Л И Антошкина - В рамках черноморского экономического сотрудничества и гуам - страница 92

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Дело, 2003. - С 294-29З

3. Зайцев Е.И. Логистика и синергетика. Новая парадигма в теоретической логистике ІІ Логистика в управлении цепями поставок. - 2004.

-№ 1. - С. 7.

4. Гребнев Е.Т. Управленческие нововведения. - М.: Экономика, 198З. - 1б0 с.

З.     Богданов А.А. Тектология. Всеобщая организационная наука. - М.: Экономика, 1989. - Т.2. - С. 11б

6. Портер М. Международная конкуренция. - М.: Международные отношения, 1993. - С. 173.

7. Monge P., Fulk J. Communication Technology for Global Network Organizations І Newbury Park. 1998. p. 28.

8. Quinn J.B. Outsourcing innovation: The new online of growth. Sloan Management Review 41 (4) 13-28; Reich R. The work of nations. New York: The Free Press. 1991.

PE'ilOME

В статті досліджено принципи формування синергічних зв' язків інновацій з процесами функціонування складних логістичних систем.

Kлючoві слова: синергетика, комерція, логістика, інновації, промислові логістичні системи.

PE'ilOME

В статье исследованы принципы формирования синергических связей инноваций с процессами функционирования сложных логистических систем.

Kлючевые слова: синергетика, коммерция, логистика, инновации, промышленные логистические системы. SUMMARY

The article studies the principles of synergistic connection of innovation with the processes of complex logistics systems functioning. Keywords: synergetics, commerce, logistics, innovation, industrial logistics systems.

MODERN TOURISM DEMAND INFLUENCE ON DESTINATIONS

Khokhobaia M., PHD Student Faculty of Business and Economics Tbilisi State University, Georgia Arghutashvili V., PHD StudentFaculty of Business and EconomicsTbilisi State University, Georgia

The nature of the development of tourist places and the continued evolution of tourism itself are subjects which have been addressed by many authors over the past half century. This chapter discusses the nature of the process of tourism-related developments, and the changes which tourism has undergone since it became a global phenomenon. It is argued that modern or current tourism is the result of evolutionary rather than revolutionary change and that the future of tourism will be similar in many respects to its present form. The logic behind this argument is discussed below and some examples are provided to aid the discussion.

Tourism is a large and complex phenomenon, with economic, environmental and socio-cultural implications for places and populations which become involved with it. It is both subject to change as a result of external factors and is itself a major agent of change. Tourism, like any other economic and social phenomenon, cannot be examined out of context. It is the result of the interplay of local, national and international forces, trends and mindsets, along with the influence of individual key actors, political ideologies, world events (natural and human) and changing tastes of consumers. Of particular significance for tourism is technological change.

Cost, rather than time or distance, is now the principal limitation to travel, and as travel costs have continuously declined over the last half century, coinciding with a general rise in living standards and incomes, at least in the industrialized world, the potential for tourism has increased enormously. Over the last two decades in particular, improvements and innovations in communications and information technology have made available to consumers greatly increased information and flexibility to use that information, as well as helping to further reduce cost and time needed to arrange travel and other elements of vacations. The overall result has been a vast increase in tourist travel, driven by a much greater range of destinations and travel options being made available to and taken up by tourists. New destinations appear annually, reflecting the potential for income generation in those locations and also the potential traffic seen by those providing transportation, particularly low-cost airlines.

All of this growth, however, has somewhat served to mask the fact that tourism itself has not changed appreciably in many respects: as discussed below in more detail. The opportunities to engage in tourism in many more locations, at lower costs and for shorter periods of time have greatly increased the choices available to potential consumers. Similarly, there has arisen greater scope for specific forms of tourism, often of a more individual nature, particularly in terms of making arrangements and travel decisions. Thus, forms of tourism such as ecotourism, cultural tourism, heritage tourism and music tourism have been hailed as indicative of the 'New Tourism [1], although, in fact, these forms of tourism have been present since the beginning of tourism itself [2]. What is new is the scale of these specific forms, but as overall tourism numbers have greatly increased over the last half century, it is not surprising that the numbers engaging in specific forms of tourism have also increased, and thus become more visible to observers. This is not to deny that elements of tourism have become part of the 'postmodern' life, but it should serve as a reminder that many of the elements of tourism remain relatively unchanged, in spite of the fact that the scale and spatial patterns at the global level may have changed, and at the local level major developments have occurred.

Such developments, however, always need to be examined in the context of the overall global change in areas such as technology, affluence and political stability.

Reasons for places becoming involved in tourism are varied. In some cases communities may see tourism as a means of economic development and be keen to become a tourist destination. In other cases, communities may be selected by individuals (entrepreneurs), by agents such as tour companies, or, as in earlier years, by railway companies, as potential tourist destinations and be developed accordingly. In a way similar to the effect of railway expansion in the nineteenth century, airlines—particularly the budget airlines—have been responsible for a rise in tourist visitation to a number of destinations simply by selecting them as suitable locations for new services from developed country markets. Irrespective of the way in which tourism has been introduced to destinations, the end results have been very similar in many cases. The impacts of tourism development have been well documented, for example by Mathieson and Wall (1982), and Pearce (1995), and there is now a considerable body of literature on the way in which destinations develop and change as a result of the arrival of tourism. The commonality of many of the effects of tourism in terms of the process of development of tourist destinations has been noted by several authors and has been encapsulated in the Butler's Tourism Area Life Cycle model [3]

© Khokhobala M., Arghutashvlll V., 2012 330

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The development of destinations would appear to owe much to chance and serendipity. Whims of entrepreneurs and of initial visitors, good or bad fortune in terms of physical events, fortuitous or unfortunate timing of economic or political events such as market downturns, increases in price of oil, revolutions or coups, can leave a potential destination stripped of its potential for a considerable time, while another place may suddenly benefit from a competitor's misfortune. In many cases, such eventualities may not only be unforeseen but also unavoidable, in the sense that the causal events may be completely beyond the control of the destinations involved. A smooth, planned and controlled pattern of development of a tourist destination along a predetermined and anticipated route is the exception rather than the rule.

Yet, it is argued, the end result in terms of the process of development is often very similar, and in many cases even the physical form or morphology of destinations may be very much the same [4]. In terms of coastal destinations where the focus is the beach, or winter sports destinations where the focus is access to slopes, the morphology of respective destinations bears many similarities. In recent years, this may be because it may be the same architects and development corporations which are copying each other and using a tried and successful model: whereas, in earlier years, it was perhaps more a function of basic economic geography, namely, getting the consumer as close as possible to the main attraction and charging them more the closer they were to that attraction. Maximizing access to the beach or the boardwalk influenced hotel and other accommodation, location and pricing, just as a room with a sea view still holds a premium in terms of price over one looking out on to a car park.

Tourism destinations face specific problems as they develop, which accounts in part for the similarity of the development process. What attracts tourists initially is itself subject to change and even removal. Such change and disappearance may not be intended or even noticed for some time, and in some cases, it can be argued that it may not matter if the criteria for success are measured in a relatively short-term economic context. However, there is an inescapable fact—those responsible for many destinations seem to fail to note or acknowledge that development inevitably means change, and changing the appearance and attractiveness of a destination almost equally inevitably means changes in market appeal. Tourists, who came because a place was undeveloped, cannot be expected to return when that location is developed, or at least changed beyond a certain degree. What is unknown, in most cases, is what the limit of acceptable change to any particular market is, before that market rejects that destination and searches for another. As the market for a destination changes, new replacement markets have to be found, and inevitably, those new markets will demand a different set of facilities and attractions. As these are provided, new competitors will appear and destinations have to constantly examine their attractions and offerings to stay competitive.

A major problem is that few destinations have a single agency controlling their destiny. In writing this chapter, one rule of English has already been broken, that inanimate objects should not be personalized and given powers of action, by implying that destinations are capable of creating policies and shaping their own futures. In reality, of course, it is politicians, planners, private-sector developers, NGOs and residents who do this, and they are often in disagreement with one another or even among themselves; but development and change goes on regardless. Plans will be made identifying locations for development and preservation; policies will be made endorsing plans and concepts such as sustainable development, when along will come a development proposal or a major transportation modification, which would appear to provide great benefits—normally economic— to the community, and plans would be revamped and policies changed. Rearguard actions to prevent development in many countries are rarely successful over the long term, and in many less developed countries such efforts may be unpopular if they appear at all, where economic development alternative to tourism does not exist. It is important at this point to argue that tourism is not always about development, and that development and change are not always negative in their effects. While academics are experts and chase for the facts to note the negative effects of tourism, governments and their consultants are equally effective at noting the economic benefits. Irrespective of the relative accuracy of either camp, the fact remains that in many tourist communities, tourism is regarded in a positive light, even though residents may be very capable of noting the problems it can

cause and things they do not like about either tourism or tourists. In the same way, while everyone can identify the problems with automobiles, such as pollution, costs, road requirements, accidents and personal injuries, most people in developed countries own and use cars, and are very reluctant to give them up or reduce their dependence on them. Communities which are dependent upon tourism, see tourism not as an agent of change but as an agent of stability and necessity, and often see nothing wrong in expanding facilities and infrastructure to increase tourism in their community. If something such as tourism is providing jobs, income and taxes to a community, and resulting in improved facilities and access, then it is unrealistic to expect residents of that community to want to halt further development without it being explained to them that further development may result in ultimate decline and abandonment of tourism, if certain thresholds are exceeded. To make such an explanation convincingly is extremely difficult, and too many people, would appear to be inconsistent and illogical, as well as potentially risky.

There is a widespread misbelieve that tourism is highly dynamic, and constantly changes and takes on new forms in new places. There is no doubt that tourism is a dynamic phenomenon nor that elements of it do change frequently, but at its core it is remarkably static. It is essentially subject to iterative or evolutionary change, rather than revolutionary development, except in a very small number of areas. By this is meant, that most tourism destinations and forms of tourism develop with incremental changes on what has gone before. Thus, tourist destinations tend to contain 'relics' of an earlier period of development; the now anachronistic Boardwalk in Atlantic City,[5] which is rarely visited by millions of gamblers; or the piers of particularly British coastal resorts. In some cases, the 'Grand Hotels' have survived, been upgraded and modernized, and are still attractive and elite, as a glance at Nice and Cannes, especially during the annual Film Festival will confirm. In other areas—the spa town of Atami in Japan for example—they have disappeared, moved down market or been converted into retirement or residential developments. Tourists may no longer come in great numbers by train as a century ago, but the streets leading from the station to the Peak Value Intersection of Stansfield and Rickert's (1970) Recreational Business District still contain retail outlets catering to visitors more than to locals. Often, the pattern of seafront development is still dominated by functions which would be hard pressed to justify their existence or economic viability if they were being developed today.

Just as many destinations have continued to attract tourists, although often in declining numbers from their heyday, and perhaps for different purposes and different lengths of stay, so too the market has remained remarkably consistent. The bulk of tourists still go to the same destinations or certainly the same regions to which they have been going for decades. At the global level, there is great consistency and stability in tourism (UNWTO

2010).

There would be absolute chaos if it were not so. Investment in tourism infrastructure is enormous and relies heavily on stability and return visits, at least over a reasonable period of time. Blackpool and Brighton in England have been tourist destinations for over 200 years[6], as has Niagara Falls, and while they have changed beyond all recognition in that time, they still attract tourists from their original English urban family market.

They do not attract an identical market (in the case of the English resorts, this is families staying for one or two weeks, travelling to and from the destination mostly by rail, while for Niagara Falls, the market is mostly couples from north-eastern North America plus foreign visitors) but what the markets do when they are on holiday in those destinations is very similar to what the original markets did in those destinations a century or more ago (relaxing on the beaches and the piers in the English resorts, and viewing the waterfalls and visiting unrelated attractions at Niagara Falls). In many respects it would be difficult for them to do much else, although they may do things in a different way today and stay for shorter lengths of time, arriving by different modes of transport.

Thus, tourists today go to many of the same destinations as did tourists two centuries ago, and undertake the same activities today, which their predecessors did then. Where new attractions have been added, they often mimic existing features; new museums, new places of entertainment, new locations for eating and drinking, and new facilities from which to view the city. Often, as older and less traditional tourist cities attempt to renovate themselves, particularly perhaps nineteenth century industrial cities such as Birmingham, they turn back to attractions and facilities that are based on historic forms of leisure. In the case of Birmingham, renovating the Canal Basin, providing walking areas and open piazzas for the public, and providing eating and entertainment facilities (Murayama 2004); in other words, attempting, with some success, to convert their town centres to something akin to what may have been found a century or two earlier, when people perambulated around a city centre and spent time eating, drinking and observing society. In conventional 'holiday resorts', the beach is still the primary attraction, although the 'sun' has become of much more significance than a century ago, but the three 'S's of 'sun, sea and sand' tourism shows little sign of declining in popularity.

The great dynamism in tourism in reality is at the fringes, and is often marked by the appearance of niches, beloved by marketers and frequently claimed as 'the fastest growing segment of the market'. New destinations also tend to be described in similar terms. Given the global numbers of

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international tourists, some 937 million according to the United Nations World Tourism Organization[7], perhaps 10 million engaging in ecotourism is not very important compared to millions engaged in mass tourism? The attention given to this one small element of tourism is all out of proportion to its significance and value (in academic terms it even has its own respectable referred journal, Journal of Ecotourism), and one might be forgiven for thinking that everyone was becoming an ecotourist and mass tourism was disappearing according to some predictions. Part of the reason for this is related to the reason as to why the term 'sustainable' is used so frequently to describe forms of tourism (and other activities).

There is always a great tendency to see developments in the contemporary period as something new and significant, and often to see or portray such forms as indicative of different trends and to be the originators of new patterns. Thus, in tourism there has been very great attention paid to supposedly 'sustainable tourism' and also to 'New Tourism', often with the corollary that the 'old' forms of tourism, particularly mass tourism, are declining. This is not only highly unlikely, but also misleading and naive. The statistics of UNWTO shows that the value and importance of tourism are increasing, and it is generally accepted that tourism has increased consistently since the Second World War. The vast majority of tourists are what can best be described as conventional tourists, that is, they visit popular destinations, stay in conventional accommodations, use public transport and their own cars, and engage in a common set of activities. Many of them utilize the services of agents, including tour operators, travel agents and commercial airlines. It is acknowledged that a considerable and increasing proportion make individual arrangements through the Internet rather than using a traditional travel agent, whose services have not changed greatly since the days of Thomas Cook, but this does not mean that their tourism desires and activities have changed significantly, if at all. It must be remembered that 'New Tourism' includes not only individually arranged ecotourism or gastronomic tourism, but also participation through package deals in mass visits and disco parties at Ibiza and Falaraki. This latter form could, quite legitimately, be considered to be a new form of cultural tourism. Most tourism is still conventional mass tourism; it has been that way for more than a century and is likely to continue that way through the next century, although the way of making reservations and choosing destinations may continue to change[8].

In recent years, the decline of communism has added many potential tourists to the world total from the countries of Eastern Europe, as well as adding many potential new destinations, including Georgia. Many of the East European tourists are likely to travel as mass tourists, reflecting both their low budgets for some time to come, and the fact that package tourism is the easiest way to travel to foreign countries for those unfamiliar with this luxury.

In addition, the world is only just beginning to experience the emergence to two potential markets that will make existing ones look small by comparison, namely those of China and India. The sheer size of their population base ensures that even if only a very small proportion of their populations are able to travel abroad, they will add large numbers to the existing market. If they travel in the same way as the Japanese began to travel abroad some decades ago[9], then they will begin at least with package mass tourism to the major tourist attractions.

Conventional tourist destinations are still needed and will be needed in the future to continue to cater to the vast majority of tourists, and it is important to be able to understand the process of development that they are likely to go through. Thus, our recent inquiry of Tbilisi residents shows that almost 82% of respondents prefer to spend their summer holidays together with their families in such traditional resorts of Georgia as Borjomi, or Batumi, then somewhere else.

British tourist resorts are preparing for a change in national level policy on gambling and some at least are anticipating major casino development and seeing this as a key tool of rejuvenation. Few seem to have learned or wish to learn from the experience of Atlantic City and other places which have used this method of economic rejuvenation[10], and the predictable pattern of development and change which is likely to result. The rapid rise in popularity of destinations such as Prague and Dublin, as a result of changes in accessibility stemming from low-cost air links to the UK and other West European markets seems to have been viewed as a new permanent feature of life in those centers, rather than being seen as an economic boom which could disappear just as quickly as it developed. The life cycle of destinations and the pattern and pace of development have accelerated in the last few decades. A process which took destinations a century or more to complete, is now being experienced in less than a quarter of that time. Wolfe (19бб) pointed out a long time ago that tourism growth cannot continue at a rapid rate in perpetuity, and places which have lost their unique attractions, and rely on common and easily duplicated man-made features face an uncertain and probably unsuccessful future over the long term[11].

This important consideration has to be taken in account while developing new destinations in Georgia. In this context attention should be focused on unique destinations and on preservation of their unique characteristics. In this case, we suppose, that it was batter to develop in Mestia an ethnic tourism, with placing hotels in existing unique towers and promoting ancient culture and traditions, rather than constructing airport, skiing infrastructure and modern hotels.

There seems a failure to appreciate that attractions created on the basis of current or anticipated tastes are not likely to remain attractive to sufficient numbers of people in the future to assure economic viability, particularly when such attractions are often replicated in many locations. In this case, it's important to direct Georgian Tourism development on and pay more attention to specific, extraordinary places in our country that could remain interesting for visitors for a long time.

While this is not to argue that tastes do not change, it is appropriate to comprehend that some attractions such as the Pyramids, the Grand Canyon, the Great Wall of China and the masterpieces of the Renaissance are still capable of drawing large numbers of tourists to them.

True sustainability involves more than nomenclature and requires the appropriate incorporation of economic, environmental and social elements to retain its long term appeal. In a decade or two's time, the 'New Tourism' of the end of the twentieth century is likely to be seen as a minor perturbation in the long-term evolution of tourism and the destinations which serve it.

REFERENCES:

1. Poon, A. 1994. 'The 'New Tourism' Revolution', Tourism Management.

2. Hibbert, C. 19б9. The Grand Tour. New York: George Putnam's Sons.

3. Butler, R.W. 1980. 'The Concept of a Tourist Area Cycle of Evolution: Implications for the Management of Resources', The Canadian Geographer, XXIV(1): З-12.

4. Stansfield, C.A. and J.E. Rickert. 1970. 'The Recreational Business District', Journal of Leisure Research.

З.     Stansfield, C.A. 1978. 'Atlantic City and the Resort Cycle: Background to the Legalization of Gambling', Annals of Tourism Research.

6. Gilbert, E.W. 1939. 'The Growth of Inland and Seaside Health Resorts in England'

7. UNWTO, 2010 Facts and Figures

8. Butler R., 2008, 'Modern Tourism and Its Development in a Post-Modern Age', Tourism Development Revisited, SAGE Publications.

9. Iwashita, C. 2004. 'Media Construction of the UK as a Destination for Japanese Tourists', PhD thesis, University of Surrey, Guildford

10. Stansfield, C.A. 1978. 'Atlantic City and the Resort Cycle: Background to the Legalization of Gambling', Annals of Tourism Research.

11. Wolfe, R.I. 19бб. 'Recreational Travel: The New Migration Revisited'.

PE'ilOME

Туризм є великим і складним явищем, з економічними, екологічними і соціально-культурними наслідками для населення і місць, які пов'язані з ним. Туризм, як і будь-яке інше економічне та соціальне явище, це результат взаємодії місцевих, національних та міжнародних сил, тенденцій, політичної ідеології, подій у світі. В останні роки, падіння комунізму додало багато потенційних туристів, в тому числі і до Грузії.

Kлючoві слова: туризм, турист, тенденції розвитку туризму. PE'ilOME

Туризм является большим и сложным явлением, с экономическими, экологическими и социально-культурными последствими для населения и мест, которые связаны с ним. Туризм, как и любое другое экономическое и социальное явление, это результат взаимодействия

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местных, национальных и международных сил, тенденций, политической идеологии, событий в мире. В последние годы, падение коммунизма добавило много потенциальных туристов, в том числе и в Грузию. Kлючевые слова: туризм, турист, тенденции развития туризма.

SUMMARY

Tourism is a large and complex phenomenon, with economic, environmental and socio-cultural implications for places and populations which become involved with it. It is both subject to change as a result of external factors and is itself a major agent of change. Tourism, like any other economic and social phenomenon, is the result of the interplay of local, national and international forces, trends, political ideologies, world events and changing tastes of consumers.

In recent years, the decline of communism has added many potential tourists to the world total from the countries of Eastern Europe, as well as adding many potential new destinations, including Georgia. Many of the East European tourists are likely to travel as mass tourists, reflecting both their low budgets for some time to come, and the fact that package tourism is the easiest way to travel to foreign countries for those unfamiliar with this luxury. Conventional tourist destinations are still needed and will be needed in the future to continue to cater to the vast majority of tourists, and it is important to be able to understand the process of development that they are likely to go through. Thus, our recent inquiry of Tbilisi residents shows that almost 82% of respondents prefer to spend their summer holidays together with their families in such traditional resorts of Georgia as Borjomi, or Batumi, then somewhere else. Keywords: tourism, tourist, tourism trends.

БЕЗОПАСНОСТЬ ТРАНСПОРТНОГО ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ ЛОКАЛЬНОЙ ДОСТУПНОСТИ РЕГИОНА

Цумаева А.С., к.э.н., доцент кафедры технологий международных перевозок и логистики, Приазовский государственный технический университет

Постановка проблемы:

Реформирования хозяйственного комплекса и государственного устройства Украины обусловили необходимость изменения содержания взаимоотношений государственного и регионального уровней управления с целью повышения вклада каждого региона в развитие хозяйственного комплекса Украины. Государственная региональная политика призвана обеспечить дееспособность региональной политики на местах, которая направлена на обеспечение согласованного и взаимно неразрушающего развития всех элементов пространственно локализованной среды на конкретной территории.

Экономическая самостоятельность региона выражает степень обеспеченности его экономическими ресурсами для самостоятельного, заинтересованного и ответственного решения социально-экономических вопросов, которые входят в компетенцию регионального уровня хозяйствования. Территориально-производственный комплекс (ТПК) значительная территория, где расположена группа взаимосвязанных предприятий и организаций, составляющих единую технологическую цепочку, комплексно использующих природные ресурсы и получающих дополнительный эффект за счет сокращения транспортных затрат [1; С.112].

Именно транспортная инфраструктура в рамках любого региона должна гарантировать необходимые условия для функционирования и развития основных отраслей производства и обеспечивать максимально эффективное использование экономического и производственного потенциала, т.е. полностью удовлетворять спрос данной территории в транспортных услугах.

Формирование необходимых условий сбалансированного, рационального размещения и

функционирования транспортной инфраструктуры, устранение имеющихся диспропорций между ней и другими отраслями экономики требуют разработки стратегии ее развития на среднесрочные и долгосрочные временные горизонты.

Анализ последних исследований и публикаций:

Проблемы развития инфраструктуры различных отраслей на региональном уровне исследовались в работах ведущих ученых: Л.И. Абалкина, A.JI. Гапоненко, В.Ф. Уколова, В.Н. Бугроменко, Н.Н. Громова, B.C. Лукинского, P.M. Нуреева, В.А. Персианова и других.

Определяющий вклад в развитие теоретических аспектов развития инфраструктуры внесли зарубежные ученые, такие как Д. Бенсон, X. Зинтер, П. Розенштейн-Родан, Д. Уайтхед, Д. Уотерс и др.

Вместе с тем, следует отметить, что многие теоретические, методологические вопросы исследований региональной транспортной инфраструктуры недостаточно изучены и требуют дальнейшего научного осмысления и развития. Таким образом, проблемы эффективного функционирования региональной транспортной инфраструктуры, а также отсутствие единых методических приемов анализа ее развития предопределили выбор темы данной статьи.

Выделение нерешенной проблемы:

Анализ существующего состояния транспортной инфраструктуры показывает, что она не отвечает требованиям данного этапа развития экономики страны и не обеспечивает возможность улучшения транспортного обслуживания в перспективе. Возникает необходимость изучения проблем развития транспортной инфраструктуры как одного из важных системообразующих элементов рыночной инфраструктуры региона. Следовательно, необходимо углубленное исследование роли транспортной инфраструктуры на региональном уровне и ее влияния на функционирование национальной экономики.

Стратегическая цель развития транспортной инфраструктуры - удовлетворение потребностей инновационного социально-ориентированного развития экономики и общества в качественных транспортных услугах, конкурентоспособных с лучшими мировыми аналогами.

В современных условиях перманентно растут требования к качеству транспортных услуг, как со стороны отдельных отраслей национальной экономики, так и у населения. На первый план выходят потребности в мобильности как способу управления жизненным пространством. Важными критериями определения качества становятся скорость и своевременность пассажирских и грузовых перевозок, их надежность и безопасность. Этот же фактор является решающим при выборе населением способов передвижения. Социально-экономическое развитие страны обуславливает опережающий рост активности населения, а значит, и спроса на обеспечение своей мобильности. Удовлетворяя, в основном, платежеспособный спрос на перевозки грузов и пассажиров, транспорт еще не обеспечивает адекватных условий для эффективного социально-экономического развития страны. Высокий уровень транспортных тарифов сдерживает развитие внутренних и внешних экономических связей, ограничивает подвижность населения. Слабо используются выгоды географического положения Украины для получения доходов от экспорта транспортных услуг.

Уменьшение доходов транспортных организаций из-за спада объемов перевозок при одновременном росте цен на необходимые им технические средства и материалы, топливо и энергию привели к существенному замедлению обновления основных фондов всех видов транспорта и ухудшению их состояния. Износ основных производственных фондов транспорта достиг 55-70%. Значительная часть подвижных транспортных средств работает за пределами нормативного срока службы [2]. В этой связи на первый план выходит вопрос эффективности системы общественного транспорта как инструмента социально-экономического развития.

Целью научной статьи является исследование основных тенденций комплексной модернизации транспортной инфраструктуры на региональном уровне. Анализ направлений модернизации транспортной инфраструктуры региона с выявлением путей повышения качества безопасности транспортного обеспечения и локальной доступности на региональном уровне.

Результаты исследования:

© Цумаева A.C., 2012

Очевиден тот факт, что рост экономической активности граждан вызывает еще более высокий рост их мобильности (подвижности). К увеличению мобильности людей подталкивают как поиски достойной работы (когда они выступают в роли трудовых ресурсов), так и увеличение объемов потребления материальных и нематериальных благ, обусловленное, с одной стороны, ростом предложения, а с другой - покупательной способности. Рост уровня автомобилизации населения является прямым следствием изменения характера и объема спроса на передвижение под воздействием активизации процессов экономического развития. По данным Государственной службы автомобильных дорог Украины "Укравтодор", в течение 2000-2010рр. нагрузка на украинские трассы выросла на 50%. Как следствие, 80 тыс. км. (приблизительно половина всех дорог в Украине) в настоящее время несут опасность для водителей [3].

Следовательно, необходимо построить систему обеспечения мобильности, максимально соответствующую ожиданиям населения, сэкономив при этом ресурсы. Это возможно только на основе эффективной работы предприятий пассажирского транспорта и, как следствие, существенного повышения качества предоставляемых ими услуг. Для этого необходимо дальнейшее инновационное развитие отрасли, широкое использование современных транспортных и информационных технологий. Анализ различных способов обеспечения растущей мобильности людей приводит к объективному выводу о том, что всем перечисленным требованиям соответствует лишь система, в основе которой находится общественный транспорт. Этот факт признан практически всеми развитыми странами планеты и большинством других [4; С. 6].

Только комплексный подход к развитию общественного транспорта при использовании всех имеющихся ресурсов, будет способствовать выполнению такого плана в полном объеме и кратчайшие сроки. Для этого необходимо обеспечить решение задач безопасного и эффективного функционирования системы пассажирского транспорта; проводить необходимые расчеты и учет основных показателей работы; осуществить непрерывный контроль движения транспортных средств на линии и оперативно устранять возникающие нарушения перевозочного процесса. Так, по статистическим данным на физический износ дорожного покрытия повлияла недостаточная периодичность текущих и капитальных ремонтов (соответственно, через каждые 5 и 12 лет) и, также нехватка финансирования. Учитывая, что сегодня капитального ремонта требует 70% украинских автодорог, на него понадобится около 60 млрд. евро [3].

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