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Summary of work: A pre-experience survey was sent to faculty during the Spring 2012 semester to assess their opinions on the implementation of a university-wide, peer-observation program. In July and August 2012, two peer-observation training sessions were offered to participating faculty. Participants provided feedback on the usefulness of the program via an open forum and a post-experience survey. Qualitative data was analyzed via the grounded theory method to develop a framework for successfully implementing faculty development programs at the university. Summary of results: Major concerns by faculty for implementing a peer-observation program included: scheduling, involvement by administration and training. Sixty-three faculty members participated in the training sessions and fifty-three responses were received for post-experience feedback. All participants found the activity beneficial for their teaching with factors such as advanced scheduling and inter-departmental collaborations as suggestions for further developing the program.
Conclusions: By assessing faculty opinions, a peer-observation program was tailored to address campus-specific factors influencing its acceptance and success; contributing to the development of a framework for implementing future campus-wide, faculty-development programs.
Take-home messages: The inclusion and involvement of faculty during all planning stages of a new campus-wide program leads to improved success for its implementation.
Changes in Students' Perception of the Importance of Teacher Roles after Basic Cycle of Medical Course
Maria de Lourdes Veronese Rodrigues (Medical School of Ribeirao Preto - USP, Ophthalmology, Otolaringology and Head and Neck Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas -Oftalmologia, Campus USP, Ribeirao Preto - SP 14048900, Brazil)
Carlos E Piccinato (Medical School of Ribeirao Preto -USP, Surgery and Anatomy, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil) Lucila L Elias (Medical School of Ribeirao Preto - USP, Physiology, Ribeirao Preto - SP, Brazil) Claudia M Maffei (Medical School of Ribeirao Preto -USP, Center for Educacional and Psychological Support -FMRP, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil)
Francisco J Reis (Medical School of Ribeirao Preto - USP, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil) Luiz E Troncon (Medical School of Ribeirao Preto - USP, Internal Medicine - Gastroenterology, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil)
Background: The experiences of the students during the basic cycle of the Medical Course may modify their opinions about the importance of the different roles played by their professors.
Summary of work: On the first day of the activities (2011), 76 first-year medical students responded to a questionnaire (5-point Likert scale) with items related to
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the roles of a good teacher. Two years later (2013), in the beginning of their clinical studies, the questionnaire was applied again.
Summary of results: The characteristics most appreciated during the first phase were: professional competence, capacity to teach practical lessons, being a good investigator, being a good lecturer and being able to act as a tutor. Comparison of the results of the two phases revealed significant differences in the appreciation of the competence as lecturer (P=<0.0001), as researcher (P<0.0001), as tutor (P=0.002) and to professional competence (P=0.01), which started to be less appreciated. In the second phase the roles of curriculum and course planner, producer of teaching material, courses evaluator and institutional involvement started to occupy higher positions in the classification attributed by the students. Conclusions: Third-year medical students and recently admitted students have different views of the importance of the various roles of a teacher. Take-home messages: As students progress along the medical course, their perception of the importance of the teacher roles as researcher and lecturer tends to decrease and other roles, such as planner and evaluator tend to be more valued.
Teachers' attitudes and perceived barriers to the development of nursing education: a multi-centre study
FadiZaben (IMET2000, Continuous Nursing Education, Ramallah, Palestinian Territories (Gaza Strip and West
Maha Nahal (IMET2000, Continuous Nursing Education, Ramallah, Palestinian Territories (Gaza Strip and West
Ahmad Abu Tayeh (IMET2000, Continuous Medical Education, Ramallah, Palestinian Territories (Gaza Strip and West Bank))
Malik Zaben (IMET2000, Director of Health Sciences Education, Ramallah, Palestinian Territories (Gaza Strip and West Bank))
Background: Nursing education is well-established in Palestine with more than 15 institutions across the country graduating more than 300 nurses each year. Nursing educators responsible for this are largely practicing nurses and others who are fully committed to teaching. To date, there was no research to explore the attitudes and perceptions of those nursing educators towards their working environment Summary of work: A quantitative design was chosen and a structured 23-item questionnaire was administered to nursing teachers working at 6 colleges of nursing during the period: October 2011 to October 2012. Areas studied included demographic characteristics, perception of the work environment, barriers to development and methods of education. Summary of results: Of the 85 participants, 51 (60%) were female and 34 (40%) were male. The age distribution was as follows: 25-39 years = 34 participants
(40%), and > 40 years = 51 participants (60%). Most participants (n = 69, 81%) were master degree holders and 45 (53%) had more than 10 year teaching experience. Although the majority (62%) of respondents reported lack of educational resources, 40 (47%) participants were positive about their working environment. Factors like inadequate resources (65%), lack of promotion opportunities (71%) and low income (53%) were reported as hinders of nursing education development. Interestingly, 51% of nursing educators use a blended form of face-to-face teaching enhanced with e-learning technology compared to 49% of participants who reported the use of face-to-face teaching as their sole and preferred modality of education.
Conclusions: This is the first study in Palestine that explores attitudes of nursing teachers towards their work environment. The identified barriers to staff professional development and career progression highlight the attention that must be paid to faculty members' well-being. The use of e-learning in a blended format may also need to be further encouraged.
Feedback for Peer Assisted Learning using a visual analogue scale: quantitative and reliable but time consuming
PD Collins (University of Glasgow, Undergraduate
Medical School, Wolfson Medical School Building,
University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom)
J Brolly (University of Glasgow, Undergraduate Medical
School, Glasgow, United Kingdom)
C Flynn (University of Glasgow, Undergraduate Medical
School, Glasgow, United Kingdom)
H Hare (University of Glasgow, Undergraduate Medical
School, Glasgow, United Kingdom)
Background: Asking students to mark a categorical scale between 'strongly agree' and 'strongly disagree' is a commonly used method to obtain feedback for educational sessions. The visual analogue scale (VAS) offers more quantitative, accurate and insightful representations of opinion. However, interpretation of VAS may be open to inter-observer variability, and be more time consuming than a score out of 100. Aims: 1) Evaluate the inter-observer variation in the assessment of VAS. 2) Compare the time taken to assess feedback from VAS against feedback from a score out of 100. Summary of work: Feedback was obtained from three peer-led undergraduate educational workshops. Six VAS assessed student agreement with six qualitative statements. Two investigators independently scored the VAS and the intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated. Scores out of 100 were generated for 10 sets of feedback. We then calculated time taken for measurement and data entry of 10 completed VAS and 10 'scores out of 100'.
Summary of results: 47 feedback forms were obtained from 3 workshops and a total of 282 VAS were assessed for inter-observer variability. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.994 (p<0.001). VAS assessment and
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data entry took a mean of 26.75s longer than the 'score out of 100' method (p<0.001).
Conclusions: VAS is a repeatable and reliable method for obtaining feedback from educational sessions, but it is more time consuming than the 'score out of 100' method.
Take-home messages: Educational feedback using VAS is quantitative and reliable, but time consuming.
Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) - An exploratory study in medical education
Wai Yee Wong (The University of Queensland, School of Medicine, 288 Herston Road, Herston, Brisbane Qld4006, Australia)
Karen Moni (The University of Queensland, School of Education, Brisbane, Australia)
Background: The focus of this study was to examine clinical teachers' perceptions of and responses to Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) with respect to the purposes and uses of SET in enhancing their clinical teaching.
Summary of work: An explanatory sequential mixed-methods approach was employed to collect data from a group of clinical teachers. Quantitative data were initially collected by the adapted survey 'Approach to Feedback Inventory' (Hendry, Lyon, & Henderson-Smart, 2007) and subsequently qualitative data were obtained from semi-structured interviews conducted with the clinical teachers.
Summary of results: A total of 37 clinical teachers completed the adapted survey and five clinical teachers undertook the interviews. These clinical teachers perceived the main purpose of SET was quality assurance. They were moderately receptive to the SET feedback. Institutional requirements, operational practices, personal biases and support provided are four key factors in enabling or inhibiting clinical teachers' responses to SET.
Conclusions: The core mechanism in influencing clinical teachers' perceptions of and responses to SET depends on the interrelationships among the four different spheres of influence found in the study: clinical teachers' understanding of SET, pedagogical knowledge, emotional responses and provision of practical support. Take-home messages: It is imperative to provide clinical teachers with professional development opportunities to enhance their understanding of SET and its relationship to effective teaching. Provided that the clinical teachers perceived SET feedback as a component of up-skilling their teaching practice, and with appropriate practical and emotional support offered by the institutions, it could lead to modifications and enhancement in their clinical teaching.
Aligning scientific production in medical education with curriculum change
Maria Viviane Lisboa de Vasconcelos (Universidade Federal de Alagoas - Brasil, Faculdade de Medicina, Maceio 57035-680, Brazil)
Mellina Gazzaneo (Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Faculdade de Medicina, Maceio, Brazil) Priscylla Mirelle Monteiro (Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Faculdade de Medicina, Maceio, Brazil) Celia Maria Silva Pedrosa (Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Faculdade de Medicina, Maceio, Brazil) Renata Plech (Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Faculdade de Medicina, Maceio, Brazil) Renato Santos Rodarte (Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude, Maceio, Brazil)
Background: In 2006, our medical school implemented a new curriculum passing this way to integrate the transformation of Brazilian medical schools. During this trajectory assumes a greater involvement in medical education and a search by applying innovative methodologies consistent with the educational project of the course.
Summary of work: This work proposes to map the scientific production on medical education of teachers of medical school during the development process of the new curriculum. An exploratory and analytical study about medical education in the period from 2001 to 2012 and four document types were defined: papers published in conference proceedings, book chapters, books and journal articles.
Summary of results: Of the 123 teachers in medical school, 37 (30%) has scientific literature in medical education, with an average of 8.4 works per teacher. There was a growing trend in publications from 2004, with 29.7% of teachers with publishing and a peak in 2009 with 40.5%. Most teachers, 67.6%, published in proceedings of national conferences (54.1%) international events (13.5%) and 4 (10.8%) published articles in journals. Three teachers published in the book. The majority 96.4% of the works are by multiple authors. The themes were about the internship, student assessment, program evaluation, training, and humanization skills.
Conclusions: The scientific production of teachers and students shows a tendency for growth and to discuss aspects of the new curriculum. The curriculum change comes as a positive factor for this production. Take-home messages: These teachers may be invited to stimulate a research network with other teachers and students to build scientific knowledge in collaboration.
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The roles of the medical teacher: juggling expectations from faculty and students
Lay Ling Tan (Changi General Hospital, Psychological Medicine, 2 Simei Street 3, Singapore 529889, Singapore)
Background: The different roles of the medical teacher include: information provider, facilitator, assessor, curriculum planner, resource developer and role model. With a move towards student-centred, problem-based and integrated teaching in our medical undergraduate curriculum over the past 2 years, roles of teachers have evolved. It is important to know how such changes are perceived by teachers and students. Summary of work: The questionnaire (AMEE Medical Education Guide 20) used to assess perception of the importance of the twelve roles was administered to the teaching faculty. Two batches of 4th year medical students were invited to respond to the questionnaire as to what they perceive the roles of their teachers to
Summary of results: Teachers rated role model and facilitator as most important; information provider and resource developer as least important. Students also rated facilitator as most important and resource developer as least important but information provider was rated as most important to their learning. Conclusions: Differences in perceived roles of teachers need to be addressed for effective teaching and learning. Teachers and students may not be ready to adopt the student-centred approach. Teachers also need to adapt to facilitated learning rather than just acting as information providers. Although problem-based learning is more relevant, not all students and teachers are ready. Singapore's educational system may be spoon feeding students with too much information and very close guidance by the teachers.
Take-home messages: Addressing differences in expectations of the roles of teachers is important. It would be crucial that the move towards a more student-centred approach in our medical school be implemented in a gradual process.
Teaching and Learning for New Medical Academics: The Malaysian Perspectives
Suhaila Sanip (University of Leeds, Leeds Institute of Medical Education, Room 7.04, Level 7, Worsley Building, Clarendon Way, Leeds LS2 9NL, United Kingdom
Background: The transition into academia from clinical context for new medical academics requires them to learn the educational theories and pedagogies relevant to medical education. The learning during transition stage, termed a 'critically intensive learning period' (Kilminster et al., 2011), allows new medical academics to cope with the complexities of teaching and learning.
In order to cope, new medical academics also bring with them their past experiences (Hager and Hodkinson, 2009). This study aims to understand the transitional learning processes of new medical academics by studying their perception of learning experience in transition.
Summary of work: 12 new medical academics were interviewed face to face in between December 2012 and January 2013. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were read repeatedly to identify emerging themes in relation to the research questions.
Summary of results: Most new medical academics joined the university without actually knowing what to expect or do when they started their career. They learn how to teach by emulating good practices of their previous teachers and senior colleagues. The introduction of teaching and learning course has opened up their eyes to other teaching and learning techniques and therefore improves their teaching and learning practices.
Conclusions: New medical academics transition into academia can be eased by attending a teaching and learning course as early as they start their career. This course helped new medical academics to better understand their new teaching roles and responsibilities. Take-home messages: Teaching and learning course is an important aspect in improving new medical academics teaching and learning practices.
Strategies for staying creative in health professions education - suggestions from workshop participants
Elizabeth Kachur (Medical Education Development, National and International Consulting, 201 East 21st Street, Suite 2E, New York, NY 10010, United States) Thanakorn Jirasevijinda (Weill Cornell Medical College, Pediatrics, New York, NY, United States)
Background: The growth and success of individuals as well as organizations/institutions depends significantly on their ability to adjust to new challenges and to 'push the envelope' to create a future for themselves. Yet there are many barriers that stifle innovations, some are coming from the individuals involved in the educational process, others are deep seated in the institutional culture or some administrative conventions. Summary of work: Over the last 6 years 16 workshops were held to address creativity in health professions education. They had various emphases (e.g., institutional factors, how to measure creativity, faculty development), but at the end of each program participants were asked to identify several creativity-promoting strategies which they could apply in their own lives over the following 6 months. After writing these suggestions to themselves on a postcard they had to put it in a self-addressed envelope for future mailing. By checking off a consent box they gave permission to enter their suggestions into a collection of resources
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that would be made available for future workshop participants.
Summary of results: Over 250 suggestions were collected and transcribed. The authors are in the process of performing a content analysis to derive at a representative list of suggestions that can be of use way beyond the individual workshops. Examples are: Regularly schedule "thinking time," talk about and record your ideas and those of others. Conclusions: The workshops resulted in a useful list of ideas for maintaining and enhancing personal and institutional creativity.
Take-home messages: There are many strategies to become/stay creative.
Creating a preceptor professional development program in veterinary medical education: step one a needs assessment
Peggy Schmidt (Western University of Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 309 E. Second Street, Pomona 92555, United States) Paul Gordon-Ross (Western University of Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Pomona,
Background: It is assumed that preceptors at distant clinical sites require support in the areas of education and desire continued professional development. A needs assessment is critical first step in designing a Preceptor Professional Development Program that is both relevant and delivered in a user-friendly format. Summary of work: The needs assessment has been undertaken to determine training and professional development needs of preceptors involved in clinical training. These needs will be merged into Boyer's four areas of scholarship (discovery, integration, service, and education). The project steps will be: 1) define key stakeholder groups, 2) conduct focus group interviews with stakeholders, 3) identify common themes, 4) utilize common themes to develop and administer a survey to the larger preceptor population, and 5) analyze survey outcomes to determine priorities for training and professional development materials. Summary of results: One face-to-face and one LinkedIn focus group with preceptors have been conducted. Participants felt strongly about needing more training in evaluating and grading students and best practices for teaching students trained in a PBL program. They indicated a desire for continuing education related to clinical practice with an emphasis on hands-on training methods. For those still early in their clinical career, opportunities for board certification or specialty training would be appealing.
Conclusions: The areas of preceptor development identified in the focus groups conducted thus far appear to merge into Boyer's four areas of scholarship. Take-home messages: Boyers's four areas of scholarship appear to be an applicable model for a preceptor professional development program.
Identifying the main training needs of postgraduate medical program managers based on a mixed-methodology
Arnoldo Riquelme (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Department of Gastroenterology and Centre for Medical Education, Marcoleta 367, Santiago, Julia Berstein 1537, La Reina, Santiago 8330024, Chile) Cristian Herrera (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Department of Public Health, Santiago, Chile) Margarita Pizarro (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Department of Gastroenterology, Santiago, Chile) Nancy Solis (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Department of Gastroenterology, Santiago, Chile) Ian Niklitschek (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, School of Medicine, Santiago, Chile) Oslando Padilla (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Department of Public Health, Santiago, Chile)