Автор неизвестен - Mededworld and amee 2013 conference connect - страница 130

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Summary of results: In addition to the new course format offering personal training and reflection for 350 students and a gender-sensitive anamnesis questionnaire already used in clinical routine, we now have a reflection sheet for students and a manual providing background information and literature. Conclusions: The factors that contributed to the project's success were active participation by the students, the project's processual makeup, where several feedback loops were used to test the development of the new teaching method and the practical application of the developed anamnesis questionnaire for their suitability for use, and successful interaction between project participants, doctors and patients.

Take-home messages: The development of new teaching concepts jointly with the parties involved and early student participation in further developing concrete problems contribute to improving learning success.

10L/4

Gender Awareness of first year medical students at the Medical University of Vienna

Alexandra Kautzky-Willer (Medical University of Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine, Gender Medicine Unit, Vienna, Austria)

Sandra Steinbock (Medical University of Vienna, Department of Gender Mainstreaming, Vienna, Austria) Sonja Lydtin (Medical University of Vienna, Department of Gender Mainstreaming, Vienna, Austria) Angelika Hofhansl (Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medical Education, Spitalgasse 23, Vienna 1090, Austria)

Background: In order to improve the quality of health care for both men and women, awareness of sex and gender in illness and health is essential. Implementation of sex and gender aspects in medical education is therefore needed. The aim of this study is to survey the

ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 10 WEDNESDAY 28 AUGUST: 0830-1015

students' attitudes to gender and gender stereotyping in the first year medical studies at the Medical University of Vienna.

Summary of work: 583 first year medical students (44% male, 56% female) completed the validated "Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine" Scale. The questionnaire consists of the subscales gender sensitivity, gender role ideology towards patients and gender role ideology towards doctors. Summary of results: A pronounced sensitivity towards gender issues appeared in both sexes, which is comparable to other international studies. Further, results show highly significant sex differences in the subscales gender role ideology towards patients as well as towards doctors, with male students agreeing more with stereotypical statements. However, no significant sex differences were found in the ability to be open towards gender issues in the medical field. Conclusions: Male students show more stereotypical thinking towards doctors and patients than female students. This should be considered in medical education. It is of further interest if and how gender awareness in medical students change over the years of medical studies.

Take-home messages: Differences between male and female students in gender awareness need to be taken into account when implementing gender aspects in the medical curriculum.

10L/5

The gender climate in medical students' clinical training - A focus group study conducted in Sweden

Emelie Kristoffersson (Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umea University, Umea 901 85, Sweden)

Jenny Andersson (Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umea University, Umea, Sweden) Katarina Hamberg (Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umea University, Umea, Sweden)

Background: There is increasing recognition about the importance of gender perspective in medical education. The aim of this study was to explore the gender climate in medical students' clinical training, i.e., how attitudes and values of men and women are expressed and communicated at wards and outpatient clinics. Summary of work: Medical students from the three last terms at Umea University medical school, Sweden, were invited to participate in this qualitative study. Eighteen students (15 women) participated and were divided into four focus groups. Two interviews were held with each group. The interviews were analysed by means of qualitative content analysis. Summary of results: Initially students' described difficulty recalling situations related to gender, but as the interviews proceeded the participants' depicted many personal experiences. Two themes emerged. The first "Type situations where gender played a role" consisted of the categories 'Comments & Sexist jargon', 'Different treatment', 'Stereotyped expectations' and

'Gender emphasized in a positive manner'. The other theme, "Reactions and ways of coping", contained the categories 'Diminishing and denying', 'Adapting and manoeuvring', and 'Taking action'. Students were concerned about that adapting to sexist jargons and inequity implied reconstructing gender hierarchies disfavouring women.

Conclusions: Students are dependent on teachers and staff and taking action for change is difficult. Medical school leaderships have a duty in watching for a good gender climate.

Take-home messages: To reduce gender stereotyped and biased treatment of medical students, teachers, tutors, as well as students, need more knowledge and awareness about gendered processes in health care.

10L/6

Gender violence against medical students at Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, Mexico

Luz Maria Angela Moreno-Tetlacuilo Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Public Health, Xochicalco #536. Col. Vertiz-Narvarte, Delegacion Benito Juarez, Mexico D.F 03600, Mexico) Antonio Rafael Villa Romero (Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Public Health, Mexico D.F, Mexico) Nora Ibarra Araujo (Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Public Health, Mexico D.F, Mexico)

Elsa Guevara Ruisenor (FES-Zaragoza, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Psicology, Mexico D.F, Mexico)

Nelly Yared Alvarado (Mexico D.F, Mexico) Laura Veronica Najera Nava (Mexico D.F, Mexico)

Background: In Mexico, violence against medical students (MS) has not been studied from a gender-based perspective; it has been informally reported at the Faculty of Medicine, UNAM. Summary of work: Our objective was to confirm the existence of gender violence and sexism against MS, to find out the kind of violence performed, identified the aggressor and students' meaning about violence. This study was authorized by Faculty's Research and Ethical Board. Methodology: We carry on an exploratory qualitative research based on symbolic interactionism and gender perspective. We did four focus group interviews among male and women MS after written inform consent. Each interview lasted around 90 minutes, all of them were videotaped, recorded and transcribed, codified by grounded theory and analyzed through a feminist education perspective. Summary of results: We confirm the presence of gender violence, sexism, gender discrimination and sexual harassment during medical internship. Violence against women was more frequent, mainly exert for male professors and residents; but also from women professors and residents, nurses and patients; sexual harassment was mainly exert by men; verbal and psychological violence came from men and women. Physical violence against men students came more

ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 10 WEDNESDAY 28 AUGUST: 0830-1015

frequently from male professors and residents; sexual harassment was not as frequent. Chronic violence affects their physical and mental health. The highest incidence was reported in Emergency room, Gynecology and Surgery departments. Institutional structure violence was observed. Students assessed violence as a personality feature and not as a socially structured problem.

Conclusions: Gender violence against MS is an educational and social problem that must be attended

to.

Take-home messages: Gender violence against women is an important matter, it's present and must be studied to prevent it.

10M Short Communications: Student

Engagement Location: Club D, PCC

10M/1

Feedback on Feedback: Student Perceptions of Feedback on Teaching Requested by a large UK Medical School

Simrit Nijjar (King's College London, School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom)

Aranghan Lingham (King's College London, School of

Medicine, London, United Kingdom)

Simon Cheung (King's College London, School of

Medicine, London, United Kingdom)

Aayushi Pandya (King's College London, School of

Medicine, Hodgkin Building, Guy's Campus, London SE1

1UL, United Kingdom)

Ruth Sugden (King's College London School of Medicine, Department of Primary Care and Public Health Sciences, London, United Kingdom)

Ann Wylie (King's College London School of Medicine, Department of Primary Care and Public Health Sciences, London, United Kingdom)

Background: The UK National Student Survey of medical students highlighted suboptimal communication, organisation and feedback processes. We explored penultimate year student perceptions of feedback requested by King's College London School of Medicine (KCLSM), focusing on three areas: the feedback process, its utility, and student awareness of faculty responses. Summary of work: A 'Survey Monkey' e-questionnaire was administered to 390 students in February 2013. A Likert scale was used enabling a discrete gradation of answers.

Summary of results: There was a 26% response. 45% of respondents felt that sufficient feedback requests were made. Despite having ample opportunities to provide feedback, 38% of these students felt that their feedback was not being used effectively, and 40% felt that changes were not being made based on their feedback. However, most students' opinions were neutral regarding how effectively feedback is used by faculty. The respondents (60%) either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement "The medical school has made me aware of how they're using my feedback." Conclusions: Based on our results, students are content with opportunity to provide feedback. The majority of students feel that the medical school does not communicate its response to the student feedback, be it curricular or organisational change. Requests for feedback are adequate at KCLSM, however communication regarding what is done with feedback by faculty needs substantial improvement. Take-home messages: Two-way communication between the medical school and the student body is an area for improvement, albeit in partnership with the student cohort, as an integral part of educational best practice.

Acknowledgements: Kubota-Sjogren Y, Bekri I

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10M/2

Developing a System for Effective Student Representation in a Large Medical School

Nathan Huneke (The University of Manchester, Manchester Medical School, Manchester, United Kingdom)

Emma Vaccari (The University of Manchester, Manchester Medical School, Manchester, United Kingdom)

Helen Franklin (The University of Manchester, Manchester Medical School, Manchester, United Kingdom)

Leena Patel (The University of Manchester, Manchester Medical School, Manchester, United Kingdom)

Background: Manchester Medical School (MMS) is among the largest in the UK with over 2300 students learning in four different base hospitals (sectors). Until 2011, student representation was fragmented, with independent systems for each sector, and for the programme as a whole. This compromised the effectiveness of student representation and highlighted the need for a streamlined system. Summary of work: In the new structure, student representatives are elected and receive support from an academic and an administrator. The representatives based centrally take on a leadership role, liaising with sector representatives to identify issues affecting the student experience. These are constructively discussed at regular staff-student liaison meetings. Good practice and unresolved issues are brought to biannual Staff-Student Assurance Committees to which senior academics and administrators are invited. Summary of results: This system allows all students to contribute to improvements and developments of the programme through their representatives. Contributions by the representatives are consistently commended by staff. Examples of improvements made include the formation of an anatomy focus group, written feedback from OSCEs, and development of e-portfolio. Conclusions: MMS' improved student representation system has enabled students to contribute effectively to Quality Assurance of the MBChB programme. A robust team structure, defined responsibilities, clear lines of communication and a code of conduct ensure effective representation by students in all aspects of a complex MBChB programme.

Take-home messages: Large medical schools should involve students in Quality Assurance of their programmes.

10M/3

Valuing students - using appreciative inquiry to develop student representation

David Taylor (University of Liverpool, School of Medicine, Cedar House, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, United Kingdom)

Background: We have been working for many years to ensure that the students are involved in the decision

making and running of the MBChB programme. Despite our best efforts, and the active involvement of students in our most senior committees, some of our students feel a lack of engagement with the medical school (IPSOS MORI. 2011. National Student Survey: http://www.thestudentsurvey.com/). Summary of work: We undertook an action research study, using appreciative inquiry, to identify the issues that impacted upon student representation in our school. In the first part of the study two focus groups discussed the issues ("discover" and "dream" phases: Cooperrider, D. L. & Whitney, D. 2001. A positive revolution in change: Appreciative inquiry. Public Administration and Public Policy, 87, 611-630). One group was drawn from the active student representatives, the other from students in years 1, 3 and 5 of our five-year MBChB programme who were not directly involved as representatives. Summary of results: The discussions were analysed thematically, and also provided the base-line information for a further meeting of the student representatives to design, and plan for the delivery of the future representation model. Conclusions: The study yielded improvements to the student representation system, but had two other take home messages, which will be discussed. Take-home messages: The first is that appreciative inquiry is an effective method of empowering students to improve existing systems. The second is the power of the narratives that students use to make sense of their experiences.

10M/4

Engaging students in e-learning technology: PeerWise

Andrew Grosset (University of Glasgow, School of

Medicine, Glasgow, United Kingdom)

Joanne Burke (University of Glasgow, School of

Medicine, Glasgow, United Kingdom)

Vivian Binnie (University of Glasgow, School of Dentistry,

Glasgow, United Kingdom)

Jennifer Hammond (University of Glasgow, School of Veterinary Science, Glasgow, United Kingdom) John Hamer (University of Glasgow, Computer Science, Science and Engineering, Glasgow, United Kingdom) Katherine Cameron (University of Glasgow, School of Medicine, Glasgow, United Kingdom)

Background: PeerWise is a free piece of innovative online software. It provides a platform for any cohort of students to formatively write, answer, comment on and rate MCQs created by their peers. PeerWise has little staff involvement and is aesthetically similar to popular social networking sites.

Summary of work: PeerWise was implemented into the first year undergraduate curriculum in the medical, dental and veterinary science cohorts at the University of Glasgow. Different methods of engagement were organized for the 3 cohorts, ranging from compulsory to voluntary. Usage data collected from the software included timing, questions written and general

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descriptive statistics. Additionally, a 5 point Likert questionnaire with free text comments was issued and focus groups were conducted.

Summary of results: Between the 3 cohorts there were 481 students, on average writing 3.9 questions, (Total = 1650). Students answered an average of 190 each (Total = 88,790). These numbers varied widely between the cohorts. Students participating voluntarily were less likely to write, though equally likely to answer. All cohorts participated most before assessments and reported similar strengths and weaknesses. Students valued the software for revision, but raised concern around lack of staff input. Comparison of PeerWise use with summative exam results revealed no significant correlations.

Conclusions: Cohorts who used PeerWise on a compulsory basis engaged with the software more. Most students rated PeerWise positively, and would use it again. Students would prefer staff involvement and some issues identified will require consideration in future use. Currently, there is no evidence that engagement in PeerWise significantly enhances summative exam performance.

10M/5

Patients' perceptions upon student-based care followed by supervision

Ernesto A Figueiro-Filho (Faculdade de Medicina -Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 549, Unidade 9. Predio da FAMED., Campo Grande - MS 79070-900, Brazil)

Eliana Amaral (Campinas, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Campinas - SP, Brazil)

Danette McKinley (FAIMER, Research and Data Resources, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States) Juanita Bezuidenhout (Stellenbosch University, Pathology, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa) Ara Tekian (University of Illinois at Chicago, Medical Education, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

Background: As part of clinical training in ambulatory settings at a public Brazilian medical school, undergraduate medical students frequently see patients alone, then discuss their findings with supervisors outside the consulting room, before returning to the patient with suggested management strategies. Summary of work: The aim of this study was to assess patients' perceptions of student-based care supported by preceptor supervision outside the consultation room. We performed a cross-sectional study and intervention, with a convenience sample of first-time obstetrical patients presenting at High-Risk Antenatal Outpatient Care. The intervention was special training programme on communication skills for fifth and sixth year students, focusing on patient-centeredness. A Likert scale questionnaire focusing on patients' satisfaction and the perception of students' performance during the consultation was administered by medical students not involved in providing patient care, pre- and post intervention. An open-ended question requested

patients to write three words representing what they felt BEFORE and AFTER being consulted. Summary of results: All 52 women attending first-time consultations during the study period participated. Prior to initial consultation, 20% of the patients were not sure if they would feel comfortable being examined by medical students, or trust them; however, after receiving care, 100% "strongly agreed" on a five point-scale that they were comfortable and trusted the students. Using associative network methods, "anxiety" and "fear" were the most frequently words cited pre-consultation, whereas "calm", "trust" and "satisfaction" were the most cited words post-consultation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that 100% of the patients were comfortable and trusted the student-based care. This study provides strong evidence that a suitable intervention to prepare students for consultations will increase patient satisfaction. Take-home messages: Early investment in the student-patient relationship can reduce patient anxiety and improve patient care, especially as the students have the opportunity to spend more time with their patients than their supervisors.

10M/6

Screening Programs for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), (Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension) in Dominica by University Medical Students as part of the Students Community Exposure

Rosana Emmanuel (Ross University School of Medicine, Clinical and Community Affairs, Portsmouth, Dominica) Gerald Grell, (Ross University School of Medicine, Clinical and Community Affairs, Portsmouth, Dominica) Davendranand Sharma (Ross University School of Medicine, Behavioral Science, Portsmouth, Dominica) Yasmin Burnett (Ross University School of Medicine, Introduction to Clinical Medicine, Portsmouth, Dominica) Martin Christmas (Ministry of Health, Primary Health Care Services, Roseau, Dominica) Keisha Gilbert (Ross University School of Medicine, Clinical and Community Affairs, Portsmouth, Dominica)

Background: Ross University School of Medicine is a United States (US) medical school based on the island of Dominica in the Caribbean, where four semesters of pre­clinical education is done prior to the two years of clinical rotations which is done in the US in accredited hospitals. Students are exposed to patients early in their training, and in their third semester are rotated to twenty-one clinical primary care sites on the island where they begin their history taking activities and learn how to perform a limited physical examination. Summary of work: Students were participants with the authors in completing a standardized questionnaire on blood pressure and blood glucose levels for a randomized sample of volunteers. Ages 17-89 during six

(6) health fairs in the period 2009-2011. This

presentation reviews the data relating to Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension using the measurements of >140/90mm Hg for high blood pressure and for blood

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glucose according to the American Diabetes Association, 70 - 130 (mg/dL) before meals, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals.

Summary of results: Screened 532 individuals over a two year period for Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension. 24% were diagnosed as having high blood pressure and 31% were diagnosed with high blood sugar. Conclusions: Medical students are being trained and taught even in developing countries to promote health and managed these conditions associated with the trends in developed countries.

Take-home messages: Public health policy in Dominica has to change to focus on those NCDs.

10N Short Communications: The Teacher

Location: Meeting Room 2.1, PCC

10N/1

Analogies across professional boundaries

Klara Bolander Laksov (Karolinska Institutet, LIME, Stockholm, Sweden)

Mikeal Wiren (Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm 53 141 86, Sweden)

Background: The learning of practice-based knowledge can be challenging, especially when it is carried out in a learning environment where several processes are involved and several individuals are taking different roles in a team. Surgery is an example of such an environment and so is conducting an orchestra. The teaching of students in such environments can be challenging and the process of learning is often not explicit (e.g. Moulton et al 2010). Summary of work: In the following project a surgeon teacher and an orchestra conductor teacher were involved in an exchange program visiting each other's teaching on three occasions each during one semester. Each visit was prepared by written reflections on aims and goals for the visitor as well as the 'host' and followed by an evaluative discussion that was recorded. Students filled out a questionnaire and were interviewed at the end of the project. Summary of results: The results of the project consisted of two narratives written on the part of the two participants. Analysis of the narratives made visible the analogies between the two roles in terms of pedagogical leadership.

Conclusions: Through the eyes of a visitor, educational leadership can be made explicit in a way that facilitates the articulation of similarities and differences in practical learning. A model for making teaching practice explicit.

Take-home messages: By engaging in critical friend exchange programs across professional boundaries implicit strategies for teaching can be made explicit and shared with colleagues in communities of practice of the participants.

10N/2

Is there an association between involvement in education and quality of clinical care? Reflections from an expert consensus panel

David Pearson (Hull York Medical School, Centre for Education Development, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, United Kingdom) Elizabeth Andrews (Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Born In Bradford Research Project, Bradford, United Kingdom) Maria Slade (Hull York Medical School, Centre for Education Development, York, United Kingdom)

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