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the required levels. This pedagogical approach allows students to perform self-assessment and offers them active learning opportunities, while being guided by a mentor.
Summary of work: Elaboration of longitudinal courses throughout the entire curriculum allows for assessment of the students development of these competencies and for outlining an overall portrayal. Every student actively participates in his own learning process through self-assessment of the continuing development of his competencies during his academic progress. Summary of results: A dashboard is elaborated using various evaluation methods from several integration courses. This tool is regularly updated and reveals the student's progress towards acquiring the expected levels of competencies.
Conclusions: Each student can follow his own development of competencies as a future physician. Students have to learn to search for adequate resources suiting their appraisal and to suggest remedial incentives.
Take-home messages: Sharing this innovative educational evaluation approach developed by Universite Laval. Presenting the assessment and self-assessment processes. Discussing the central role of self-assessment in medical degree course.
European consensus on core learning outcomes for the Bachelor of Medicine: findings of the MEDINE2 Bologna first cycle study
Michael T Ross (The University of Edinburgh, Centre for Medical Education, GU304 The Chancellors Building, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, United Kingdom)
Allan D. Cumming (The University of Edinburgh, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)
Background: The Bologna Process requires European universities to adopt a three-cycle system of Bachelor, Master and Doctor degrees (www.ehea.com). Tuning methodology (www.unideusto.org/tuning) was previously used to gain consensus on core learning outcomes for primary medical degrees (Master of Medicine) across Europe (www.tuning-medicine.com). The results have been widely accepted and influential. The current study, undertaken by the EU-Funded MEDINE2 Thematic Network (www.medine2.com), sought consensus on core learning outcomes for the Bachelor of Medicine.
Summary of work: An online survey was developed from the core learning outcomes for primary medical degrees. Respondents indicated, on a Likert scale, to what extent they thought students should have learned each outcome by the time they had successfully completed three years of university education in medicine.
Summary of results: There were 560 responses, representing virtually all EU countries, medical students, academics, graduates, employers and patients. Most
indicated, with moderately high consensus, that all learning outcomes previously defined for primary medical degrees should be achieved to some extent by the end of the first three years. Free text comments highlighted the need for early clinical experiences and patient contact.
Conclusions: Broad consensus across Europe was achieved on core learning outcomes for a Bachelor of Medicine degree. Opinions differ over details, but there is now a common framework and terminology for discussing and defining what a Bachelor of Medicine graduate can and, importantly, cannot do. Take-home messages: Defining core learning outcomes for the Bachelor of Medicine is both possible and desirable, and can promote early patient contact and integration in European undergraduate medical curricula.
Common Transferable Skills in Medical, Dental and Healthcare Education
David Wayne (A. T. Still University, Academic Affairs, 5850 E. Still Circle, Mesa, Arizona 85206, United States)
Background: As Chair of the University's Assessment Committee, it is often difficult to look at assessment that goes beyond individual schools (Medicine, Dentistry, Audiology, PT, OT, PA, Public Health, etc.). This presentation examines 8 generic but vital transferable skills that does just that. Summary of work: Each transferable skill (leadership, wellbeing, critical thinking, cultural competence, interprofessional collaboration, ethical & legal understanding, positive interpersonal communication and self-assessment) is mapped in all courses (objectives, content and measurement). Summary of results: Broader assessment and heightened and measured transferable skills leading to whole person healthcare.
Conclusions: Assessing content knowledge and even clinical skills are only part of successful assessment. Take-home messages: Medical education needs to look at what students learn that will hold them in good stead in the face of exponentially increasing and changing clinical knowledge.
Professional activities as key educational structure in competency-based undergraduate medical education
Harm Peters (Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Dieter Scheffner Centre for Medical Education, Chariteplatz 1, Berlin D-10098, Germany)
Asja Maaz (Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Dieter Scheffner Centre for Medical Education, Berlin, Germany)
Tanja Hitzblech (Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Dieter Scheffner Centre for Medical Education, Berlin, Germany)
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 10 WEDNESDAY 28 AUGUST: 0830-1015
Julia Karner (Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Dieter Scheffner Centre for Medical Education, Berlin, Germany)
Ylva Holzhausen (Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Dieter Scheffner Centre for Medical Education, Berlin, Germany)
Jan Breckwoldt (Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Dieter Scheffner Centre for Medical Education, Berlin, Germany)
Background: While the concept of entrusted professional activities can bridge the gap between a competency-based outcome framework and clinical practice in postgraduate training, the potential relevance and applicability of this concept for undergraduate training is largely undefined. Summary of work: The Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin introduced a modular, integrated curriculum of medicine in 2010 including a longitudinal patient care track from the beginning on. Professional activities for students were employed as the leading measure of outcome for the 2nd year ("organ-related" modules ranging from "skin" to "nervous system"). They were defined on the basis of one single, prototypic disease per study week and consisted of complete and clinically meaningful complete tasks, i.e. the ability to show focused history-taking and clinical examination in the selected disease of the week and to describe the principles of diagnosis, treatment and patient care. The selected disease was presented in a patient-based lecture and an on-ward patient-related clinical skills training. Basic science courses, problem-based learning and communication training accompanied each module. Students were assessed in patient-based structured practical-oral examinations or OSCE at the end of term. Summary of results: Professional activities as weekly outcomes and the supporting curricular structure were evaluated positively by students and teachers. More than 90% of the students passed end-of-term assessments.
Conclusions: Professional activities can serve as a curricular structure to integrate and align the acquisition of knowledge, understanding and skills in competency-based curricula, including their early stages. Take-home messages: Professional activities allow the translation of competency-based curricula into clinically meaningful students' outcomes.
10H Short Communications: Curriculum Maps
Location: Club H, PCC
Electronic crowdsourcing as a method for curriculum mapping
Hollis Lai (Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Undergraduate Medical Education, 1-002 Katz, Edmonton T6G2E1, Canada) Tracey Hillier (University of Alberta, Undergraduate Medical Education, Edmonton, Canada) Radu Vestemean (Knowledge 4 You, Toronto, Canada)
Background: Curriculum mapping is becoming the linchpin for medical education reform in the 21st century, with an increasing demand on capturing and mapping finer level of information on all aspects of student learning. While the goal of curriculum mapping is apparent, the methodology to achieve this goal is not. Curriculum information requires a robust database solution for processing and storage. However, substantial content expert efforts are currently required to collect the vast amount of required information on each learning event. As the number of taxonomies to be mapped and the number of learning events increases, mapping of curriculum information is becoming unfeasible for an expert only task. Recently, rise of social media have brought forward the idea of distributed information collection.
Summary of work: The purpose of our study is to explore the use of distributed real-time electronic collection, also known as crowdsourcing, as a method for collecting curriculum mapping information. Five taxonomies composed of over 400 unique attributes, organized across seven strands of competencies and under four-level hierarchies, are mapped to a six-week undergraduate course with 86 unique learning events. Summary of results: A group of twelve students are recruited to participate in collecting the attribute for each event in a distribute manner. Multiple students are assigned to the same form to determine inter-rater consistency of coding. Student collected results will then be compared to data collected by a content expert to investigate consistency between expert-novice coding. Take-home messages: A crowdsourcing solution for curriculum mapping allows large amount of information to be collected in a real time manner, engaging students on learning about their curriculum in a more comprehensive manner, and more importantly allows for flexibility for providing feedback to curriculum changes.
Supporting students to colour outside of the lines: How a user consultation informs the design of an eLearning outcomes-based curriculum tool
Maxine Moore (Flinders University, Health Professional Education Unit, Adelaide, Australia)
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 10 WEDNESDAY 28 AUGUST: 0830-1015
Julie Ash (Flinders University, Health Professional Education Unit, School of Medicine, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia) Minh Nguyen (Flinders University, School of Medicine, Adelaide, Australia)
Background: The outcomes-based curriculum model where desired course outcomes in broad integrated terms define and align learning activities and assessments has gained acceptance globally. To support this approach a curriculum framework or map is needed. One strategy is an online tool useful for students, teachers and evaluators. Appropriate design requires consultation with target user groups; learners in particular.
Summary of work: For this student user consultation 11 audio-recorded focus groups covering over 50 graduate-entry Flinders University medical students, across three year levels and eight teaching sites were conducted asking their requirements of an online curriculum map. The focus groups were facilitated by a researcher and senior medical student. Transcripts coded using NVivo were analysed for themes constructing an understanding of students' needs. Summary of results: Participants strongly supported the development of a course curriculum map to reduce administrative 'noise' and solidify links between learning activities, learning outcomes, and assessment. Discussion about the desired online curriculum tool revealed much about the students' experience of the curriculum and online delivery systems, particularly anxieties about assessment and equality between sites. Conclusions: The findings reflect current debates in health professional curriculum design. We wish to produce health professionals who integrate knowledge, practice and professionalism and are effective self-learners and collaborators, hence the trend towards outcomes-based curricula to guide toward outcomes. But students ask for transparency, specificity and consistency, suggesting atomistic prescriptive approaches to defining the curriculum. Take-home messages: We conclude that in designing outcomes-based curricula tools to assist student curriculum navigation and self-learning that course philosophy should be explicit to ensure tools support rather than contradict this.
Mapping the undergraduate medical curriculum: integrating with a digital landscape
Josephine Boland (National University of Ireland
Galway, School of Medicine, Clinical Science Institute,
Galway, Co. Galway, Ireland)
Enda Griffin (National University of Ireland Galway,
School of Medicine, Galway, Ireland)
David Phelan (National University of Ireland Galway,
School of Medicine, Galway, Ireland)
Thomas Kropmans (National University of Ireland
Galway, School of Medicine, Galway)
Background: Professional bodies exert considerable influence on the design of the medical curriculum, mandating educational outcomes or competences to be attained. Learning technologies offer valuable opportunities for constructing an engaging learning environment. In this context, curriculum mapping has been adopted by a growing number of medical schools. It aims to make the curriculum transparent and accessible to stakeholders, while providing information in a consistent, navigable way. Web 2.0 technologies have revolutionised how such maps can be dynamically represented for a systems-based spiral medical programme.
Summary of work: The School of Medicine in NUI Galway has embarked on the development of a curriculum map to serve multiple functions and users. A tool was developed for mapping learning outcomes against those mandated by the Medical Council and for blueprinting learning outcomes with assessment. The design of a comprehensive curriculum database was shaped by stakeholders' needs. Students' views informed the design of a highly dynamic interface; they also contributed to the content-tagging process. Summary of results: Piloting clarified stakeholder needs and ensured interoperability with other systems. The functionality of a map was demonstrated. The mapping tool facilitated a deliberative curriculum planning process. Students searched for content using tags. Reports supported programme management. Integration with the digital landscape was made possible.
Conclusions: Mapping is vital to curriculum planning, programme management and student engagement. It is an inherently localised process that requires a combination of academic, technical and administrative expertise. It requires long-term commitment based on demonstrated benefits.
Take-home messages: Involvement of stakeholders and users - especially students - in the development process is central to the success and sustainability of curriculum mapping in medical education.
Embedding Competency and Curriculum Mapping in an Open Source Enterprise Educational System,
Susan Albright (Tufts University, Technology for Learning in the Health Sciences, 136 Harrison Ave,
Boston 02111, United States)
Michael Prentice (Tufts University, Technology for Learning in the Health Sciences, Boston, United States) Minhthe Nyguen (Tufts University, Technology for Learning in the Health Sciences, Boston, United States) Mark Bailey (Tufts University, Technology for Learning in the Health Sciences, Boston, United States)
Background: The Tufts University Sciences Knowledgebase, TUSK, is an enterprise educational system. Along with a content repository and LMS it provides a place to publish school-wide, course and session competencies. With the need to implement the
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 10 WEDNESDAY 28 AUGUST: 0830-1015
new Medbiquitous Curriculum Inventory Standard and Competency Framework we added national competencies, developed a mechanism to link the competencies across the curriculum, and a visualization method.
Summary of work: We decided to link course level competencies to assessment methodologies, themes and keywords and create a course-based competency-nodes linked to session competencies and learning objects associated with teaching and learning methods. Curriculum Deans in the TUSK consortium of schools helped plan the new functionality. A specification and user interface was developed. An open source visualization tool built on Json supplemented an excel view of the competencies. These provide a variety of ways for curriculum planners, faculty and students to manipulate the data and use it to view pathways through the curriculum.
Summary of results: The visualization tool simplified a complex array of information and pathways through and across the levels. The system was designed so that central administrators would link from school to national competencies and down to course level competencies while course directors would link from course to sessions. Versioning was added to associate competencies with publications dates. Conclusions: Following Harden's theory, TUSK has a place to publish, view and assess competencies within a learning management system.
Take-home messages: Working through a consortium of curriculum deans a tool was built that serves accreditation and local curricular management needs.
Impact of e-curriculum mapping as the basis for "Automated Integration" on medical education quality
B Al Hemsi (Innovative Technology, Dabab Street, Al Murabba, Riyadh 14541, Saudi Arabia) K Bin Abdulrahman (Imam University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
Background: Much attention regarding automation for education has been limited to "Student Information Systems" SIS & "Learning Management Systems" LMS and to a lesser degree to e-assessment systems. Those systems are living in isolated islands requiring major work for integration that is often incomplete and unsatisfactory.
A new approach for automation in medical education based on e-curriculum maps would guarantee full automation of all of the above systems and would generates huge statistical data that can monitor and evaluate the educational process. Summary of work: A virtual design of medical curriculum starts with designing the overall curriculum structure, zooming in into each of its courses down to the level of each educational activity, defining the learning objectives at all those levels producing a visual e-Curriculum Map. This establishes a foundation upon which curriculum content is published via LMS, tracking
the interaction of teachers building the content, and students viewing it, Assessment items can now be built by the faculty and electronically correlated to both the curriculum maps and content delivered. Measuring performance is checked by both assessment and evaluation tools.
Summary of results: Preliminary studies using e-curriculum maps as the basis for full integration of all automation element ( eMaps +SIS + LMS +Assessment + evaluation tools) have demonstrated that such approach to curriculum planning and monitoring can be adopted in medical colleges and has significant benefits. Take-home message: Curriculum e-designs generating curriculum e-maps & blue prints is a reality nowadays and would act as a solid foundation for full integration of SIS, LMS, Assessment and evaluation system. Such e- integration has the capability to monitor and guide medical education. Aggregates of such data provides the evidence that helps medical educators to collaborate within individual colleges or at the level of consortiums of colleges. We believe that a new innovative tool has been generated that permits potential international collaboration in medical education.
Acknowledgement: College of medicine in Imam Mohammad Bin Saud, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia for taking the lead in implementing such innovative tool of curriculum mapping & integration.
10I Short Communications: Training to be a Surgeon
Location: Club A, PCC
Fast-track training enhances surgical skills
CG Carlsen (Aarhus University, Centre of Medical Education, Incuba Science Park, Brendstrupgaardsvej 102, Aarhus N 8200, Denmark)
K Lindorff-Larsen (Aalborg University Hospital, NordSim, Center for Simulation and Skills Training, Aalborg, Denmark)
L Lund (Odense University Hospital, Dep. of Urology, Odense, Denmark)
P Funch-Jensen (Aarhus University, Clinical Institute, Aarhus, Denmark)
P Charles (Aarhus University, Centre of Medical Education, Aarhus, Denmark)
Background: Focus on patient safety increases demand for risk-free surgical training. Summary of work: A fast-track training model was tested in a randomized study. 18 surgical trainees were included and randomized to intervention (10) and control (8). The intervention group was offered a skills-lab course followed by the prospect of 20 supervised hernia repairs in their departments within 4-8 weeks. The control group followed the usual training program. All participants were video recorded at intervention start, at intervention end, and at follow up by the end of the first year of training. The control group was recorded at start and at end of the first training year. All recordings were rated by two blinded raters using a validated skills rating scale (8-40 points). Summary of results: In the intervention group the average rating of operative skills before intervention was 22.5 and after 26.2. Participants performed in average 16.8 hernia repairs during intervention. This change is statistically significant p=0.044 (paired t-test). At follow up after one year rating was 27.1, p=0.0197 (paired t-test). In the control group average rating was 23.4 at start and 21.8 at end, p=0.51 (paired t-test). At start no difference was detected between the two groups, by one year the difference was statistically significant favouring intervention p=0.0445 (t-test). Conclusions: A fast-track structured training program was preferable in both short and long-term compared with standard training.
Take-home messages: Fast-track training improves surgical performance in trainees.
Assessment of surgical skills competence using fMRI: A feasibility study
Marie C Morris (Trinity College/Tallaght Hospital, Surgery, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Tallaght, Dublin 24 0, Ireland)
T Frodl (Trinity College, Department of Psychiatry, Integrated Neuroimaging, Dublin, Ireland)
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 10 WEDNESDAY 28 AUGUST: 0830-1015
A D'Souza (Trinity College, Department of Psychiatry,
Integrated Neuroimaging, Dublin, Ireland)
AJ Fagan (St James's Hospital/ Trinity College, Dublin,
Centre for Advanced Magnetic Imaging (CAMI), Dublin,
PF Ridgway (Trinity College/Tallaght Hospital, Surgery, Dublin, Ireland)
Background: Patient safety is fundamental to modern medical practice. Assuring surgical competence is becoming more important at a time when Surgeons are being trained in fewer hours. However, accurate objective assessment of technical skills ability is fraught and poorly defined. Medical schools differ in their conceptions of minimum levels of competence. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has a long history in neuroscience and cognitive studies; however, little is published on actual rather than perceived motor skill ability. This study sought to assess the feasibility of utilizing an objective assessment method, by measuring blood oxygen level dependent signal changes (BOLD) in specific brain regions via fMRI. Summary of work: fMRI images were acquired in 9 subjects (3 Experts, 3 Intermediates, 3 Novices) while performing and imagining performing a basic surgical procedure: hand tying of surgical knots. The effect of subject head motion caused by the task itself was assessed the efficacy of fMRI data analyses in removing artefacts caused by this noise source in the data was explored.
Summary of results: Voxel-shifts of less than 1 voxel (3x3x3.55mm3) were recorded in all participants and were successfully corrected in all cases in the fMRI preprocessing step. Increased BOLD activity was observed in Experts compared to Novices when "imagining a task" in the primary visual cortex, an area important in perceptual learning. Specific Regions of Interest identified include Left Supramarginal, Left Rolandic Operculum and Left Post Central regions. Conclusions: fMRI is a feasible method of assessing actual motor skill. Larger numbers are needed to investigate findings further.
Take-home messages: fMRI is a feasible method of assessing actual motor skill.
Practising masters: how can surgeons learn from elite athletes?
Abigail Walker (St Thomas' Hospital, Surgery, Westminster Bridge Road, Lambeth, London SE1 7HY, United Kingdom)
Richard Oakley (St Thomas' Hospital, Head and Neck Surgery, London)
Background: Sport and surgery can be shown to share much common ground in terms of the skills required to excel: skills of technical ability, sensory processing, and cognitive reasoning. My background as an Olympic athlete has led me to experience the demonstration of these skills at the very highest level in sport, and naturally to question whether they can be transferred to