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Take-home messages: There is common ground in the ways that physicians conceptualize their teaching of patients and trainees. These commonalities include: taking a student/patient-centered approach; supporting the acquisition, application and integration of knowledge; role modeling; and facilitating autonomy in the patient and trainee.
Patient safety and quality leadership scholars program: Creating human infrastructure for teaching safety and quality
F Jacob Seagull (University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Medical Education, 1500 E. Medical Center Dr, SPC-5201, Towsley Center Room 1211, Ann
Arbor 48109, United States)
Background: Recent initiatives in American medical education mandate the increased teaching of patient safety and quality improvement (PS/QI) to medical
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 8 TUESDAY 27 AUGUST: 1400-1530
students and residents. These mandated activities, while valuable, are difficult to support logistically because few attending physicians have sufficient formal training in PS/QI to teach and lead such initiatives effectively. Summary of work: A "scholars program" was developed and deployed to provide formal training to attending physicians within our healthcare system who were already engaged in PS/QI in administrative or teaching roles. The curriculum consisted of a 22-week course meeting 3.5 hours per week covering five general topic areas: (1) patient safety, (2) quality improvement, (3) leadership, (4) teaching, and (5) scholarship. Summary of results: Twelve scholars participated in the inaugural course offering, selected from applicants based on their current involvement in PS/QI activities. The scholars used existing PS/QI projects within their hospital departments and units as test-beds for applying the weekly lessons. After providing a foundation of PS/QI theory and practice in the initial sessions, scholars focused on how to lead QI/Ps effectively, explored methods for effectively teaching these topics, and studied ways of establishing scholarly activities surrounding PS/QI. The program resulted in the implementation of two new QI initiatives and development of a program for clinical teaching of patient safety at the bedside. Conclusions: The emerging demands for increased teaching and leadership of PS/SI topics mandates the development of an infrastructure of PS/QI teachers, leaders and scholars. A scholars program can develop this infrastructure.
Take-home messages: This scholars program provides an effective model curriculum for developing the human capital needed to teach PS/QI.
Forensic Risk Management Study Circle
Fawad Kaiser (The Huntercombe Hospital Norwich, Psychiatry, Buxton, Norwich NR10 5RH, United Kingdom)
Background: The idea for the study circle emerged following concerns that were highlighted following a number of serious incidents that occurred at Rowan House Hospital. The reduced availability of forensic specific training and the limited length of forensic experience of clinical staff were identified amongst some of the contributory factors to these incidents. A consensus emerged that if forensic specific risk awareness training was made available to staff working in the clinical environment, this would lead to an overall reduction in the number of incidents. Summary of work: FRMSC helped staff to facilitate and acquire skills and competencies. Study circle evolved according to its needs and ensured that issues can be addressed and overcome. Discussion and risk awareness training was tailored according to the needs of the specific service.
Summary of results: The recognition of forensic issues became easier for staff who were dealing with patients on a daily basis. This contributed to the ongoing
professional development of staff which in turn had an impact upon levels of risk awareness. Conclusions: Aims and objectives of the Forensic Risk Management Study Circle were to develop and increase levels of forensic risk awareness working in the forensic settings and work collaboratively with other team members to reduce the number of clinical incidents. Take-home messages: Learning increases the awareness about the subject and in turn contributes to recognition and ongoing professional development.
Designing an Educational Risk Report Form through risk analysis to monitor educational risk in Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
Nattaporntira Phalakornkul (Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital, Medical Education Center and Pediatrics, 171 Paholyothin Rd, Saimai, Bangkok 10220, Thailand) Isaraya Sukcharoen (Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital, Medical Education Center, Bangkok) Prapaisri Layangool (Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital, Pediatrics, Bangkok)
Krittaporn Tawanchaeng (Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital, Medical Education Center, Bangkok)
Background: Educational risk management is composed of risk identification, assessment, response, control, and monitoring. It is essential for quality assurance of both medical student and residency training and the patient safety. At Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital, there are clinical and non-clinical incident risk report forms, but not educational risk report form. In this paper, we aimed to identify and assess educational risk profiles in our Hospital.
Summary of work: Two half-day Workshops on educational risk analysis using brainstorming method was organized. The medical teaching staff were divided into 3 groups. Each group was assigned to discuss one of the 3 different major aspects of educational risks; (1) Teaching and learning curriculum, (2) Evaluation system, and (3) Morals and ethics of medical student, resident and staff. All group objectives are to identify risks, assess degree of risks by "risk assessment matrix" method according to impact and likelihood, perform risk profiles and finally prepar risk response for high impact risk. Summary of results: We got various risk profiles for each aspect. The profiles of each aspect, for example, were (1) lacking of appropriate supervision during medical procedure and inappropriate laboratory investigation, (2) examination leak and corruption (3) no responsibility and no discipline of both medical student and resident and also the unpunctuality of staff. Conclusions: Educational incident risk report form of our hospital is finalized and can be enrolled for systematic management.
Take-home messages: The proper educational risk management system is important for medical training development and patient safety.
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 8 TUESDAY 27 AUGUST: 1400-1530
Developing an inter-professional teaching module for safe and practical prescribing
Yogini Jani (University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Clinical Pharmacy, London, United Kingdom)
Reecha Sofat (University College London, Division of Medicine, Centre for Clinical Pharmacology, London, United Kingdom)
Background: Health professionals including doctors, nurses and pharmacists are educated in their discipline by senior personnel in their respective fields. In contrast the practice of clinical medicine is multidisciplinary. This is particular relevant in the choice, prescription, dispensation and delivery of drugs in clinical care. We aimed to explore the feasibility of teaching medical and pharmacy students in the same environment to introduce medication safety with a focus on prescribing. Summary of work: Practical aspects of the teaching were delivered by clinicians and pharmacists in small mixed groups of medical and pharmacy students. Focus was on therapeutics and using this knowledge to prescribe safely, in so doing addressing common errors and pitfalls.
Summary of results: Teaching was initiated first for medical students only. The performance on therapeutics and medication safety OSCE stations was monitored year to year. Feedback was collected and reviewed. Conclusions: Teaching practical therapeutics with a focus on prescribing improved performance on OSCE stations, a surrogate for real life prescribing. Feedback and quality of delivery was good and met the learning needs of both medical and pharmacy students. Take-home message: Inter-professional teaching and learning mimics the real life working environment for both medics and pharmacists and introduces the need for inter-professional working early in their careers. Importantly it informs them of the need for safe prescribing early in the medical/ pharmacy careers, which can be potentially life saving.
SESSION 9: Simultaneous Sessions
Tuesday 27 August: 1600-1730
9A Symposium: Feedback: A fresh look at theories that inform perceptions, acceptance and use
Location: Congress Hall, PCC
Deborah Murdoch-Eaton (Leeds Institute of Medical Education, University of Leeds, UK) Monica van de Ridder (Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Dordrecht, Netherlands)
Joan Sargeant (Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada) Chris Watling (University of Western Ontario, London, Canada)
Providing meaningful feedback to learners continues to challenge medical educators. Exciting recent progress, informed by theories from psychology, sociology and education, has advanced our understanding of feedback and its role in learning. Feedback has been reconceptualised from a simple transmission of information to a facilitated conversation between learner and supervisor. Theory informs approaches which enable learners to seek, receive, understand, accept and use feedback. The objectives of this symposium are to 1) review theoretical perspectives which inform the process of sharing feedback and 2) engage the audience in a discussion of how these theories might be applied in their settings.
9B Symposium: The role of multimodality instructional platforms in forging a meaningful continuity between preclinical and clinical education across
Location: Meeting Hall I, PCC
P Gopalakrishnakone (YLL School of Medicine, NUS, National University Health System, Singapore) Wojiech Pawlina (Mayo Clinic, USA) Erle Lim (YLL School of Medicine, Singapore) Cristian Stefan (Georgia Regents University, USA) Ancuta Stefan (Georgia Regents University, USA)
Teaching preclinical subjects becomes more complicated especially the subject of Anatomy. Although Anatomy knowledge forms the basic foundation of medicine there is controversy of how to acquire this knowledge. There are conservative schools which strongly belief in the traditional cadaveric dissections and on the other end of spectrum is using virtual reality or using 3D modeling of the human body using CT Scan or MRI scan data. How much anatomy and histology knowledge is needed for medical students, residents in training or by surgeons for surgical planning? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the recently available information technology and computer software tools in teaching Anatomy?
9C Short Communications: eLearning iPads and Mobile Technology
Location: Panorama, PCC 9C/1
Motivation as a determinant factor in medical students' adoption of new technology
Ian Sampson (The University of Manchester, Medical School/Undergraduate, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom)
Background: Increasingly, students are using mobile devices in clinical learning with some medical schools providing mobile devices. In Manchester Medical School, UK, we give all of our clinical medical students iPads (since Jan 2011). We explored the perceptions of students regarding using an iPad for clinical learning; purposively sampling high, moderate and low users. Summary of work: We convened three focus groups with high, moderate and low users 5 months after they had been given iPads. Participants were in the 4th of a 5th year MbChB; 10 male and 8 female. Data were analysed thematically, using a constant comparisons technique. Themes were explored across low, moderate and high user groups to compare experiences within each theme.
Summary of results: Four themes emerged: motivation, learning, understanding and efficiency. Perceptions of efficiency were similar across groups. However, high, moderate and low user groups appeared to differ on their degree of motivation for engagement with the technology and this resulted in high users persisting more and thus experiencing greater benefits for learning. Perceptions of others was a theme across all groups, with students expressing concern about how their iPad use might appear to clinicians, patients and the public.
Conclusions: The experience of iPads in clinical learning was mediated by motivation. This reflects previous literature in diffusion of innovation and professional behaviour change. Some students perceive that ipads enhance clinical learning. Experiences are mediated by motivation.
Take-home messages: Consider motivation as an important issue when introducing new technologies to support learning.
Are individuals more accepting of the internet than mobile phone apps being used in clinical practice?
Nicole Koehler (Deakin University, Assessment and Learning Design / Deakin Learning Futures, Melbourne Burwood Campus, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Vic 3125, Australia
Olga Vujovic (Monash University, Melbourne, Australia) Christine McMenamin (Monash University, MBBS / Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Melbourne, Australia)
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 9 TUESDAY 27 AUGUST: 1600-1730
Background: The internet and mobile phone applications ("apps") are increasingly being used in clinical practice especially by new medical professionals/students. However, little is known in regards to individual's attitudes towards medical professionals using new technology. The aim of this study was to examine individual's attitudes towards the use of medically related internet sites and apps in clinical practice.
Summary of work: Participants completed an on-line survey which contained questions regarding their own use of mobile phones and the internet, their use of healthcare facilities, and their attitudes towards medical professionals using the internet and apps during consultations.
Summary of results: The survey was completed by 141 individuals who generally had more favourable attitudes towards medical professionals using the internet than apps. All participants owned a mobile phone (82% with application support). Furthermore, all participants had access to the internet at home. Conclusions: It is possible that attitudes towards the internet were more favourable than that for apps because the internet has been available longer and consequently individuals are more familiar with it. Take-home messages: Prior to using new technology, especially apps, medical professionals/students should adequately inform patients in regards to their intended use to avoid potential misconceptions.
Pharmacology E-Learning Website Versus App: Change In Learning Strategy
Eline Dubois (Leiden University Medical Center, Center for Innovation in Medical Education, postzone V7, PO box 9600, Leiden 2300 RC, Netherlands) Robert Rissmann (Centre for Human Drug Research, Leiden, Netherlands)
Background: The free Teaching Resource Centre Pharmacology Database (TRC) is available as an E-learning website for the illustration drug action in the pathophysiological context. The website is frequently used by Leiden students throughout the integrated medical curriculum. With the introduction of mobile devices, the TRC app was developed and launched in 2012 for the iPad and iPhone. Objective of the study was to investigate whether the possibility for learning on a mobile device (app) versus the computer (website) changes the learning behaviour.
Summary of work: In order to obtain information about when and how the app or website is used by the Leiden medical students, a voluntary online survey was conducted.
Summary of results: The TRC website is still frequently used; TRC app users indicate to continue to use the website. Analysis of the survey revealed that over a third uses the app once a week whereas only 13% consults the website equally often. During lectures and seminars the app is used by a third of the mobile users while only 8% uses the website.
Conclusions: The group of tablet and smartphone users is growing and on longer term a clear shift is expected from the use of website towards the app. Take-home messages: The TRC app is easier accessible and used differently - more frequently and in respect to learning situations - compared to the website. The TRC on a mobile device is used as a look-up tool, whereas the website is still used for thorough study.
Feedback using mobile phone toward independent study: A qualitative study
Ide Pustaka Setiawan (Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Medical Education, Gedung Radioputro Lt.6, Jalan Farmako Sekip, Perum Duta Mas 1 F, Popongan, Sinduadi, Mlati, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55284, Indonesia)
Background: Feedback is usually delivered face to face, in appropriate manner and appropriate time (Dent & Harden, 2005), from instructor to the students during skills training session. But how does the instructor give feedback when the students conduct independent study? Could the recording facility of students' mobile phone solve this problem?
Summary of work: This was qualitative study. During independent study, we asked students to record their skill using video recording facility within their own mobile phone. The recording file from mobile phone was then burnt to the VCD. We asked peers and instructors to watch the students' performance in VCD as well as to give written feedback which is equipped by structured questions. Survey as to feedback given to students toward both peers (n=49) which is selected randomly and skills lab instructor (n=50) was conducted. After receiving written feedback from both peers and instructors, students who perform in VCD were asked to make written reflection about feedback that is given to them.
Summary of results: The study yielded the following results: 1) feedback on skills includes: communication aspect, physical examination and attitude, 2) feedback on quality of recording includes feedback on: video, recording tools, actor and setting, 3) Students' reflection said that the feedback is useful; 4) There are suggestions to improve the recording result. Conclusions: 1) Feedback on students' independent study can be delivered by utilizing video recording facility in mobile phone, 2) Students said that the feedback is useful, 3) Technical things should be noted in order to result in better quality of recording. Take-home messages: Mobile phone is not only used for communication tools, but also for teaching and learning tools.
Tablet assisted learning in medical education: benefits and requirements
Matthew Hammerton (University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine, Southampton, United Kingdom)
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 9 TUESDAY 27 AUGUST: 1600-1730
Sunhea Choi (University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine, MP820, AB208 South Academic Block, Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD, United Kingdom)
Background: In Summer 2012, the University of Southampton conducted a Student Learning Experience (SLE) study investigating medical students' approaches to learning. Results highlighted mobile technologies' role for learning. Most students owned Smartphones, while a significant minority owned Tablets. To understand the potential of Tablets for medical education and identify user support requirements, a follow-up study, exploring students' use of Tablets for one year, commenced in September 2012.
Summary of work: 3 different types of Tablets were given to 6 representatives from the SLE study. The participants were given free reign over how they used their Tablets. In return, reflective diaries of educational and non-educational Tablet use and attendance at monthly focus group meetings were required. Summary of results: Study data suggested that Tablets had a positive influence on the participants' learning. Tablets did not replace other technology but offered unique and diverse benefits, including timely learning experiences on the ward, portable reference tools and digital notepads. Variability in hardware, software and apps availability between Tablet types significantly impacted participants' learning benefit. This reflected the difference in extent each participant utilised their Tablet for learning.
Conclusions: Tablets offer immediate and portable learning, enabling students to engage in learning activities that have been difficult or not possible before. Facilitation of effective use can help students utilise the unique strengths offered. However, without industry standardisation for Tablet contents/apps independent of device type, it will be challenging for students to benefit fully from the technology.
Take-home messages: With guidance for effective use and content/apps standardisation, Tablets can offer unique benefits for medical education.
How do "digital natives" learn pharmacology? A mixed-methods study on the use of learning media by undergraduate medical students
Joanna Gutmann (Technische Universitat Munchen, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Biedersteiner Str. 29, Munich 80802, Germany Felizian Kuhbeck (Technische Universitat Munchen, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich, Germany) Pascal Berberat (Technische Universitat Munchen Munich, Germany)
Martin F. Fischer (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, Munich, Germany)
Stefan Engelhardt (Technische Universitat Munchen Munich, Germany)
Antonio Sarikas (Technische Universitat Munchen, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich, Germany)
Background: There is a widening gap in media competency between students ("digital natives") and lecturers ("digital immigrants"). In addition, the omnipresence of mobile internet devices has an increasing impact on higher education. Summary of work: The aim of this study was to analyze the use and acceptance of different learning media types (textbooks, lecture slides, smartphone apps, internet search, e-learning cases, podcasts, e-books, written notes) in undergraduate medical education of pharmacology. A mixed-methods study consisting of surveys, web statistics and focus groups was conducted during a four-week pharmacology course at Technische Universitat Munchen. 275 of 372 students (73%) participated in the study.
Summary of results: The most frequently used learning media were lecture slides (27%), smartphone apps (22%) followed by written notes (15%), textbooks (15%), e-learning cases (8%) and internet search (8%). 78% of students owned a mobile internet device (smartphone or tablet-PC). Of these, 36% stated that smartphone apps led to intensified learning, or resulted in a more homogenous learning activity (20%). Conclusions: This study is the first comprehensive "realtime" analysis of learning media use and acceptance during an undergraduate course of pharmacology. Both quantitative and qualitative data demonstrated a high acceptance and usage ratio of digital learning media, in particular mobile learning