Т С Медведкин - Проблемы развития внешнеэкономических связей и привлечения иностранных инвестиций региональный аспект - страница 66

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4. Петренко П. !ндустріальні парки - нова годівниця для ПР? / П. Петренко [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу : http://www.pravda.com.ua/columns/2012/06/18/6966935/

З. Чи варто бізнесменам вкладати гроші в індустріальні парки? [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу : http://forbes.ua/nation/1336404-stoit-li-biznesmenam-vkladyvat-dengi-v-industrialnye-parki.

6. Логістика та індустріальні парки можуть покращити економіку прикордонних регіонів [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу : http://zaholovok.com.ua/logistika-ta-industrialni-parki-mozhut-pokrashchiti-ekonomiku-prikordonnikh-regioniv

7. Русин Н. Особливості організації обліку іноземних інвестицій та їх залучення в економіку Закарпаття / Н. Русин, Л. Русин, I. Дишко [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу : http://www.nbuv.gov.ua/portal/natural/Nvuu/Ekon/2012_36/statti/6_5.htm

8. !ндустріальний парк з елементами логістики «Берег-Карапти» [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу : http://bereg-karpaty.com/

9. «Iндустріальний парк з елементами логістики «Берег-Карпати» на українсько-угорському кордоні» [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу : http://www.zia.uz.ua/ua/projects/36-coast-carpathians.html.

10. !ндустріальний парк «Соломоново» [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу : http://investments.uz.ua/ua/investment-proposals/industrial-parks/1573-industrialnyj-park-lsolomonovor.html.

11. Науково-технологічний парк «Яворів» [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу : http://tp-yavoriv.at.ua/index/pro_tekhnopark/0-10.

12. У Новому Роздолі та на Яворівському полігоні будуть індустріальні парки [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу : http://zik.ua/ua/news/2012/09/21/369612.

13. У Львові з'явиться індустріальний парк «Рясне-2» [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу : http://galinfo.com.ua/news/118337.html.

14. Закон України «Про наукові парки» [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу : http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/закон україни про наукові парки. - Ст. 4.

1З. Українсько-польська транскордонна співпраця у сфері підтримки інновацій та енергозбереження [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу : http://www.uintei.kiev.ua/viewpage.php?page id=341.

16. Створення технопарків, техноцентрів та вільних економічних зон - австрійський досвід [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу : http://www.ukrexport.gov.ua/ukr/torg_econ_vidn/aus/3900.html.

PEЗЮME

В статте предлагается анализ возможностей и особенностей использования инновационной инфраструктуры в трансграничных регионах Украины та ЕС с точки зрения законодательства, готовности регионального менеджмента, существующих барьеров и стимулюрующих факторов развития периферийных территорий.

Илючевые слова: трансграничный регион, инновационная инфраструктура, индустриальные парки, технопарки PEЗЮME

В статті аналізуються можливості та особливості використання інноваційної інфраструктури в транскордонних регіонах України та ЄС з огляду на законодавче забезпечення, готовності регіонального менеджменту, існуючі бар' єри та стимулюючі чинники розвитку периферійних територій. ІСлючові слова: транскордонний регіон, інноваційна інфраструктура, індустріальні парки, технопарки

SUMMARY

In statte offers an analysis of the capabilities and features of the innovation infrastructure in cross-border regions of Ukraine and the EU with regard to legislative support, willingness of regional management, existing barriers and stimulating factors of peripheral areas. Keywords: cross-border region, innovation infrastructure, industrial parks, technology parks

PErHOHAJFbHMH ACIIEKT

DEVELOPMENT TENDENCIES AND THE STRUCTURE OF SERBIAN FOREIGN TRADE

Milovanovic G., PhD University of Nis, Faculty of Economics, Nis 1 Radisavljevic G., MSc Municipality of Sokobanja, Sokobanja,

Breakup of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and subsequent sanctions imposed by the European Union and the United Nations Security Council against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia resulted in the decline in volume of its industrial production and the decline in the value of foreign trade. Bad conditions that foreign trade was faced with in the nineties had a significant impact on the structure of exchange of goods by purpose. Low-level processing products and semiproducts had a significant role in the export of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia although their share in the world export was declining during the nineties. These tendencies showed that domestic export had not followed the world trends of import demand and that the traditonal export structure had been slowly changing. When the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia opened the gates of the international markets in October 2000, there was a significant growth of exchange of goods, which manifested itself until 2008.

In the second quarter of 2008, export started stagnating, after which it significantly declined. The identical situation occurred at the world level. At the beginning of 2009, decline in export and import continued. In 2010, Serbian export achieved slight growth, which resulted from moderate growth of domestic demand.

Modified Gini-Hirschman coefficient of concentration of the export goods points to the level of specialization of Serbian export offer. Relatively low value of this coefficient points to the odds and ends and the lack of competitive products. Apart from that, Grubel Lloyd's index of intra-industry trade of Serbia points to unfavourable structure of its exchange. Since the existent economy structure does not offer the possibility of increase of sustainable export, influx of foreign direct investments which would change the structure of production and export becomes necessary. With the purpose of achieving that, it is necessary to improve the investment climate in the country and stimulate the influx of foreign direct investments into those sectors that can be the generator of export and economic development in the years to come.

1.     DETERIORATION OF STRUCTURE OF EXPORT AND IMPORT OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA

Export and import of goods drastically declined in the last decade of the twentieth century. Besides, structure of export and import in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia experienced significant deterioration. From 1979 to 1990 the import structure of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had a tendency of deteriorating, which was reflected in the fact that the share of the import of consumer goods in the total import grew whereas the share of the import of equipment declined. From 1990 to 2000 decline in the import of equipment continued. At the same time, growth of the import of consumer goods continued as well, so that in 2000 it amounted to 45.5% of the total import of goods. Low share of equipment in the import structure of goods resulted from various factors. The most important of them were reflected in the economic crisis, bad investment climate, breach of financial relations with foreign countries, decreased possibility of getting long-term loans due to high indebtedness, insufficient domestic accumulation and inadequate customs policy. All this had an impact on the technological lagging of domestic production behind the world trends and brought about the decline in export's competitiveness.

Drastic deterioration of the export structure in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia manifested itself as well. In addition, structural changes in its export and import were in complete disharmony with the structural changes in the export and import of a great number of countries. Export of raw material was the main export component of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1990 to 2002. High export of raw materials resulted from insufficient competitiveness in the export of high-level processing products. Instead of the growth of the share of the export of industrial products in the total export, the opposite trend could be seen. In some years, the share of the excport of expendable goods in the total export equaled 35%, which made almost more than one third of the total value of export. In this period, the share of equipment export in the total export equaled 12.8% in 1990, whereas in 2002 it equaled 7.3% [3, p. 265].

The structure of the foreign trade, analyzed with respect to the purpose of the exchanged goods, reflects the level of development of the structure of domestic production. High share of raw materials and low-level processing products in domestic export points to the need for the changes in this structure. It is necessary to increase the share of high-level processing industrial products which are internationally competitive and increase the influx of foreign exchange. Apart from that, export structure should be harmonized with the structure of the world import demand with the purpose of realizing long-term growth of export.

2. WORLD TENDENCIES AND THE STRUCTURE OF EXPORT AND IMPORT OF GOODS

Nowadays the economy of one country can be efficiently involved in the world development trends without the involvement of its foreign trade. Growing production of one country requires market oportunities that are higher than the ones offered at the national level because over time domestic market becomes too tight for the advanced production. "In the last decade of the 20th century world economy was characterized by the dynamic growth of foreign trade. From 1990 to 2000 the volume of world's export of goods grew by average annual rate of 7%, whereas the annual growth of the world's gross national product in the same period equaled 2.5%. Therefore, the rhythm of growth of the world's export was almost three times more dynamic in relation to the growth of the world's gross national product" [2, p. 36].

Long-term tendency of strengthening the role of industrial sector in the world's export was marked by the dynamic growth of share of machines and transport equipment. Technological progress stands for an important factor in the process of creating competitive advantage of one country over another. A country which becomes the leader in the production of a certain product on the basis of technological progress has a significant influence on the world's trade. Certain advantages in the world's trade in industrial products are based on technological advantages. Changes in the structure of production and export ensure the growth of the world's trade in industrial products. Nowadays these products stand for the skeleton of the world's exchange of goods. Modern world trade is primarily based on the exchange of goods among countries with high income and high demand for international products. Growth of income results in the growth of the total demand as well as in diversification of demand. Due to the fact that people in developed countries have high income, they often have the opportunity to buy domestic as well as imported products. World trade is developing most intensively among countries with similar, that is, high income.

3. DYNAMICS AND STRUCTURE OF SERBIAN EXCHANGE OF GOODS

From 2000 onwards high economic growth in Serbia was mostly based on domestic demand and the influx of foreign capital. However, the share of Serbian export in the gross national product equaled about 20%, whereas in cases of other post-transition economies it amounted to 50%-80%. From 2005 to 2008 the level of import was higher than the level of export, so that Serbia was in deficit in each observed year. Global economic crisis slowed down the growth of the world economy due to decreased demand in developed economies. Fall in demand on the European market, which stands for the biggest export market for Serbia, had a negative impact on its foreign trade. Nevertheless, Serbian export started showing signs of recovery in the second quarter of 2009. The value of domestic export was still low in comparison to Germany and France, as well as in comparison to advanced countries in transition in which export was 6 to 11 times higher per capita. In 2010 movements of export and import resulted in higher coverage ratio of import by export, rebalance of economy to the benefit of export and positive contribution of net export to economic recovery. Fast recovery of export resulted from the export of iron, non-ferrous metals and agricultural products. Low level of intra-industry trade of Serbia reflects unfavorable structure of Serbian trade. On the average, this coefficient stands for two thirds of the same indicator of trade in case of advanced countries in transition. Coefficient of intra-industry trade of Serbia is relatively low. From 2000 to 2004 no significant changes of this coefficient were recorded. Its fast growth was recorded from 2005 to 2009, while in 2010 it slightly declined.

© Milovanovic G., Radisavljevic G., 2013

nPOEJIEMM PA3BHTHH BHEIIIHE3KOHOMHlIECKHX CBJBEH H IIPHBJiEHEHHJI HHOCTPAHHMX HHBECTHЦHH:

PErHOHAJIbHIjIH ACnEKT

2000.    2004.    2005.    2006.    2007.    2008.    2009. 2010.

Figure 1. Grubel-Lloyd's index of intra-industry trade - Serbia and the world from 2000 to 2010 [8, p. 8]

During the nineties, the value of this coefficient in advanced countries in transition significantly increased, which pointed to the positive changes in the structure of their foreign trade. Coefficient of Serbian export offer points to the low level of speialization, unfavourable economic structure and the lack of certain competitive products. There are only several groups of products that have a significant share in domestic export. These products are low-level finalization products, that is, products belonging to agroindustrial complex (fruit, sugar), products belonging to the industry of base metals (steel sheet, copper, aluminium) or car tyres and footwear. Current situation is the consequence of inherited economic structure, as well as of the attempts to increase export at all costs, which is under given circumstances possible with low-level finalization products.

Table 1. Modified Gini-Hirschman coefficient of concentration of the export goods in Serbia ___ 2000-2010 [1; 9]      ._,_,_

Year

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Coefficient

0,088

0,080

0,078

0,098

0,094

0,101

0,102

0,087

0,087

0,067

0,077

Table 1 shows that the value of coefficient of concentration of export is very low. The case is similar in developed countries. This does not point to a wide specter of Serbian export and its favourable structure, but to the odds and ends and the lack of competitive products. The solution to this problem should not be looked for in statistical repair of the structure of domestic export but in its growth, which should be based on the high-level processing products whose prices on the world market are high.

Serbia has to choose the long-term road of export diversification, based on a great number of new high-level finalization products. With the purpose of export diversification, continuation of structuring through fast privatization, influx of foreign capital and transfer of modern technologies is necessary. The growth of domestic exchange of goods in the last decade was impressive. Nevertheless, it was realized from a low base so that Serbia in absolute terms has a very low export and relatively low import. Current economic structure is not satisfactory and does offer the possibility of long-term and serious growth of export. Basic precondition for the growth of export is the change in production structure and growth of production. It is evident that Serbia is characterized by high interdependence of domestic production and export and that many situations depend on the dynamics of exchange at the global level and especially in Western Europe. Share of Serbian export of goods in the world export is still very low and equals 0.07%. Share of export of goods and services in gross national product is about 32% and is still too far away from the desired share of at

least 50% [6, p. 243].

Recent years have seen the increase in the share of raw materials in the total export of goods (66.4% in 2011), whereas the share of equipment decreased from 9.3% in 2008 to 8.4% in 2011 [4, p. 382].

Due to the legislation related to economies of scale and transport costs, Serbia is obliged to export the majority of its goods to surrounding countries and to import goods from the world market on which the goods are the cheapest. Serbia has to harmonize the export structure of its economy with the import structure of the European Union so that its competitive advantages are brought to light. In addition, Serbia has to benefit from the regional agreement on free trade signed among the Western Balkans countries and Moldavia, also known as CEFTA agreement. Serbia's most important foreign trade partners are the European Union and CEFTA, to which 9/10 of goods are exported and from which 3/4 of domestic import is made [7, p. 145]. The start of the 21st century is marked by faster growth of total trade, as well as the trade with the European Union, than it is the case with export and import from Western Balkan countries. The situation is such due to the fact that the European Union offers higher potentials for wider offer and demand of goods. Another reason lies in the problem related to the complementarity of Western Balkans economies. Serbia has entered into agreement with the countries belonging to the European Association on the Free Trade (EFTA), that is, Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.

Although Serbia has signed a great number of trade agreements, some of which include all products, it is obvious that export companies do not use them enough. Data possessed by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Serbia show that there is no coincidence of products that Serbia can export to countries with which it entered into agreement. The products that Serbia can export to Turkey practically do not exist because coincidence coefficient is very low (0.26), whereas in case of Belarus it equals 0.30. The highest coefficient equals 1. The highest coincidence is with countries belonging to EFTA group, CEFTA group and the Russian Federation. When exchange with the European Union is taken into consideration, this indicator has lower value with tendency of future growth.

"In 2010, export from Serbia to Russia increased by 53%, whereas import from the Russian Federation increased by 9.5% in relation to the previous year. In the first five months of 2011, export increased by 64.3%, whereas import increased by 35.1% in relation to the same period of the previous year" [5, p. 48]. In July 2011, new protocol on the exemption from the regime of free trade was signed between Serbia and the Russian Federation. This document liberalized 99% of trade with the Russian Federation. This ended the process of harmonization of trade of the Republic of Serbia with the Customs Union of the Russian Federation, Belarus and Kazakhstan and offered possibilities to Serbian economy to increase its competitiveness, export and exchange of goods. Apart from that, this document enabled cumulation, that is, finishing of products that arrive from Russia, Belarus or Kazakhstan. If 31% of value is added to the products that are returned to the aforementioned countries during this process, the products will obtain the status of Serbian products and will not be subject to customs taxes. Serbia has to use Russian market that has enormous potentials and on which the demand for consumer goods is still expanding. Our textile could be a matter of interest due to its quality which is much higher than it is the case with the Chinese textile, as well as our agricultural products, especially fruit (apples, pears, cherries, raspberries etc.).

Serbia is forced to strengthen its export finalization because of the European Union. Moreover, it must also use the markets with wide specter of less qualified products on which its export companies will function. Global economic crisis that produced a spillover effect on Eurozone countries has had a strong effect on Serbia. Greece, Portugal, Spain, Ireland and even Italy have a high public debt so that their needs for import of goods and services are moderate. In that situation, Serbian export-oriented countries are faced with lower demand. High concentration of Serbian export to several countries makes its growth deteremined by the movements of demand and the presence of competition on these markets. Specialization of export offer, that is, reliance on a small number of products and a small number of markets can increase the share of intra-industry

trade that could raise the quality of export offer to a higher level.

4. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS AS THE GENERATOR OF SERBIAN EXPORT Majority of foreign direct investments with which transnational companies conquer foreign markets are mostly market-oriented, which is why they are often responsible for the largest part of export of host country. Because of their size and access to distribution networks, foreign companies' entrance to export markets is easier. Entrance of foreign companies through foreign direct investments had a strong effect on the stimulation of local firms to start conquering export markets. Possibility of selling products to foreign companies stimulates local companies and obliges them to raise the level of quality and reliability of delivery. Interaction with foreign companies stimulates domestic competition to improve investments, productivity and innovations. All this results in higher economic efficiency and production that has the higher quality than it is the case with domestic firms.

In spite of the crisis, in 2010 Serbia became host of 12 new German investors located from Subotica to Pirot. Five German companies are among ten biggest exporters from Serbia to Germany. The current export leader is the company Siemens. Germany is the first Serbian export market, whereas Serbia is Germany's first partner among the countries belonging to CEFTA group, that is, former Yugoslav republics and surrounding countries. Capital that German businessmen invested in Serbia amounts to €1.6 billion, while the number of people who work in German enterprises in Serbia equals 2З.000. Due to these investments, growth of Serbian export to Germany in 2010 and 2011 equaled on average more than 20%. Serbia turned out to be an attractive production location for German investors. This confirms the fact that Germany has always been economically most dominant power in our country.

Obtaining the status of candidate for the membership in the European Union stands for an important signal for potential investors, which was also seen in other East European countries. After Fiat started its production in Kragujevac, other Italian investors showed interest for production and export. Announced coming of Italian company "Danieli" [10] to Serbia and the starting of production through greenfield investments would be a huge step towards export-oriented economic growth. This company is one of the three biggest world's manufacturers of equipment and production lines for the industry of iron and steel. It has its factories in Italy, Germany, France, Sweden, Thailand and China. Within this company's production plant in Serbia, million tons of special steel products would be produced on an annual basis. Their export would amount from 7З0 million to €1 billion. That would stand for 13% of share in the current export, which "U.S. Steel" from Smederevo managed to achieve in its best period.

Serbia has to outline a development strategy on the basis of production efficiency and focus on the product design and the ways of attracting foreign direct investments to propulsive sectors. Serbia should pay special attention to scientific and research activities since countries that make large investments in research and development achieve best export results. The focus should not only be on export of technologically sophisticated products, but on the total export and economic growth, which is confirmed by high achievements of East Asian countries.

The last decade of the 20th century was marked by the significant decline in export and import of goods in the federal Republic of Yugoslavia. What is more, the structure of export and import deteriorated. Share of the import of equipment in the total import declined, wheras the share of the import of consumer goods in the total import grew. Export of goods was in disharmony with the world export and import due to the fact that the export of raw materials represented the main export component in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, there being no competitive high-level processing products.

Technological progress is one of the most important factors of creating competitive advantage of a country. Change in the production structure and change in export stimulate the dynamics of world trade in industrial products. In the last couple of years, Serbia has been in deficit with respect to foreign trade. Its technical and technological lagging behind other countries is so high that export is still not seen as the key factor of increasing gross national product.

Global economic crisis, reflected in recession and decreased demand in developed countries, made additional contribution to the decline in Serbian export offer. Serbian export started showing signs of recovery in the second quarter of 2009. In 2010, a rebalance of economy occurred to the benefit of export and higher coverage of import by export. Trend of export growth continued in 2011, together with increased technological intensity of products.

Traditional structure of domestic export is still laging behind structural changes in the import demand of developed countries. Serbia has to engage efforts with the purpose of making export structure of its economy harmonized with import structure of the European Union. In addition, Serbia should benefit from the regional agreement on free trade signed among the countries belonging to CEFTA group and Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan.

Without the influx of foreign direct investments, Serbia cannot count on the significant growth of export potentials. The existent structure of domestic production does not give objective chances of total export growth. With the purpose of achieving the best possible foreign trade results, Serbia has to attract foreign direct investments to import sectors that are capital intensive and that could increase its export potential.

REFERENCES:

1. Customs Administration of the Republic of Serbia

2. Kovacevic M., (2002) Mectunarodna trgovina, Faculty of Economics, Belgrade

3. Kovacevic R., (2003) Ekonomski odnosi Jugoslavije sa inostranstvom, Faculty of Economics, Belgrade

4. Kovacevic R., (2012) Ekonomski odnosi Jugoslavije sa inostranstvom, CID, Faculty of Economics, Belgrade З.        Kudinov J., (2011) Geopolitika, Geopolitika press, br. 43, Belgrade

6. Milovanovic G., Zivadinovic R., (2012) Aktuelna kretanja u evropskoj i svetskoj privredi - implikacije na Srbiju, Proceedings, Faculty of Economics, Belgrade

7. Nikolic G., (2011) Kontroverze ekonomskog razvoja u tranziciji - Srbija i Zapadni Balkan, Faculty of Economics, Belgrade

8. Nikolic Goran, (2011) Special edition of EMG Intelligence Unit, NIP, Ekonomist magazin, Belgrade

9. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, (2012) Belgrade

PEЗЮME

Перша частина статті присвячена аналізу структури експорту та імпорту в колишній Союзної Республіки Югославії, яка ясно вказує на зниження експорту та імпорту товарів і погіршення структури експорту та імпорту в останні десятиліття XX століття. Через слабкий технічного розвитку, експорту та імпорту товарів були в дисгармонії з тенденціями світового розвитку в бік експорту та імпорту. У другій частині статті аналізується динаміка і структура торгівлі сербського іноземних. Низьке значення коефіцієнта внутрішньогалузевої торгівлі і коефіцієнт точкою концентрації товарів недостатньої спеціалізації експортного пропозиції і відсутність сербського міжнародному конкурентоспроможної продукції. Заключна частина статті присвячена впливу прямих іноземних інвестицій і передачі сучасних технологій на спектаклі пропозицію експорту Сербії.

Kлючовi слова: динамічна зовнішньої торгівлі, індекс внутрішньогалузевої торгівлі, коефіцієнт концентрації експорту товарів, виступи

експортного пропозиції.

PEЗЮME

Первая часть статьи посвящена анализу структуры экспорта и импорта в бывшей Союзной Республики Югославии, которая ясно указывает на снижение экспорта и импорта товаров и ухудшение структуры экспорта и импорта в последние десятилетия XX века. Из-за слабого технического развития, экспорта и импорта товаров были в дисгармонии с тенденциями мирового развития в сторону экспорта и импорта. Во второй части статьи анализируется динамика и структура торговли сербского иностранных. Низкое значение коэффициента внутриотраслевой торговли и коэффициент точкой концентрации товаров недостаточной специализации экспортного предложения иотсутствие сербского международном конкурентоспособной продукции. Заключительная часть статьи посвящена воздействия прямых иностранных инвестиций и передачи современных технологий на спектакли предложение экспорта Сербии. Kлючевые слова: динамическая внешней торговли, индекс внутриотраслевой торговли, коэффициент концентрации экспорта товаров, выступления экспортного предложения.

SUMMARY

The first part of the paper focuses on the analysis of the structure of export and import in the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which clearly points to the decline in the export and import of goods and deterioration of the structure of export and import in the last decade of the twentieth century. Due to the weak technological development, export and import of goods were in disharmony with the world's tendencies towards export and import. The second part of the paper analyzes the dynamics and structure of Serbian foreign trade. Low value of coefficient of intra-industry trade and coefficient of goods concentration point to insufficient specialization of export offer and the lack of Serbian internationally competitive products. The final part of the paper presents the impact of foreign direct investments and the transfer of modern technologies to the performances of Serbian export offer.

Key words: dinamic foreign trade, index of intra-industry trade, coefficient of concentration of the export goods, performances of export offer.

METOДOЛOГIЧИI ЗACAДИ ДOCЛIДЖEИИЯ KOИЮИKTУPИ CBITOBOTO TA PEГIOИAЛЬИИX ришсю CIЛЬCЬKOГOCПOДAPCЬKOЇ ПPOДУKЦIЇ TA ПPOДOBOЛЬCTBA

Mихайлова ЛЛ., д.е.н., професор, Сумський національний аграрний університет, завідувач кафедри менеджменту зовнішньоекономічної діяльності та євроінтеграції

Mихайлов A.M., к.е.н., доцент, Сумський національний аграрний університет, доцент кафедри менеджменту зовнішньоекономічної діяльності та євро інтеграції 1

За загальноприйнятим визначенням, методологія досліджень - це вчення про принципи побудови, форми та способи наукового пізнання і найбільш виважені та доцільні шляхи вирішення наукової проблеми. Нам видається вдалим тлумачення поняття методології дослідження одним із відомих вчених, який характеризував її як сукупність загальних установок та вихідних принципів, що регулюють і оцінюють наукову діяльність та наукове пізнання загалом [1, с. 7]. Проте, зазначає він, методологія - це одночасно і вчення про норми та правила, що регулюють специфічно пізнавальну діяльність, спрямовану на отримання спеціальних наукових знань у вигляді емпіричних фактів, законів чи теорій.

Разом з тим слід зважати на те, що визначальним в методології дослідження є використання саме тих методів економічних досліджень, які дають змогу найбільш повно охарактеризувати природу того чи іншого явища, процесу. Щодо ж методології агроекономічних досліджень, то це система принципів, положень, методів і моделей аналізу або прогнозування розвитку економічних процесів і об' єктів агропромислового комплексу, сільського господарства, сільської місцевості [2, с. 7].

Таким чином, викладені поняття випливають із беззаперечного факту про те, що наукове дослідження, яке є суб' єктивним по суті, має підпорядковуватися об' єктивним законам, що розкривають процес пізнання. А кожне методологічно вірно організоване дослідження не може не опиратися на теоретичні підвалини у вигляді законів функціонування і розвитку об' єкту дослідження, що виконують функцію засобу пізнання та забезпечують ефективне просування у нові галузі знань, пізнання, досліджень.

Зазначимо, що теорія і методологія не можуть розвиватися відокремлено. Звичайно, що виявлення та дослідження законів, рівнозначно також як і дослідження визначених понять, зокрема, формування кон' юнктури світового та регіонального ринків продовольства, прогнозування змін в стані національного ринку продовольства в умовах волатильності зовнішніх ринків, є стрижневими моментами пізнання, та може успішно здійснюватися тільки за умови їх зв' язку з законами логіки. Сучасна методологічна база аграрної економічної науки має також враховувати ті важливі зміни у зовнішньому середовищі, що відбуваються значно швидше, а ніж опрацьовуються та вдосконалюються уже існуючі методичні підходи, та зумовлюють необхідність обґрунтування та вибору нових підходів до проведення наукового пізнання.

Так, О. М. Бородіна виділяє такі особливості сучасної методології досліджень: міжгалузевий підхід, комплексне оволодіння різноманітними прийомами та методами; підвищення ролі інтуїції дослідника у процесі наукової діяльності та роль системного аналізу [3,

с. 13].

Ми, як і більшість дослідників, визнаємо важливість системного підходу та основних напрямків цього методологічного напрямку в дослідженні, хоча і не відкидаємо важливості і інших підходів: процесного та ситуаційного, які ми також застосовуємо в своїх дослідженнях за умов стрімких змін складових елементів оточуючого середовища.

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