 1998.- «45 .- с11

5. Сергеева Т.К. Экологический туризм.- М.: Финансы и статистика, 2004.-З60с.

6. Тарасенок А. Виды экологического туризма // Туризм и отдых, 2000., №21- 21с.

7. Храбовченко В. В. Экологический туризм.- М.: Финансы и статистика, 2004.-208с.

8. www, greentour. com. ua - Союз содействия развитию сельского зеленого туризма в Украине

PROBLEMS OF CORPORATE COMPETITIVENESS Kunev K., PhD Assoc. prof. D. Tsenov Academy of Economics, Svishtov, Bulgaria

Raising the competitive level of the company is a fundamental problem of contemporary economics directly related to optimization of company operations and its survival in the market. Under to conditions of an open national economy and direct interaction between domestic and foreign manufacturers the problems of national economy competitiveness or those of separate companies acquire a certain degree of reality and their solutions become a factor in the effective development of the national economy.

Competitiveness at a micro level is manifested in the relationship between price and quality of specific goods, manufactured by separate companies and interchangeable in their functions. In other words - competitiveness is determined as a relative estimate of company advantages (the products or services), which allow it to satisfy the needs of a certain client group in the most efficient way. Precisely competitiveness can be used to interpret consumer behavior and preferences, which are given to one product or another by purchasing it. This makes the problems of competitiveness central not only to a separate company but also to the entire economy as it will define what goods are manufactured within the national market. We should not dismiss the fact that competitiveness of the national economy is created and determined by the competitiveness of the separate companies and organizations, which comprise it. Thus, every effort on the level of company competitiveness in the real sector of the economy will have a positive impact on the national competitiveness as well and in the end it will impact the quality of life of the entire society.

Achieving a good level of competitiveness is a problem of vital importance to every company. Under the conditions of a constant competitive pressure by the rest of the companies in the sector, upholding a certain level of competitiveness is a key precondition to maintaining the company's market share. This is especially true for companies in Bulgaria, which are forced to operate under the conditions of narrow consumer demand, a stagnating domestic market and constantly intensifying international competition. This situation creates serious problems as difficult product sales lead to a shortage of financial resources, which makes the problems of competitiveness difficult to solve.

In order to boost the competitive capabilities of the company it is not only necessary to modernize production and management but also to use the modernization efforts in order to achieve a well-defined goal. Achieving this goal demands a very precise definition of company advantages, which can be used in the competitive race in the most efficient way. All efforts need to be directed towards the development of those company and production qualities that distinguish it from its potential competitors.

Unfortunately it has to be noted that at the current stage of our economic development, company competitiveness remains a largely unresolved issue. There is still a significant lagging in the quality of company management, in the flexibility and variety of management approaches, in the development and implementation of company business strategies and so on. It is true that company competitiveness is influenced by a multitude of factors of the business environment such as frequent changes in legislation, resource problems, unfair competition, large intercompany indebtedness, supplier and customer problems, etc. But it is also true that the main responsibility for developing and maintaining company competitiveness remains with the company managers, owners and personnel. The struggle for competitiveness is expressed through the different opportunities for product differentiation, technological changes, responding to the customers' new needs and preferences, changes in the lifestyle, variations in the purchasing power, etc.

Increasing the competitiveness is a function of many factors, some of which have general validity regardless of specific differences in company activities. Such factors are:

1. Investments in new equipment and technologies

New equipment and modern technologies enforce the company's competitive advantages by reducing production costs and increasing productivity of labor and capital. This helps achieve a higher quality of production and opens opportunities to reduce production costs.

It is necessary however to note that this is not always true in practice. Bad management of the new equipment not only will not increase but will rather decrease production effectiveness in comparison to its previous level. In separate cases expenses incurred by the new investments may be of significant volume and that would additionally reduce the company effectiveness for a certain period.

2. Redesigning production

The company's ability to create a new kind of product is a key factor for future success. The development of new products demands a significant amount of resources but as an element of the company's long-term strategy it secures significant competitive advantages compared to other market participants.

3. Increasing the significance of the company's product for the consumers

It is necessary to constantly search for ways to maximize the product value for the customer. All efforts should be directed towards infusing such qualities in the product that makes it more attractive to customers.

4. Reducing the risk of manufacturing low-quality products and scrap

By increasing the quality of separate details the probability of manufacturing low quality final products can be reduced. That will increase reliability of company products and reduce costs for after-sales servicing. Reducing the percentage of scrap on the other hand will lead to reducing resource, material, energy and labor expenditures, which has a positive impact on the cost of company production.

5. Resource supply based on small production reserves.

Experience shows that a large amount of production reserves is a sign of low efficiency and quality of work. In order to improve these indicators it is necessary to reduce reserves, increase reliability of equipment operation as well as discontinue using the services of suppliers that fail to comply with agreed deadlines, etc.

6. Observing strict contractual discipline

All obligations (verbal and contractual) undertaken by the company towards its clients must be strictly adhered to. Flawless reputation and high reliability achieved by the company may in some cases assist for increasing competitiveness more that some quality indicators of its production.

7. Employee training

The level of equipment and technological provisioning is important but in the end everything is decided by the people that work in the company. For this reason one of the main preconditions for success in the competitive race is the high degree of qualification of personnel. This demands a constant process of selection and training of employees in view of any future requirements. Involving workers in production management has a great impact on improving company effectiveness. On one side it enhances motivation for work and on the other provides opportunities to use first-hand knowledge and experience to resolve all arising issues.

8. Collecting and accumulating information about competitors

This activity is of great significance for raising the company's competitiveness. Competitors' information may be used to understand technical and qualitative features of new products presented in the market or discover own errors. Knowledge of the competitors' strengths and weaknesses allows the company not only to adapt to changes in the market situation but also to forecast possible reactions of competitors to such changes.

© Kunev K., 2011

The discussed factors although different in their substance are common in that their impact leads to either an increase in product quality or decrease of its price. However, it has to be taken into consideration that the impact of these factors is not a sufficient precondition to achieve high competitiveness since:

- quality is a complex, versatile and mostly subjective category, which is hard to quantify and that makes the impact of the above factors hard to measure

- it has to be remembered that a competitive product and a quality product are not always identical things. As shown by experience, in a number of cases the products with the highest demand are not the ones with the highest quality

- the impact of the above-listed factors only relates to manufacturers. It should be remembered that competitiveness can only be discussed after the products are sold and that depends on the consumer. Therefore, the factors for increasing competitiveness must be discussed from the point of view of the consumers.

The impact of the above factors brings about dynamics and uncertainty in the development of company competitive strategies. This in turn demands constant changes and updates to the competitive strategy, reflecting the need to maneuver and reposition the company in its market segment in a way that ensures and increases its opportunities for superiority and differentiation from other competitive companies. From this point of view problems related to the effective functioning and company competitiveness represent a serious challenge for company managers and owners. In reference to the above we have to note that in a number of cases and due to a variety of reasons, company management is carried out as piece-work by solving predominantly current or short-term tasks related to maintaining the market positions and the company survival. The emphasis is not on professionally developed company strategies build on the basis of well-formulated long-term company objectives but rather on such that are predominantly based on personal experience and the knowledge of the company owner or manager, which often results in the lack of sufficient expertise and professionalism.

Given the above, we can sketch some basic problems related to increasing company competitiveness:1

1. In the current moment most of the efforts of company management are directed towards obtaining adequate equipment and contemporary technologies as the basic means of achieving high production quality and company competitiveness in the long-term. Survey data indicates that the predominant share of companies have a developed production quality management systems, which is a prerequisite to achieving not only the necessary quality but also better market positions. At the same time however, 7% of companies are not in the possession of such system, which (despite the low percentage) is unexplainable for a sector with so intense competition. It is clear that the entrepreneurs' views on the competitive advantages of their companies are mainly related to the quality of production and the used production facilities as well as low labor costs. In our opinion the rest of the factors remain underappreciated and in the future the emphasis will move towards a higher quality of the work force, which means higher labor costs. It is necessary to search for new sources of competitive advantages and therefore it is best to add qualification and motivation of employees as well as management effectiveness, which stand in the basis of higher labor efficiency to the list of most important advantages.

2. In view of the relatively satisfactory quality management of production, the fact that as little as 38% of companies have a company strategy for increasing their competitive advantages and nearly as many (31%) do not have such a strategy at all, and have made no plans in this respect is very disturbing. Here we have to add the wide-spread lack of professionally qualified specialists in strategic planning. This shows that for the majority of companies the leading driver in their operations is solving current matters related to company activities and survival, while tackling long-term problems is left behind. In the majority of cases (92%), company managers indicate that their strategy has been built with their own efforts and resources, based on personal experience and knowledge. This on the one hand is probably a sign of accumulated experience but on the other it suggests that a significant share of the managers is not willing to incur additional expenses for employing external specialists. Apart from this, they do not have a sufficient confidence in scientific circles and are not willing to admit outsiders to information specific to their line of business. This situation reveals an obvious underappreciation of the significance of company strategy and lack of understanding of the relationship, which exists between the strategy and the current operations of a company. A mere 8% of respondents indicate that they are building their company strategy by drawing on the experience of similar companies. The fact that sharing of experience exists is positive but the dangers of mechanical transfer of ideas inapplicable in view of the specifics of the place and operations of a company should not be underestimated.

3. It is wide-spread facts that in resolving current problems managers predominantly count on their own experience, practical expertise and intuition without drawing on the assistance and advice of highly-qualified and recognized specialists. The opinion regarding strong sides of practical company operations supports this. For the larger part of company managers these are skills in distributing the final product and maintaining the level of competitive prices, but not the improvement of organization and technology of production, diversifying the production varieties, etc. Additionally, the high self-assessment of most of the managers for their manufacturing and marketing activities, quality and prices of their production and the low level of self-criticism are impressive. It is necessary to have a more sensible evaluation of reality, which will allow foreseeing future threats, projecting and carrying out new ideas in order to avoid collapse of operations, increasing profits and improving market positions. In many cases the significance of evolving the organization and its management structure, which hides large unharnessed resources is unjustifiably ignored.

4. The majority of managers show a positive attitude and correct judgment towards the importance of qualification of employees for developing the competitive advantages of the company. The survey, however, reveals a narrow understanding and a degree of inertness in this respect. Attention is mainly paid to training employees to use specific equipment and technology as this is related to improving labor efficiency. Additionally, two key positions emerge. The first is to carry out improvement courses for all company workers and the other one is to do this for certain people only - those that are not expected to leave after significant funds have been invested in them. This is justified in view of the long-term investment in human capital, which will have an increasing significance for the companies' positions on the respective market. A very small share of companies (19%) organize computer literacy and IT trainings, with the rest condemning themselves to isolation. There is a strong underappreciation of the significance of teamwork trainings - as little as 13% of companies does it, which show lack of understanding of its importance for increasing productivity in the company. One of the reasons for that of course is the lack of financial resources but that does not diminish the importance of the problem. Moreover, 75% of managers evaluate the returns on expenditures for such trainings as good.

5. As a whole it can be noted that managers attach an important role to labor motivation of company employees in terms of increasing company competitiveness. And a large part of them (69%) evaluate it as good or very good. This point however may be approached with certain doubts as the main reason behind the motivation is not so much the good and adequate remuneration but rather the strive to keep one's job and income in the conditions of an unfavorable economic situation. The issue of promoting salaries remains largely untouched, which is in contradiction to the need for stronger motivation of employees expressed above.

The problem has one more aspect. If we presume (even not entirely correct) that the development of the company strategy is the management's responsibility, then its successful implementation is a shared responsibility of both the management team and the company work force. This is an often omitted fact and the task of achieving company objectives is assumed predominantly by the management team, which engages in its implementation solely from its standpoint. This way the company team is left with the indifferent role of a common executor missing the important fact that the implementation of the company strategy would be much more successful and efficient when it is

1 The conclusions are drawn on the basis of poll survey of group of companies in sector dairy processing in 2010.

perceived as an objective by the larger or more precisely the more dedicated part of the company personnel. Such sharing of responsibility does not diminish the responsibility of the management team at all and neither does it belittle its role as a leading body. That, however, allows on the one hand to use the creative potential of the collective by embracing rational ideas from immediate executors and detailing the separate parts of the company strategy and on the other hand involving more of the personnel members in the development of the company strategy will make them committed, which is a very good prerequisite and a guarantee for its successful implementation.

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The problems discussed above by no means exhaust the full spectrum of problems related to company competitiveness. Creating a fully functional market in Bulgaria is related to a significant increase of competitiveness in all spheres of public production. This is facilitated by the mass penetration of foreign companies on our market, which enforces changing and rethinking the economic behavior of all market players. In relation to this, competitiveness attains an increasingly significant meaning on both company and macroeconomic level. The comparison to developed market economies, however, shows that there is a significant lagging behind both in terms of production quality and in terms of company management and development of business strategies.

Experience shows that the key reasons for unsatisfactory problem resolution related to company competitiveness originate from the lack of sufficient experience, organization and responsibility of business figures. These enforce the need for companies to exert more efforts in order to improve their own organization and increase their competitive capabilities. On the other hand, and parallel to this it is necessary to have a better quality of operation of public institutions related to observing the laws, fast and quality legal proceedings, intensifying the fight with corruption and maintaining the macroeconomic stability. All these will lead to the timely and successful resolution of problems of company competitiveness, which in turn will help the national economy emerge from the unfavorable situation and economic stagnation.

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