О В Азаренко - Тлумачний словникз інформатики - страница 1

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COMPUTER SCIENCE GLOSSARY

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Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine National Mining University

COMPUTER SCIENCE GLOSSARY

Edited by Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine G. G. Pivnyak

Dnepropetrovsk 2010

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Foreword

Terminology, and naming things in general, is always difficult.

Web Services Architecture Working Group (http://www.w3.org/2002/ws/arch/).

Feci quod potui, faciant meliora potentes. I did, that could, who can, let will do better.

Dear Reader! The book which you hold in your hands, was born very uneasy. The group of authors communicating with colleagues and students, analyzing polls and tendencies of development of the subject domain, has come to thought that computer science as the interdisciplinary field of knowledge requires the special approach to presentation and explanation of terms generated by it. Therefore after long discussions it was decided to try to create something like a guidebook for permanently varying and unusually interesting field of knowledge - computer science.

This task is difficult enough at least because development the field of information-computer technologies in comparison with other world economic branches comes with the highest rates. Here only some achievements and results of 2009:

- for the first time the world sales level of portable computers like "Lap Top" (i.e. "portable" personal computers) has exceeded a break-even sales level of desktops (desktop personal computers), and this tendency continues to increasing;

- the spectrum of portable and mobile computing multifunctional devices has extended essentially at the expense of release in sale of notebooks, subnotebooks, tablet notebooks, netbooks, tablet netbooks, personal digital assistants (PDA), smartbooks, communicators, smartphones and other numerous tiny computer devices;

- computing device became even more "communicative" due to the increase of new territories cover by networks of mobile Wi-Fi and fixed WiMAX - the telecommunication technologies developed for the purpose of granting of a universal wireless communication, including Internet, on the big distances for a wide spectrum of devices (from workstations and portable computers to mobile phones);

- the number of interaction standards for various devices and formats of transfer, receiving and accumulation of complex and compound data units continues to grow;

- geoinformation systems and technologies became accessible and permanent companions of drivers, travellers, tourists, hunters and many other users positioning their location on the basis of GPS services use;

- the abstractions level of the essences considering, included in a processes of designing and realisation the information and geoinformation systems has essentially increased. For example, the only number of ontologic editors (based on corresponding ontologies languages) is already more than 50.

The unprecedented all-round distribution of computers and their introduction almost in all spheres of human activity has led to occurrence abroad the general term "computing". According to experts of the world largest information organisations, including ACM, AIS, AITP and IEEE computing includes the following branches of knowledge: computer engineering, computer science, information systems, information technologies and software engineering. In general, computing is any purposeful activity based on use of computer or a sphere of efforts application, directed to it creation. Thus, computing includes: a) designing and realisation the software and hardware

components computer systems aimed at wide spectrum of applications; b) processing, structurization and management of various types of information; c) realisation of scientific researches with use of computers; d) intelligent computer systems creation; e) creation and use of communication tools and technologies for information transfer; f) search and ranging of the relevant information according to formed inquiries etc.

In connection with the above-stated, according to authors, the work connected with terms selection, considering not only a current situation in modern computer and communicative industries development, but also integration of some interconnected terms in logically connected groups is of interest. First of all, in our opinion, it is necessary to place among them computers of different classes, programming languages, programming kinds, types of applications, program components types and some other.

For the past seven years authors, on the one hand, have become familiar with serious foreign and domestic editions which most completely reflect the main processes of structuring of terminology in the difficult world of fast developing information technologies. Here the following should be mentioned: On-line encyclopedia Wikipedia [49], on-line service of the well-known American publisher of encyclopedic dictionaries, the Merriam-Webster company [21], The English-Ukrainian explanatory dictionary on computer facilities, the Internet and programming)) under scientific edition of O.L. Perevozchikova [53], Klaus Krippendorff WEB Dictionary of Cybernetics and Systems) [17], and electronic dictionary ABBYY Lingvo 11 [133]. Each of them, as well as many other, reflects different concepts, uses own systematization and often considers terms and notions under different sight angles.

On the other hand, operation on preparation and release of textbooks on computer science [68, 69], and also two editions of specialised the English-Russian-Ukrainian dictionary on geoinformatics [50, 70] was carried out simultaneously. That has allowed to expand essentially conceptual and terminological base of the present edition.

It is extremely difficult to gather and interpret all existing terms especially those, which have interdisciplinary character. Therefore authors aspired to systems approach not only in selection of dictionary articles, but also to representation of their sense and essence. In this regard works of leading scientists from Institute of System Analysis Problems of the National Technical University of Ukraine the Kiev Polytechnic Institute) - academician National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine M.Z. Zgurovskogo, professor N.D. Pankratovoj and their colleagues were very usefull for authors [84, 104, 105].

From our point of view, one of the main problems in computer science mastering, unlike other fundamental sciences, is the increasing requirement for introduction of new terms of permanently extending conceptual base that is especially underlined by authors of serious foreign dictionaries

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(New Oxford American Dictionary , Oxford Dictionary of English , etc.). Therefore, during selection of terms and abbreviations authors experienced sizable difficulties, trying to consider interests of many various groups of readers:

schoolboys of informational lycees and students of the first years of higher educational institutions, who are often lost in abundance of the abbreviations linked to Internet technologies (HTTP, URL, TCP/IP etc.) and terms from area of information technologies, for example, such as "stack", "interface", "driver" and many others.

Teachers who requires "accompanying" terms to their courses. For example, for explaining the concept the desktop metaphor it may be useful to explain what is "metaphor", and in the term "context menu" - concept "context" etc.

1 Podcast' Is the Word of the Year (http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT= 104&STORY=/ www/story/12-05-2005/0004228195&EDATE=) Don't be a plank. Read this and get really clueful (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/08/10/nwords10.xml&sSheet=/news/ 2005/08/10/ixhome.htm.)

Office employees for whom the knowledge of computer terms is necessary. During the research which was carried out by the Computer People3 corporation, employees of offices admitted, that computer "slang" is as difficult as any foreign language studied by them. It is required more than hour of working time for them to understand, what this or that term means.

Ordinary users who not always understand the special terms designating things and the phenomena, concerning new information technologies. It was clarified during the interrogation which was carried out by American sociological organisations Pew of the Internet and American Life Project.4.

Experts in the field of information technologies whom often are useful to compare their own representation of some terms to their standard values.

Taking into account the existing situation, the majority of modern terms, according to authors of the given edition, are possible to classify in the following way.

English terms and abbreviations often used in Ukrainian-speaking articles (COM, DCOM, DLL, MSF, NET, XML, RDF, GIS, Web-services, W3C, OMG, OGC, etc.).

Often used settled Ukrainian prototypes of English terms (, , , , , , , , , , ò, etc.).

The terms having different interpretation in adjacent computer branches (an interface, a block, a segment, an alias, an adapter, an address, a platform, an architecture, a cluster, space of names, a document, a component, etc.).

The definitions concerning actively developing and accessible to almost any user geoinformation researches domain (abstract specifications OGC, address geocoding, geographical object, infrastracture of geospatial data, geoportal, neogeography, geoinformation systems (GIS), GIS-technologies, spatial analysis, etc.).

The terms, which meaning varied and continues to vary eventually (the mainframe, the document, the program, a component, services, a name, the command, level, the client, a server, safety, , a choreography, etc.).

Often used terms, which meaning is well-known, but it is difficult enough to specify these meanings because of their absence in modern dictionaries accessible to readers (a metaphor, a concept, a paradigm, cybernetics, an architecture, geoinformatics, a corporation, computer science, etc.).

The wewest terms of information-computer technologies (podcasting, fishing, a web broad gull, nano technologies, a portal, a pipeline, gadget, cybersquatter, a container, topic maps, etc.).

The dictionary contains more than 4 (the most popular and significant according to authors) terms and abbreviations from the most extensive area of computer science and definitions integrally intertwined in its substance from mathematics, electronics, linguistics, geoinformatics and many other allied industries. More than 5 8 accompanying terminological components, characteristics and if it is necessary, interpretation are given to them.

Structurally the dictionary consists of two parts - English and Ukrainian. First of all it is connected with high speed of development of information technologies in English-speaking part of Globe. Electronic articles and materials come to our compatriots basically in three languages: first of all in English, then in Russian and Ukrainian language.

Authors also have considered it necessary to put into the dictionary descriptions of the main achievements and directions of researches of some most generally used in lexicon of domestic software and equipment producers, and also foreign corporations (3COM, Apple, HP, IBM, Microsoft, Nokia, Sumsung, etc.), which become the world brands. After all having heard name Big Blue it is necessary to understand, that it is a question about slang name of the corporation International Business Machines (IBM) which has more than 39 employees on its enterprises in hundred countries of the world.

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Computer terms 'confuse workers (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/ technology/4272382.stm) 4 Pew Internet and American Life Project: Public Awareness of Internet Terms. (http://207.21.232.103/PPF/r/161/ report_display.asp)

Words in the given edition are placed in alphabetic order and, as a rule, in a singular. To Ukrainian terms the English equivalents are given, and to English-Ukrainian (placed in parentheses). Synonyms and abbreviations of resulted terms are given in square brackets after their mention. For example:

[, ], [].

If terms are linked either with abbreviations (for example, , ), or purely terms (for example, garniture ()) in the dictionary are given both abbreviations and cross references on appropriate terms.

For the terms having definitions linked to them, the reference to an appropriate context (for example, the laser printer (see the drum)) is given.

From two meanings of terms (English and Ukrainian) the most generally used is selected. Appropriate decryption is given to it, and the reference to the second is given for the first. For example, in Ukrainian part of the dictionary it is given a meaning of the term "commutator":_

commutator (switch) (see hub)

the type of the hub (or the commuting hub), which reads out the address of the assignment of each data burst and sends it in the specified port, reducing the network traffic. The standard hub copies arriving data burst and sends them in all network ports that leads to reduction of the network capacity. In one's turn, the commutator transfers data burst only to certain targets,

reducing interferences of the network traffic._

In English part of the dictionary the reference is given accordingly: switch (see commutator). In a context of presentation of direct definition of the term, the most significant information representing keywords in various scientific disciplines, technologies and computer applications is represented in italic. For example:

compilation (compile)

process of conversion of the program written in a high-level language from an initial code to an object code. Since the programmer usually writes the program in the form named by an initial code, some steps for its conversion to an executable code are required. Compilation is the first step for translation of instructions (commands) of the programming language to an object code which is written in an object file with the appropriate extension. The last step to executable code reception after the object code has been received, is processing it by linker. Linker unites units into a single whole and assigns values to all symbolical addresses, thus transforming an object code in the machine code.

If the same popular abbreviation concerns to different concepts, after it their decryptions at numbers are resulted. For example:

CRM (Customer Relationship Management - ' [, ] 볺 )

the class of corporate software, representing program intellectual resources for collection, processings, checking, analyzing and representation of the information on clients. For example in the Internet or in a corporation resources control system of CRM, ERM, ERP, SFA, etc.

CRM (Change Request Management - [])

since throughout all life cycle software is permanently exposed to changes - errors are corrected, finishings are fulfilled etc. - therefore it is very important to know what, whom and when was changed. Systems CRM carry on DB changes and offer technologies of modification contol (inquiry registration, inquiry analysis, making decision on change, change implementation, testing, inquiry closing).

CRM D (Client relations management - 䳺 볺) _it is a marketing strategy unit._

1

One of the major components of the dictionary, according to authors, is representation of multifunctionality of the same term on the one hand, and its diversities on the other hand. It first of all goes about usage of the same term in different branches of knowledge (for example, the term "aperture" is used in following disciplines: a) optics; b) telecommunications; c) BIOS of the computer; d) fiber-optic technologies, etc.). Besides, the same term often characterizes specification, technology, implementation etc. For such cases, in the dictionary the enumerated appropriate semantic decryptions on the most widespread areas of the use, and also possible

interpretations are given. For example:_

aperture (aperture)

the chunk of memory addresses of the PCI type, which is selected in addresses of graphics memory. The cycles accessing to these addresses, do not demand translation and are transferred directly in AGP. Besides, the size specifies the maximum volume of system memory selected for storage of textures. It means, that to video cards the address space is given independently of actual capacity of a video memory of the card. The aperture size slightly affects the common productivity of system. However, the majority of modern 3D-accelerators demands much more than 8 MB of the aperture for normal functioning.

(in electronics CAD) a photoplotter diaphragm with which help the flare of a photosensitive layer is made. It has various sizes and forms.

(in antennas) the part of a plane limited by an edge of a paraboloid of the antenna.

0 diameter of a lens of an objective or diameter of the main mirror is named the aperture of the telescope.

(remote sensing) the Field of view. The solid (tetrahedral) corner, presence of objects in which, forms the image in the course of remote sounding or at perspective visualization. Usually only the width of the corner is set in degrees, and the height is defined proceeding from a format (aspect) image._

argument (argument) (see parameter)

m a science under argument understand an opinion (or a collection of opinions), grounded on the scientific facts and coercend as the proof of the validity of other opinion of higher order (theory, law, concepts etc.).

(prog.) value or the address transferred to procedure or function at the moment of call. For example, in the sentence in the BASIC language Y = SQR (X), X is an argument of function SQR (fulfilling rootsquaring). Arguments of procedures and functions in a number of programming languages are named as actual parametres.

(math.) some independent, variable quantity on which value depends values of the function (see Function).

0 (UML) the link (reference) defined for some parameter which resolves binding of the

copy. A synonym - actual parameter (actualparameter). Contrast - parameter._

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