О В Азаренко - Тлумачний словникз інформатики - страница 44

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(.) G = (V, E), V - ' , (vertices, nodes), E - ei=(vi1, vi2), vij , (edges). V / E , , , V, E . , ei, , (directed graph), - (digraph), - (undirected graph). (arcs). .

[' ] (graphics, computer graphics) (. , , )

г , , ', ' , . ' (vector graphics) (raster graphics).

(animation graphics) (. )

. , , '. , ( ). ' , , . . , GIF, '. , Photoshop ( 4.0 ) . : Animagic GIF (Right to Left Software), GIF Construction Set (Alchemy Mindworks), Microsoft GIF Animator (Microsoft), PhotoImpact Animator (Ulead Systems), VideoCraft GIF Animator (Andover Advanced Technologies), WebImage for Windows 95 (Group 42) .

(. )

(. )

(graphic(al) information, image information) (. , , )

. ' , , ( - graphics computer graphics).

(. )

(graphics language)

() / API . : GDI, DirectX, QuickDraw OpenGL.

(graphics subsystem)

() ', .

(. )

(graphics adapter)

. - , . , ' , . , , ( ).

[ ] (. )

, , , , , .

(graphical user interface) (. GUI)

' (graphic object, drawing object)

(MS Word) ' , , ' WordArt. , ( ), . '.

[ ] (graphic engine, graphics chip, graphics processing unit, GPU, graphics processor) (. , , ', - , -, )

, , ' , . (), , , (). ' , . ' , . , , , -, . CPU GPU , CPU , GPU . (GPGPU - General-Purpose computation on GPUs - GPU).

(graphic editor)

( ), '. : . : ) Adobe PhotoShop Microsoft Windows Mac OS X; ) GIMP GNU/Linux POSIX- . : ) Corel Draw; ) Macromedia Free Hand Windows; ) Inkscape - .

(graphics coprocessor) (. )

, , ( ) . '. . 䳺 ' (pixel). .

(graphics file) (. )

, . . : BMP, JPG, CJM, DXF, EPS, GIF, PIC, PCX, TIFF, WMF.

(graphics filter) (. )

, .

(. , )

(. )

(graphic programs)

, , . ' : ) ; ) ; ) . , , . ( , ), , (.. ). (, '), (, ) . (.gif, .tiff, .jpeg .).

(. grid)

- (. grid-architecture) -' (. grid-computing) - (. grid-computing) - (. grid-standardization) (google phone) (. androd)

Andrdd. Google, Google Chrome.

- -

(digest)

() ϳ , . (drive distance)

() ³ . , , .

(dump)

' , , ົ. , . , , ' .

() / , SQL. , . .

() Umx, . , - (, RAID- .) . ' Umx 6 AT&T. (data) (. BI, , )

.

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(ز) , ', , .

() , , '. ' , : ) ; ) (, , ); ) () , , ; ) ' ; ) .

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() , . (software) : . () . - , , , ' ' , ' ' . , . (geographical data) (. )

[] (remote sensing data, remotely sensed data, remote surveying data) (. )

, ', , - , . , , , , , . . , , , . - , , ; ; ; . ; ( , ), . , : ) ( 30-60 ); ) -; ) ; ) , ( ); ) ( ); ) , , (LIDAR - Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging - ). SPOT, () 3- - Spot-1, 2 4. . , : 2 , 1 - . , Spot-4 4- 1,55-1,75 , , , . SPOT 10 20 - . SPOT 60%, 60x60 36x60 10 .

(. )

-- (data - information - knowledge)

- , . - . , . , 䳺 , . . , , , . .

(end user data)

, .

, .

, .

[ ] (spatial data, geographic data, geospatial data, georeferenced data)

- , ', , , . (), , .

(ò) ', , (). : (spatial, locational) ( spatial) . , (spatial location) (thematic content) , - (. , ). , 㳿, '. ò. () (, ), , , (data temporality), - (spatio-temporal data, spatiotemporal data). (temporal dimen-sion of data) - , , ò (4D GIS). - () (spatial data structure). , , (georelational data model), ' , . . : , , , , , , , , , ò.

[ ] (PCDATA, parsed CDATA, parsed character data)

(XML) XML-, , CDATA, XML.

(statistic(al) data)

, , . , , : ) ; ) , ; ) , . , , ( ), . n (, ). n (, ( ) - ).

[] (. )

(. download)

[. . engine - , ] (. -, )

' , . , . , , , . , / /. , , , ( ).

(. -)

(. )

(application binary interface, ABI)

, - , . ABI , ' . , , ABI , , .

(binary code)

( ) - (, .) , 0 1. . - , , . , , , , . , 0 7 3- 3- , 710 = 1112.

(binary search)

, 򳺿 , .

(double-row connector) ', .

(. )

(debugger) (. )

. - , , . , . , ( ), , (run-time) ' '. , ( ) , () , , , . (IDE) (RAD). , . , , , .

[ ] (developer) (. )

(.) . - . . . , , , . , , , , , : ) - ; ) (); ) ; ) ; ) , , ;) ; ) (, , , , , ); ) , ; ) , - -; ) ( ).

(developer)

( , - ). , . . - , - . . . .

[] (datagram, DG)

() , ' , - .

() , ' . PDU (Protocol Data Umt) ( ^- - HP-) ( UDP- - UDP-) OSL , .

. UDP.

[] (declarative language)

(.) . - . , ' ' . , , , . , ( "", ""), , , . ' - , . () : () . PROLOG '- , ESP Eqlog. ( LISP, LOGO, APL, Nial, Krc) ( , SNOBOL, COMIT). . , '- , , .

( ) () - , . , , . , XSLT.

[XML] (text declaration)

(XML) , , . - , XML-. XML .

[] (decomposition)

, , , (, , , .).

(functional decomposition)

. (decrement) (. , , , )

(.) . , . (, , ), ' , . , Turbo Pascal dec(x, dx). x dx. , dx . ++ () - -, , , - - x x - -.

(demarshaling) (. )

( RPC) -.

(daemon - disk add execution monitor - )

(Unix) , . ', , . , . , ( ) -, . . , () UNIX. , : , . , DOS, , UNIX . ' (startup script).

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