Л И Антошкина - В рамках черноморского экономического сотрудничества и гуам - страница 15

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Source: UNWTO. (2008-2011). "Tourism Highlights". www.unwta.org.

When we overlook the place of tourism in the world economy, we can conceive the globally importance of tourism better. The economical income obtained directly and indirectly from the tourism activities held in 2009 formed the 9,4 % of the Gross Income in that year with 5,474 billion(WTTC, 2009). While the worldwide export revenues in 2010 were calculated as 14,851 billion dollars (www.wto.org) ; the tourism sector that provides directly 919 billion dollars of income had a portion of 6,2 % among the export revenues.

Furthermore, the labour-intensive tourism sector constitute 8,4 % of total employment worldwide with 238,3 million people the employment of whom it contributed directly or indirectly. (WTTC, 2009).

When Table 2 is studied, a continual increase is seen in the number of foreign tourists that visited Turkey in the last 10 years. In 2002, approximately 13 million foreign tourists became 31 million in 2011 with an average 137 % increase. As stated before, importance of number of tourists who take holiday in the Mediterranean region can be observed in this obvious increase.

Table 2.

The Number Of Foreign Tourists That Visit Turkey Yabonei Ziyacetfi Gjym

UStXl      2У.1      ЭЭС2 'IDOL      JLUJ      2D07      ЗКШ      ZD09      ion Soil

Source: http://basin.kultur.gov.tr/basinodasi-edergi/2002-2011/index.html. Date of access: 12.06.2012

© Bingol Z., 2012

In his study, Ceken (2003) states that in today's globalized world, in developing countries like Turkey, the tourism sector has become an industry with increasing its importance day by day with the reasons of closing the payments deficit, providing employment, attributing to the regional progress. The tourism sector which has an important position in global economy holds an exceeding vital value for Turkish national economy.

For the developing countries such as Turkey and that has significantly great wealthiness with its scenic beauties, unique historical places, archaeological areas and cultural values compared with many competitor countries, to place focus in the field of tourism becomes an obligation. In Turkey, the increase in investments, the decrease in unemployment, acceleration of imbalance among the regions and to overcome the problem of balance of payments mostly depend on the development level of the tourism sector. (Ceken, 2003:10)

As new job opportunities created by the employment generating effect of tourism influence the income distribution among the regions positively, it provides a balanced progress and causes an increase in tourism investments. While the export incomes rate of the tourism sector, which also has an important role on balance of payments, for the year 2010 was 18,3 % (www.kultur.gov.tr); its effect on reduction of foreign trade deficit that was observed in the same year was 22,3 %. It is understood that the benefits of the tourism sector about the topics mentioned on the economy of the country positively affect the problems of underdevelopment among the countries which is also observed in Turkey by eliminating them. (www.kultur.gov.tr).

When the tourism sector is viewed from a government-based approach, it holds a great importance in terms of both tourist demand and accommodation offer, in other words, especially considering the capacity level it reached with bed capacity and the policy, principle and goals that take place in the last Development Plan. (dpt.gov.tr, 2006)

In the previous periods, however, the basic government approach in 1970s consisted of starting all subcomponents in tourism under the auspices of the government. The establishment of tourism bank, the opening of Turban Hotels chain and the investments like Pension Fund Hotels are regarded as important steps in the tourism sector on behalf of the government. (Cengiz, 2012)


Mediterranean Region, containing Antalya that is one of the major tourism destinations in Turkey has an important position in Turkey's Tourism. Especially, the coastal of Mediterranean is quite suitable for tourism due to the earliest heated and the latest cooled region in Turkey. Mediterranean Coasts, called "Turk Riviera", decorated with historical values and natural beauties from Antalya to Iskenderun.

The region draws attention due to history, culture and religious tourism besides natural beauty and temperate climate. There are hot-water springs that is great importance in terms of health, healing waters, spas and natural health resources such as caves also with relaxing waterfalls and lakes in region. The presence of Toros Mountains, gives importance to the region in terms of the mountain and hunting tourism.Also recently, tourism fairs and festivals held in the region has emerged as an important phenomenon in terms of tourism. (http://www.turistikblog.blogcu.com/).

Today, The Mediterranean Region, entertains most domestic and international tourists in terms of tourism (particularly summer tourism- marine tourism). When we consider the process of development of tourism activities in the Mediterranean region, National Tourism policies have been highly successful for the development process of the regional tourism. Geography of the Mediterranean region, as well as its tourism potential, has gained importance after 1982 "Tourism Incentive Act" allowing the allocation of forest lands that belongs to treasury for tourism investment, concentrated in coastal areas and the appropriate topography.

Although the natural, historical and cultural values that make the region unique have been long known, the development of tourism is dated to the time that development plans started. The studies on the national scale of physical planning together with the planned period have been started in 1969; 3 km width of coastline has been identified as a touristic development zone that starts from the provincial boundaries between Canakkale-Balikesir and Antalya-lcel (Chamber of Architects Antalya Branch,1996).

"Touristic Organizing Project for Side and its Environment", the international competition in 1969, started not only tourism planning but also brought important innovations to the conception of national-scale physical planning. With this project, significant steps were taken in the direction of the southern coast on mass tourism, and the acceptance of the complexes which will serve for mass tourism and organized tourism regions have been realized (Cubuk, The itinerant transmits from 1980, 1998).

Transition Policy, which was introduced in 1979, Istanbul (province), Izmir (lower region), Mugla (provincial) and Cappadocia (lower region) with Antalya (province) were determined as tourism development zones. Side and Kemer have taken place in Antalya region between the coastal tourism center of the twelve priority which have tourism city features in these regions.

Mediterranean Region has important attractiveness for religious tourism. Saint Nicholas had lived in Demre which is in the district of Antalya; there are some other attractiveness like Saint Nciholas Church, Saint Pavlus Church that is in Antakya and known as the first church in the world, were made Mediterranean Region important for Christians (Bingol, 2007). Seven Sleepers cave, mentioned in all divine religions is in a mountain in Mersin, Tarsus. Also, Grave of Daniel, one of the attractiveness that attracts a lot of people to this region (Bingol, 2004). The first church in the world in Antakya declared pilgrimage area for Christians by Papa in 1963 (Bingol, 2007). Religious tourism has increasing importance after 2000 in Turkey. Government is intensively encouraging facilities about religious tourism.

In the project entitled "Turkey's 2010 Tourism Vision and II. Move Period ", extension of tourism season for Antalya region and creation of additional approximately 12,000 bed capacity under the strategy of increasing capacity, new investment areas and golf courses are planned and completed. Golf areas in Belek, Kemer and Oymapinar regions are foreseen to take place.


Turkey today has become a magnet in the Mediterranean Region. The most important reason for this is the great numbers of assets in terms of geographical, historical and cultural entities. These qualities of Turkey are important to gain tourism revenue and are regarded as important sources of income in all regions, particularly in The Mediterranean Region within the country. So, although its touristic gravitational force, some regions cannot be developed to its full potential by investors for various reasons. In these cases, the Government provides important incentives and supports for entrepreneurs wishing to invest in tourism sector in order to assess the full potential (Oka.org.tr,2012).

Governments plan incentives and policies to bring about the potentials of tourism sector and direct the right targets and the masses. In this regard, it is the duty of the State to a large extent to invest in the tourism industry. The State has been encouraging since 1982 with the understanding of the environmental protection system promoting the tourism sector within the framework of the various possibilities (Toker, 2007).

When the steps in promoting tourism of the State examined, it has been seen that the first legal regulation for the promotion of tourism sector in Turkey is Promoting Tourism Institutions Act No 5647 that was issued in 1950 (Toker,2007). However, it is expressed that the most comprehensive incentive measures started in 1982. The State has been providing important supports for the investment in tourism and culture with regulating the legal infrastructure for tourism and government incentives which entered into force with the Law No.2634 this year. Since the period of the Tourism Incentive Law entered into force, the number of visitors in Turkey have increased approximately 20-fold and tourism revenues 60-fold (kultur.gov.tr,


The share of tourism incentives behind the undeniable development in the tourism sector is quite important. Today, the incentives and supports have been very differentiated related to culture and tourism sector that now become an industry format and is aimed inclusiveness and integrity at many points. If we look at the incentives in this area of the State, it is seen that a substantial portion of them have focused on physical infrastructure solutions for tourism. However, the supports contain the fields of many different focuses such as publicity, promotion, participation in fairs, film production and sponsorship. Therefore, government incentives in this area are not limited with utilization of the touristic values that the country has; also there are important incentives for the diversification of cultural products (oka.org, 2012).

At today's tourism sector, there are incentives for business, companies or individuals who wish to invest. The Incentive measures are stated in The Article 13 of Law No.2634. The incentives for those who want to invest in tourism sector are as follows (Toker, 2007):

- Public Lands Allocated for Tourism Investments

- For the investors who will operate on accommodation sector, the period of up to 49 years and for those who think the investment in terms of camping is the period of up to 20 years can be made allocation of public land.


- Electricity, Gas and Water Charges Discount

- The Certified Tourism Investments and Businesses pay electricity, gas and water charges at the lowest tariffs applied to industrial facilities and homes in the region where they are.

- The Communication Facilities

- For any processing and allocating related to the telephone or telex of the document owner of investment and businesses is given priority

- Foreign Personnel and Craftsman Employment

- The amount of the foreign personnel employed may not exceed 10 % of total staff. This rate can be increased up to 20 % with the permission of the ministry. This staff may start to employ 3 months earlier before the commercial operations.

- Installing The Forest Fund Contribution

- The price that the certified facilities in tourism investment which will be placed in forests have to pay, is paid 5 years maturity and with five equal installments from the third year following the date of allocation in accordance with Forest Law No.6831, The Paragraph (c) of The Annex


- Exemption of Customs Duty and The Public Housing Fund

- Imports of machinery and equipment within the scope of incentive certificate shall be exempt from the customs duty to be paid and public housing fund in accordance with the decision of import regime

- Investment Allowance

- Discount rates applied to investments connected investment incentive certificate, starting from 40 percent and continues up to 200 percent. In principle, begins from 40 percent in developed areas and increases up to 100 percent in priority areas for development. It reaches the highest 200 percent for Large-scale foreign investment. This rate is 100 % for Tourism Investments.

- Value Added Tax Exemption

- The imported and domestic deliveries of machinery and equipment made in this regard of The Investors with an incentive certificate are exempt from value added tax.

- Taxes, Images and Fees Exemption

- The entrepreneurs exempt from the accrued tax, image and fees relating long, medium and short -term loans that taken to use on investments, provided that specifies on incentive document.

- Credit Allocation

- Although this application has been decreased, continue the use of credit in specific proportions from the Investment Incentive Fund which constitute a resource for cash incentives.

- Property Tax Exemption

- Tourism Industry exempts from property tax for a period of 5 years under Real Property Tax Law No. 1318.

- Encouragement of Foreign Capital Investments

- Tourism sector in Turkey has become an open sector for foreign capital in the rate of 100 %.

- Temporary Importation Convenience

- The Certified Businesses can import the materials they need which are complement for service through the temporary admission in accordance with the provision of The Article No:119, Customs Act 1615.

- The Loans given by The Development Bank of Turkey and The Export Credit Bank of Turkey (Turk Eximbank)

- The Development Bank of Turkey has been allocating and giving medium-long term investment and operation loans and also short term loans to the companies that deem appropriate in the tourism sector provided its own sources and from foreign sources as a result of the project evaluation activity.

It is seen that the various incentives such as the tax reduction including the reduction in consumption of electricity and water when the incentives examined, and providing easy loan, including the reduction of property tax as a major item when a loan is needed. This shows that The State gives importance to the sector and this is an indication of need for all kinds of investment that will be held in the sector as economical.

Also, the government organizes some carnival, fair and congress about some tourism types for increasing tourism capabilities and tourist numbers in this area. One of these organizations is National Saint Nicholas Festival that is organized in Demre in 6-8 December. Lots of People from different country visit Demre for this Festival during this time (Cetin ve Cabar, 2008). Saint Pierre Day, another important activity for all people that believe in different religions is organized in Hatay in June 29. Also, Meeting of Civilizations in Hatay that was organised in 2005 is an important activity for Religious Tourism (Tosun ve Bilir, 2008)


Culture and Tourism Ministry aims 35 million tourists and 30 billion USA Dollars tourism revenue for the year 2013; 42 million tourists and 66,8 billion USA Dollars tourism revenue for the year 2023. (kultur.gov.tr, 2012). To achieve this prediction and target, "Amending the Law on Encouragement of Tourism Law No 4957" was issued in 2003 by making changes on Tourism Encouragement Law No 2634. Modern land allocation are considered as the main subject by structuring this Law, and planning based on the importance of the point of arrival Fundamentals of management systems are proposed.

When considered the values of the country in tourism sector in Turkey, it is observed that the development still could not be achieved sufficiently. Therefore, despite having quite ideal facilities with various aspects for tourism in The Mediterranean Region, only a portion of the potential can be used, due to the necessary arrangements have not been made on time. Some problems located within the travel sector are caused to the reason of this situation (Sertdemir, 1996)).

According to estimates of World Tourism Organization (2012), the growth rate of The European Market gradually will slow down; the growth rate of The Mediterranean Market where Turkey is located will also slow down; but as an exception, Turkey and the East-Mediterranean market growth rate is expected to increase. In this context, the process of infrastructure which shows reaction for the trends of ups and downs of the country should be accelerated; also the sustainable tourism should be achieved which is among the important concept of our age. The required product diversification policies should be established to continue the tourism in The Mediterranean Region for 12 months.

Training of skilled personnel in tourism in addition to the discovery of a solution for the macro issues that related to the promotion and marketing, and the development of tourism in the region will positively affect if the decision makers related to the regional context of tourism start the process of a conscious tourism planning by considering the development of regional tourism as a longer term.


1. Bingol, Z. (2004). Akdeniz Bolgesini Kultur ve inang Turizmi Potansiyeli Agrsrndan Degerlendirilmesi, Bilgi 8 Sosyal Bilgiler Dergisi, 1, 125­137, Istanbul.

2. Bingol, Z. (2007), Gelenekten Evrensele Anadolu'da inang Turizmi. Detay Yayinlari. Ankara.

3. Cengiz, Z. (2012). Turizmde Devletin Duzenleyici Rolu Nerede?, Turizm Gazetesi, http://kariyer.turizmgazetesi.com/articles/article.aspx?id=63266, Eri§im Tarihi: 12.06.2012

4. Ceken, H. (2003). Kuresellesme, Yabanci Sermaye ve Turkiye Turizmi. Degi§im Yayinlari. Istanbul.

5. Cetiner, 1. ve Caber, M. (2008). Akdeniz Bolgesi, Antalya, Gurkan AKTAS (Ed.), Turkiye Turizm Cografyasi 213-235, Detay Yayinlari, Ankara

6. Dogmu§, O. E. (2010). Antalya Orneginde Ulusal Turizm Politikalarinin Sorgulanmasi (Yayinlanmamis, Doktora Tezi), Izmir: Dokuz Eylul Universitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitusu.


7. Gezici, F. (1998). Sйrdйrйlebilir Bdlgesel Kalkinma Amacinda Turizm Eylemlerinin Etkisi: Tmkiye Uzerine Karsrlastrrmah Bir Arastrrma (Yayimlanmamis, Doktora Tezi), lstanbul: lstanbul Teknik Universitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitusu.

8. Mimarlar Odasi Antalya §ubesi, (1996), Antalya Kryr Yerle§meleri; Planlama, Yaprlanma, Kullanma ve Sorunlarr, Antalya.

9. Sertdemir, C. (1996). Akdeniz Bdlgesi Kryr Seridi illerinin Turizm Potansiyeli Afisrndan Arkeolojik Degerleri (Yayinlanmamis Yuksek Lisans Tezi), lstanbul: lstanbul Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu.

10. Toker, B. (2007). Krkiye'de Turizm Sektdm TesviklerininDegerlendirilmesi, Celal Bayar Unv. llBF Dergisi, 14(2): 81-92

11. Tosun, C. ve Bilim, Y. (2008). Akdeniz Bolgesi, Hatay ve Kahramanmaras, Gurkan AKTA§ (Ed.) Turkiye Turizm Cografyasi 2З-255, Detay Yayinlari, Ankara.

12. UNWTO. (2011). Tourism Report Outlines Huge Growth Potential and Chinese Travel and Spending Boom. UNWTO.

13. WTTC. (2009). Travel and Tourism Economic Impact. WTTC

14. www.kultur.gov.tr (Eri§im Tarihi: 25.10.2011).

15. http://www.oka.org.tr/ContentDownload/okatesvikvedesteklerekitap180820111.pdf

16. http://plan9.dpt.gov.tr/oik49 turizm/49turizm.pdf

17. http://www.turistikblog.blogcu.com/, (Eri§im Tarihi: 10.06.2012)

18. www.wto.org (Erisim Tarihi: 25.10.2011).


Туристичний сектор Туреччини, починаючи з 1980-х років, особливо з набуттям чинності закону про «Стимулювання туризму» № 26З4, показав безперечне зростання, як туристичного попиту, так і числа туристів. Найбільший шматок пирога інтенсивного розвитку і збільшення доходів, безсумнівно, належить Середземноморської області, завдяки силі тяжіння Анталії. При вивченні заохочень, що здійснюються державою для пожвавлення туристичного сектору, були відзначені: зниження податків, зниження тарифів на електроенергію і воду, безперешкодне надання кредиту в разі потреби і звільнення від податків на нерухомість. Все це показує, яке значення надає держава даному сектору та економічну необхідність різного роду інвестицій в туристичний сектор. Метою даної роботи є описове визначення впливів державної туристичної політики, заохочень і підтримки Туреччини, на розвиток туристичного сектора Середземноморської області. Підготовка кваліфікованих кадрів у сфері туризму, вирішення основних питань реклами та маркетингу, зародження свідомого процесу планування регіонального туризму уповноваженими особами, що сприймають розвиток даного виду туризму як довгостроковий процес, і регіональні заохочення позитивно вплинуть на розвиток туризму.

Ключові слова: туристична політика, Середземноморська область, стимулювання туризму. PE'HOME

Туристический сектор Турции, начиная с 1980-х годов, особенно со вступлением в силу закона о «Стимулировании туризма» за 26З4, показал бесспорный рост, как туристического спроса, так и числа туристов. Самый большой кусок пирога интенсивного развития и увеличения доходов, несомненно, принадлежит Средиземноморской области, благодаря силе притяжения Анталии. При изучении поощрений, осуществляемых государством для оживления туристического сектора, были отмечены: снижение налогов, снижение тарифов на электроэнергию и воду, беспрепятственное предоставление кредита в случае необходимости и освобождение от налогов на недвижимость. Все это показывает, какое государство придает значение данному сектору и экономическую необходимость различного рода инвестиций в туристический сектор. Целью данной работы является описательное определение влияний государственной туристической политики, поощрений и поддержки Турции, на развитие туристического сектора Средиземноморской области. Подготовка квалифицированных кадров в сфере туризма, решение основных вопросов рекламы и маркетинга, зарождение сознательного процесса планирования регионального туризма уполномоченными лицами, воспринимающими развитие данного вида туризма как долгосрочный процесс, и региональные поощрения положительно повлияют на развитие туризма. Ключевые слова: туристическая политика, Средиземноморская область, стимулирование туризма.


After 1980s, the tourism sector in Turkey has shown an undeniable growth in terms of not only the tourism supply but also the number of tourists who come, especially after the 26З4 number Tourism Incentive Law went into effect. It is seen that undoubtedly the Mediterranean Region gains the biggest part from this growth and from the increasing income rate by the attraction of Antalya. When the incentives produced by the government to revive the tourism sector are examined, different incentives are observed varying from tax deduction, deductions for consumption of electricity and water, providing easy credit when needed to property tax exemption. This implies the importance the government gives to the sector and the indicator of economical need for any kind of investment that will be realized in the sector. The aim of this study is to state how the government-based tourism policies, incentives and supports applied in Turkey affect the improvement of the tourism sector in the Mediterranean region in an explanatory way. Within this context, besides cultivating educated personnel in tourism, finding a solution for the macro subjects about publicity and marketing, decision makers of tourism starting a conscious tourism planning process by undertaking the tourism development as a longer process will affect the development of tourism in the region with incentives in a positive way. Keywords: Tourism policy, The Mediterranean Region, Tourism incentives.


Биркентале B.B., к.э.н., доцент кафедры менеджмента и хозяйственного права Донецкого национального технического университета Зима A.A., аспирант кафедры «Экономическая кибернетика» Донецкого национального университета

Постановка проблемы. Анализ современных условий хозяйствования показывает, что процессы глобализации, формирования интеграционных блоков и структур способствуют созданию благоприятной социально-экономической ситуации в странах, вовлеченных в данные процессы, однако - и создают условия для активной конкурентной борьбы. Протекающие интеграционные процессы побуждают предприятия активно адаптироваться к требованиям мирового рынка, воздействию внешнеэкономической конкуренции.

Одним из важных путей формирования, развития и поддержания конкурентных преимуществ отечественных предприятий на мировой арене становится совершенствование управления их конкурентоспособностью.

Aнализ последних исследований и публикаций. Исследованию вопросов конкурентоспособности, в целом, и управления конкурентоспособностью предприятий, в частности, посвящены работы таких ученых как Портер М., Денисова А.Л., Гарачук Ю.А., Савчук В. И., Довбуш Р.А., Кузьмин О.Е., Царенко О.В. [1-7]. Однако, в данных работах не уделялось достаточного внимания вопросам взаимосвязи процессов управления конкурентоспособностью предприятия и повышения рейтинга конкурентоспособности страны.

В связи с этим целью данной статьи является анализ рейтинга конкурентоспособности стран-участниц ЧЭС в международном сопоставлении, динамики отдельных составляющих конкурентоспособности предприятия, выявление степени влияния внешних и внутренних факторов на конкурентоспособность отдельных предприятий и страны в целом.

Pезультаты. Анализ позиций стран в рейтингах ведущих мировых организаций показывает, что страны с высоким уровнем конкурентоспособности и экономической свободы обладают большим экономическим потенциалом, который непосредственно отображается в высокой экономической активности предприятий. В мировой практике для сравнения позиций стран широко применяется индекс глобальной конкурентоспособности (ИГК), при расчете которого учитывается 12 основных компонентов (субиндексов). Указанные

© Биркентале B.B., Зима A.A., 2012компоненты объединены в три группы, в рамках которых им присвоен определенный вес. Кроме учета весовых коэффициентов, при анализе влияния отдельных компонентов на общее значение ИГК, немаловажной является стадия развития экономики страны.

Мировой опыт свидетельствует, что практически всем странам-лидерам, имеющим значительный уровень экономической свободы, уровень ВВП на человека в которых составляет свыше 20 тыс.дол., присущи следующие признаки: свободное ценообразование, высококонкурентная рыночная среда, эффективное налоговое администрирование, низкий уровень коррупции и т.д. Так, в странах с мощной экономикой показатель ВВП на человека составляет свыше 40 тыс.дол., уровень экономической свободы - 75%, а среднее значение индекса глобальной конкурентоспособности пятерки стран-лидеров составляет 5,54 [8].

Рассмотрим положение стран-участниц ЧЭС в рейтинге глобальной конкурентоспособности стран мира по данным Всемирного экономического форума. Из таблицы 1 видно, что в рассматриваемом периоде тенденция к снижению как рангового показателя, так и ИГК присуща Греции, Сербии и Украине. Неоднозначна ситуация в таких странах, как Россия и Румыния. Следует отметить, что не всегда изменения рейтинга вызваны существенными изменениями значения ИГК. Часто рейтинговые колебания той или иной страны связаны не столько с понижением/повышением ее ИГК, сколько с относительными изменениями рейтинга других стран.

Анализ мирового конкурентного положения Украины за последнее десятилетие показывает, что после спадов и подъемов в рейтинге на протяжении 2001-2006 гг. последние 5 лет Украина демонстрировала устойчивое снижение позиций (рис.1). Несмотря на то, что в 2011 г. Украина поднялась на 7 позиций в рейтинге и с индексом 4,0 занимает 82 место (из 142 стран мира), необходимо отметить, что она еще не достигла докризисных показателей 2007 г.

Таблица 1.

_Рейтинг стран ЧЭС по индексу глобальной конкурентоспособности за 2006-2011 гг. [составлено по 8-12]

Страны ЧЭС












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