О В Азаренко - Тлумачний словникз інформатики - страница 36

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(abstraction) ( . abstractio - )

. ( ) ', ' , , . . .

(UML) , .

(conceptual abstraction) (. )

, , () - (reverse engineering) (forward engineering), - (reengineering). , , , .

(avatar)

() 㳿 - . . ', . (automaton)

, - 䳿 .

( ) () , . ꠠ , 頠 . (automation)

(.) , .

(.) ( .. ), (). , , (), . . , .

(automatic production)

, , , ' , . - , . ' , (), (), - . () (office automation)

. ' , , , , .

(computer-aided programming) (. CASE)

'.

[] (automatic information system)

- , 㳿 , - - . ³ ò .

- [] (computer-aided information retrieval system)

- , ' , , , () , .

(computer-aided data processing)

, . (. CASE) (computer-aided system)

() , .

[] (computer-aided control system, automatic control system) (. [], )

( ) , , , , - , '.

(Ӡ ) -ࠠ ,  - ' - (, , , .). (. CAD)

/ (. CAD/CAM) [] (workstation, engineering workstation) (. )

, ' , , .

, , . , , ' ' . , : ' , , , , . (automation)

, . ' , , , . , .

, , . , .

(automatic control system)

', , . - . , . (off-line) (. off-line, )

, . off-line ( ). , 䳿 .

(authorization) (. , )

(.) , , . , , .

() .

[] (knowledge autoformalisation, auto-formalizing of knowledge, formalization of knowledge)

(IT) 1980- .. ' 䳿 -'. '. (, ' , ). , ' 򳺿 , , (. ). , : " - , () '". : " " " : ", .. . - .: , 1984.

(agent, : intelligent agent, crawler, robot, spider) ( . agents (agentis) - ) (. crawler, robot, spider, amop)

(M/) , / , ' . . - ', - . , . , ( ). . ϳ (network management system, NMS). , SNMP-, , SNMP- NMS.

(Imepem) ( ), ' , ( 䳿, ). . , , intelligent agents ( ), PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) -personal agents ( ). knowbots ( , ) droids ().

(W3C) , 䳺 ', . . Spider.

() , : ) ( ); ) (, () ); ) ( ); ) ( ); ) ( , ); ) ( ); ) ( 䳿  ); ) ( ); ) ( ). [ ] (user agent)

(ز) , . () OSI, . , . (aggregate data)

, ' , , . , , structure array. (aggregation)

'. - ', - () () ().

(COM) ' ', , (containment). . containment.

(aggregation of information)

(.) , , , , , . . [ ] (. Ada)

[, , , ] (adapter, card)

() , ' . , - (, SCSI-) . , , , : ) (add-in card); ) - ' (controller); ) - (I/O adapter, input-output adapter). , ' . , .

(-) , : ) ; ) ; ) , .

(graphics adapter)

() , . ( ), . ' , ', . ' : ) MGA (Monochrome Graphics Adapter) - , Hercules Graphics Adapter; ) CGA (Color Graphics Adapter) - ; ) EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter) - ; ) VGA (Video Graphics Array) - ; ) SVGA (Super Video Graphics Array) - . .

(local area network adapter, LAN adapter)

, ' '. , Ethernet NE-2000. (printer adapter unit)

, , ' . , . (adaptability)

. , .

(control system adaptability)

, - , , .

(adequate, identical, coincident)

г, , -. , . (management system)

() , - . .

, . .

(data-base administrator)

, , .

['] (network administrator)

(, ) , , , . ' , , . , ( ). ' ' .

(. ) (address)

, , , ', ' , . , ' . . , . , : ) () ', /; ) -, ; ) .. . , , , - -. , , , . IEEE 802.3 802.5 .

(, ) , , . , IP-. . -.

(ò) .

(virtual address) (. ')

', . , (Address Space Number, ASN) .

(e-mail address) (. IP-address)

; ' (, ' ). . , : @ ( -" at ()", . - ""): (user)@(domain). , , . , .

- (IP address) (. IP-address)

(addressing)

' . , , , . (address bus) (. )

, , , . ( ) . , , 16, ' 64 .

(address geocoding)

(ò) ' ò , '.

() (address space)

(7) ʳ , . ' ', , . 2n. (IP Telephony, IP-phony)

() . - - (Internet phony). IP - . IP- Ethernet IP-. - IP- , . , . 㳺, .

(acronym) ( . - - akros - , , onymos - ') (. )

. , ' , () . ' , . ϳ , , - '. , . , . , ALGOL - Algorithmic Language, FORTRAN - Formula Translation, (. sysadmin) - , bit - binary digit. , , , . , , . , DOS - Disk Operating System.

(accelerator)

( , ), ', , , .

(accessory) (. accessoire - -)

() , ' ' , , .

(active cell)

, , Excel, , . . - .

(active matrix, active matrix screen) (. )

. ( 0,1 0,01 ) ' (Thin Film Transistor, TFT), , (R, G, B). , , - . , . 50:1 100:1. TFT- - 75 .

(active window)

' . , .

[] (active content)

() -, , .

(. )

(active device)

Գ , . , . , / .

(actor) (. )

(UML) ij , . , (use case) . ³ Use case .

(ز) -, ', ', '. , , 䳺 , , ( ()) ' . .

(actualization, updating) (. update)

. , . , , - . [ , ] (accumulator, ACC)

(.) . - . , - () , , ' . ' AX, , - , - . - , . , : (accumulator high, ACCH) (accumulator low, ACCL).

[] [] (audio information) (. , , )

, , . ' , , () . , . , (, MP3). , - ( ) ().

[ ] (algebra of logic, boolean algebra)

(.) , , ( ) . - - .

(. algol)

(algorithm)

( ), .

( ). , , . ϳ 쳺 , (, ) . , : ) - , (', , .) 䳿 (); ) - , ; ) - ; ) - , - ; ) - , , .

(routing algorithm)

() . ( ), - , '.

(process algorithmization)

, . (algorithmic languages) (. )

. , , . . . () , , - , . ( ), () . . , - , ' , . () : COBOL, Algol, FORTRAN, C, Pascal .. () . . , , 3GL.

(. )

(. )

(aliasing) (. )

. , ' . , ' .

() , , , . , ' . , , . Xerox, X -.

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О В Азаренко - Тлумачний словникз інформатики