Л И Антошкина - В рамках черноморского экономического сотрудничества и гуам - страница 66
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У статті дано аналіз потенціалу розвитку сфери туристичних послуг країн Причорномор'я, особливу увагу приділено розвитку туризму в Україну.
Илючов! слова: туризм, туристичні послуги, туристичний сектор, інфраструктура, інвестиції. PEHOME
В статье дан анализ потенциала развития сферы туристических услуг стран Причерноморья, особое внимание уделено развитию туризма в Украине.
Kлючевые слова: туризм, туристические услуги, туристический сектор, инфраструктура, инвестиции.
The article analyzes the development potential of the sphere of tourist services of the Black Sea, it focuses on the development of tourism in Ukraine. Keywords: tourism, travel services, the tourism sector, the infrastructure investment.
PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT OF INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL COOPERATION OF ENTERPRISES FROM POLAND AND
Nowak D., PhD, Lecturer Poznan University of Economics, Chair of Management and Enterprises Resource Analysis
During last years there is noticed the dynamic increase in cooperation and cooperating among the different economic entities. Cooperation, apart from innovation, takeovers and competition, constitutes one of crucial factors of the enterprises development and expansion, enabling this way entry onto new markets, getting thin reserves, optimization of production processes as well as the access to global and international markets. In the public discourse it is emphasized that through the active cooperation the companies may limit the activity costs, share the risk, obtain the exceptional knowledge and gain the access to technology and sources in the frame of different forms of connections [Bengtsson and Kock 2000, 411-426 p.; Dudzik 2005, p. 5; Janasz 2006, p. 180; Charles, Gay and Essinger 2002, 16-17 p.; Golebiewski 2003, 166-167 p.; Pahkowska 1998, p. 14].
Analysing issues of the cooperation and its influence on the competitive position of enterprises the special attention should be put to aspects of international links appearing among enterprises from different countries. It is shown that a number of motives, including market and pricing motives and the ones connected with the investment climate, belong to main factors inducing undertaking of direct inward investments [Witkowska 1996, 5558 p.]. Thus, the motivation of companies for committing itself to international cooperation can be analysed from the different points of view, both internal and outside prospects in economic, production, organizational and marketing area, and particularly in the processes of information division, development of products and processes [Sakakibara 2001, p. 994; Bayona, Garcia-Marco and Huerta 2001, p. 1281; Wognum, Fischer and Weenink of 2002 p. 341; Lenz-Cesar and Heshmati 2009, p. 5].
In spite of the number of benefits resulting from cooperation the enterprises relatively rarely enter higher levels of relationship which would fully let them exploit the potential connected with the joint realization of targets It is so because it is slowed down through the range of barriers of both the internal and external capacity.
Taking into account the above assumptions the aim of this paper is the analysis of basic barriers and defects of cooperation development among the enterprises localised in Poland and Ukraine.
© Nowak D., 2012
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Antagonism in inter-organizational relations.
Each cooperation, every collaboration has smaller or bigger contribution to the conflict development which should be treated as the typical phenomenon appearing in the case of taking a joint action through two or large number of enterprises [Payan 2007, p. 225; Plank and Newell 2005, p. 59]. In inter-organizational relations it applies to the mutual interactions and processes which are taking place between the cooperating subjects. The conflict can be understood as the situation in which at least one out of few enterprises carrying a joint undertaking, is perceived as incompatible with others. It means that its resources, capacities, experience or the key competences are not compatible with the signed alliance. Differences in the scope of the role, purposes, the culture and beliefs can be a base of the lack of compatibility which disable the proper communication and coordination of actions. In this context a negative aspect of conflict, which as far as possible should be quickly and effectively solved, is underlined [Tidstrom 2009, p. 507]. Its elimination requires significant efforts and usually of long term, which has unfavorable influence on different kind of costs. Additionally the conflict results influence both the quality of product and services, unproductive behaviours as well as improper cooperative relations [Skarmeas 2006, p. 568]. It may be emphasized that it is the phenomenon which should be avoided in the relations occurring among the enterprises.
Conflict can be examined as the essential problem having an influence on activity of the organization [Duarte and Davies 2003, p. 93; Dyer and Song 1998, p. 505; Gobeli, Koening and Bechinger 1998, p. 423]. In theory as well as the practice of the economic life it is underlined that an agreement, a mutual confidence and engagement of all participants taking part in collaboration are the basic conditions of cooperation. In case when one side will undertake the opportunist, dishonest action or exploit the other side (and it will be noticed by this partner ) the agreement for cooperation will be withdrawn. The result will be breaking off negotiations and backing out of the cooperative system. The conflict situation appears as the result of different business practice, the tradition and adopted norms. It can lead to antagonisms, frustration and the hostility with the tendency of „pushing" the subject beyond the arrangement and consequently to the disintegration of relation [Leonidou, Barnes and Talias 2006, p. 580]. It appears when the parties (or at least one of them) perceive that others undertake actions making it difficult to achieve purposes and appointed tasks.
According to Vaaland and Hakansson [2003, p. 128] the conflict origin is a situation in which one partner fully understands expectations towards him but he is rejecting the methods of acting and behaving of the second partner. They emphasize that conflict exists when incompatible and unsynchronized actions appear.
Some authors treat conflict as the process [Rosenberg and Stern 1971, p. 437] which starts in the moment when one side notices that different one negatively interacts with something what is an object of the care and concern of the first one. Thus, it is the situation in which one side perceives that behavior of the different side of the same cooperative connection stops or delays achievement of its goals [Duarte and Davies 2003, p. 93; Chang and Gotcher 2010, p. 287; Skarmeas 2006, p. 287; Webb and Lambe 2007, p. 31].
Causa of Measurable level Outcomes
conflict * of conflict * (behavioral
Structural and Behavioral reaction
attitudinal factors (conflict resolution
Picture 1. Conflict as the process
Source: L. J. Rosenberg & L. W. Stern, 1971, Conflict Measurement in the Distribution Channel, Journal of Marketing Research, vol. VIII, p.
Similarly the conflict is analysed by Pondy [1967, p. 296] and Leonidou and others [2006, p. 580]. They treat it as the gradable escalation of destabilization of behaviours states consisting of five phases:
• hidden conflict which its source of origin can have in rivalry for thin reserves, attempts to limit the autonomy or diversification of purposes,
• awareness of conflict (perception) which can arise from the earlier phase or result from the lack of mutual understanding and difficulties or dislike for communication and information exchange,
• feeling of conflict, it is connected with personalization and intense individual feeling which may be caused by e.g. the pressure, the attempt of influence and interactions,
• demonstration of conflict, it refers to behaviour which enable the realization of purposes of other participants,
• results of conflict which are shown in the combination of effects of the above episodes.
This way perceived conflict can assume both open as well as hidden character. Open character refers to the situation of a head to head battle, hostile moves or truculent action. Hidden one refers to secret and covered activities taken by the dissatisfied partner which behaviour is unchangeable.
Interaction of Poland with Ukraine.
Ukraine is one of the biggest neighbours of Poland. The border between the countries amounts to over 500 km, the area of Ukraine is almost twice as bigger (603.7 km2 thousand) and the population number (about 45 million) is bigger than Polish population (38 million) for about 16%. Since 2008 Ukraine become a member of WTO (World Trade Organization) and as the participant of the organization accepted the sequence of obligations, in it of concerning liberalization of access to the market. At the moment Ukraine carries on negotiations with the EU concerning the association agreement, of which an integral part is supposed to be agreement on the free trade zone.
Business activities between Poland and Ukraine, after the significant recess in 2009, have been stabilized in 2010 and they have the growth tendency both in scope of import as well as export in the consecutive years. The balance of turnovers is positive for Poland.
_Commercial exchange between Poland and Ukraine in millions of USD during the years 2007 - 2011_
Source: GUS (main statistical office)
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Analysing1 presented data it is possible to state that turnover of goods between Poland and Ukraine achieved in year 2011 almost 7.5 billion USD and was higher for about 30% in comparison to the year 2010. However, it should be emphasized that it still didn't reach the level from the year 2008, in which the trade took amounted to almost 8.8 billion USD. The export of goods from Poland to Ukraine amounted last year to almost 4.7 billion USD and the import of goods from Ukraine achieved 2.8 billion USD. It means, in comparing to the year 2010, increase in both export as well as import. It should be underlined that definitely the increase in import is faster and achieved the greatest value in the recent years.
The slow increase rate in goods supply from Poland to Ukraine caused that the position of Poland as the commercial partner of Ukraine in 2011 had deteriorated a little bit. The share of Poland in the combined value of turnovers of foreign trade of Ukraine decreased from 4.08% up to the 3.96% and Poland fell from fourth to the fifth position amongst the most important commercial partners of Ukraine. Poland was overtaken by Russia, Germany and China, similarly to the previous year, and additionally by Belarus. Slight significance of Ukraine in the foreign trade of Poland, although it remained relatively little, it has increased from 1.7% in 2010 to 1.88% of total trades of Polish foreign trade in the year 2011. Amongst main commercial partners of Poland this country moved in 2011 from 16 on 15 position.
The main goods of Polish export are: electrical-machinery industry products (mainly supplies of vehicles and machines and devices), chemical, smelting, paper-arboreal products, agricultural and alimentary products and mineral products. The structure of the Polish export to Ukraine was favourably diversified in the year 2011. It should be emphasized that the share of only processed products is on relatively low level.
However, in scope of goods import from Ukraine to Poland it is shown that the supplies concern metallurgical and smelting products, mineral and chemical industry products, including ores and concentrates of iron as well as products of electromechanical, timber and agricultural -alimentary industry.
It should be underlined that according to data of the State Committee of Statistics of Ukraine, till 1 July 2011 Polish enterprises invested 894.4 million USD on the area of Ukraine. Poland has a 12th space on the list of the largest foreign investors in the Ukraine, between Italy (945.6 million USD) and Switzerland (872.3 million USD).
Barriers of the cooperative relations development between the enterprises from Poland and Ukraine.
Empirical examinations concerning conditioning, character and barriers of the relation development between cooperating enterprises had a form of a survey and they were conducted in the years 2011/2012. The aim of this study was to identify essential problems which appear during common tasks realization between Polish enterprise and its foreign contractor. It concerns both the internal ones depending on cooperating subjects as well as the ones which are conditioned with requirements of outside national administration. The basic domain of the examined trial was production activity, production & servicing activity and commercial one. In the examined group there were identified both enterprises dealing with the import of goods and products as well as those ones which deal with the export and possessing of raw materials and products from Ukraine. The considerable part of enterprises was dealing with both the import and the export. It should be emphasized that examined enterprises are actively cooperating with partners from Ukraine realizing from a few to several dozen percent value of the own turnover.
_Barriers of development of the cooperative relations between Polish and Ukrainian enterprises_
Production & commercial & servicing
Essential factors influencing blocking of relation
enterprises N = 36
Internal factors (dependent on cooperating enterprises):
Developed bureaucracy, extended procedures and the extension of administrative
Problems with the free flow of goods across the border
Lack of the transparency, great instability and changeability of Ukrainian legislation causing the interpretative freedom
Financial barriers and those connected with the financial resources flow
Unclear competences of public administration and economy
High costs of international cooperation
Requirement of obtaining of permissions and concessions on the central level
Requirement of obtaining of national approval and registration of determined goods registration
Extension of administrative and court procedures
Necessity of certification of imported products
External factors independent of cooperating enterprises
Absolute mistrust for the partner
Shortage of full information about the contractor (especially about its financial
Low involvement of the foreign partner in the joint realization of purposes
Illegibility of foreign partner competence
Lack of staff with the appropriate abilities and qualifications
Lack of coordination of activities and synchronization of processes between
Diversification in managing systems
Conflict in scope of strategic decisions
Noncompliance with judicial decisions
Linguistic and communication problems
OW - percentage indicate Source: own study
Examinations had character of survey works which were taken by e-mails. Altogether 36 enterprises which represented SMEs took part in the examination. The domain and activities of the examined trial was very wide, represented by numerous businesses and kinds of activities what made it impossible to create the cohesive analysis. However, it should be emphasized that a lot of interesting data was obtained and they can be the basis for analyses and future inquiries.
As part of the conducted examinations respondents were asked for assessment of a dozen or so variables which can contribute to limitation of cooperative relations development. The evaluation in five-degree scale of Likert, was the following: 1 - lack of influence, 2 - not very essential
1 On the Basic: Wydzial Ekonomiczny Ambasady RP w Kijowie www.kiev.trade.gov.pl z dnia 12.06.2012 r.
ПPOБЛEMЫ И ПEPCПEKTИBЫ RA^B^M COTPУДПИЧECTBA MEЖДУ CTPAПAMИ ЮГO-BOCTOЧПOЙ EBPOПЫ B PAMKAX ЧEPПOMOPCKOГO ЭKOПOMИЧECKOГO COTPУДПИЧECTBA И TCAM influence, 3 - average influence, 4 - essential influence and 5 - very essential influence. Variables were worked out on the basis of state-of-the art, the survey and critical dissertations of the author. The detailed data is presented in Table 2.
Analysing the obtained results it is possible to state that examined respondents ranked, among the most essential outside problems, the developed bureaucracy and extended procedures as well as the complicated procedure of the public administration of Ukraine (significance factor S = 4.27). Significant shortcomings concern also the free flows of goods across the border (significance factor S = 3.96). However, it should be emphasized that this problem is connected with the first barrier and concerns both the rules dictated by the Polish as well as the Ukrainian legislation. Among other external barriers the contractors indicated that the unclear law regulations and their optional interpretation by the office workers are effectively discouraging from establishing the cooperative relations (significance factor S = 3.82). Cooperative relations are also limited by financial barriers, especially through the lack of abilities of the free flow of financial resources (significance factor S = 3.74). It should be underlined that the free flow of financial resources could contribute to development of black economy and organized crime. The much lower significance is given to the tariff barriers (S = 2.92) and requirement of certification of the chosen products (S = 2.75). Polish entrepreneurs realize of necessity of markets security and thus they undertake a sequence of operations with adaptation character to the requirements imposed by the public administration.
Taking into account the second group of barriers it is visible that the development of cooperative relations is above all impeded by the mistrust for the partner (S = 4.17). It should be emphasized that the confidence isn't only a problem occurring during the cooperation with a foreign contractor. It constitutes also the basic barrier for the development of the relation between enterprises working on territory of Poland. Its low level results from historical and cultural conditions which didn't allow to work out the cooperation procedures and methods based on the full commitment, activity and mutual understanding. Problems connected with obtaining of information concerning the contractor, especially in the scope of its financial position, are the next shortcoming effectively impeding the development of relation (S = 4.02). The full and reliable information guarantees higher level of cooperation and possibility of using the effect of the synergy thanks to the equalization of risk. Unfortunately contractors unwillingly share the information concerning their own activity being afraid of unethical use of the partner. And so they agree for the lower level of cooperation even at their expense of lower profits and benefits. Polish contractors also complain for small engagement of Ukrainian partners in the process of realization of mutual purposes (S = 3.75). However, it seems that these issues have symmetrical and interdependent character what means that for them that the deeper engagement of Polish partner, the deeper engagement of the Ukrainian partner. Among other problems impeding the development of cooperation it is worthwhile to point at illegibility and incompetence of partners (S = 3.67). The majority of enterprises indicate on many domains of activities what causes vanishing of specialization and problems in determining of the profession framework. However, it should be emphasized that Polish enterprises are characterized by similar features. To sum up it is worth to point out at these problems which had relatively low significance. Among them there are cultural differences (S = 2.27) and linguistic and communication problems (S = 2.24). The low significance of factors positively indicates the possibility of cooperation development among Polish and Ukrainian enterprises in the future.
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І для польських, а також українських підприємств розвиток відносин співробітництва може стати істотним стимулом, що впливає на збільшення конкурентоспроможності. На жаль, цей розвиток стримується цілою низкою перешкод, як внутрішніми (підприємства), а також зовнішніми (диктується місцевими та державними органами управління). Таким чином, основною метою є спроба ідентифікації цих бар'єрів і пошук рішень.