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Professionalism Competencies for Junior Medical Officers: A Literature Review
Anneliese Willems (Post Graduate Medical Council of Victoria, Junior Medical Officer Forum, Melbourne, Australia)
Susannah Ahern (Post Graduate Medical Council of Victoria, Junior Medical Officer Forum, Melbourne, Australia)
Marilyn Bulleen (Post Graduate Medical Council of Victoria, Junior Medical Officer Forum, Melbourne, Australia)
Julia Lai-Kwon (Post Graduate Medical Council of Victoria, Junior Medical Officer Forum, Melbourne, Australia)
Linny Phuong (Post Graduate Medical Council of Victoria, Junior Medical Officer Forum, Melbourne, Australia) Jessica Wong (Post Graduate Medical Council of Victoria, Junior Medical Officer Forum, Melbourne) (Presenter: Georgiana Luisa, Baca Post Graduate Medical Council of Victoria, Junior Medical Officer Forum, Level 9, Mary Aikenhead Centre, 27 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy 3065, Australia)
Background: Good practice can be described as encompassing a myriad of non-technical, interpersonal and professional skills. The Australian Curriculum Framework for Junior Doctors (ACFJD) describes professionalism as one of its five core areas of curriculum for junior medical officers (JMOs). A gap may exist, however, between the current professional skills outlined in the ACFJD, and core professional skills that JMOs must possess. Anecdotal reports from recent meetings of Victorian stakeholders suggest a need to reassess the training and education of JMOs in professional skills. This literature review sought to: 1) Better understand JMO competencies in relation to the 'professional' domain, 2) To consider how these may vary from the current ACFJD 'professional' competencies, and 3) To review JMO 'professional' competencies among the medical postgraduate curriculum.
Summary of work: Literature search strategy included electronic database searches, internet searches, hand searching, ancestry searching and networking. Searches revealed 36 articles; 16 encompassing Australasian specialty college curricula, 20 formed viewpoints, editorials, literature reviews and original research. Traditional review methodology was adopted alongside a qualitative matrix analysis through categorising thematic content analysis of college curricula. Summary of results: Matrix analysis and reviews identified 117 professional skills - 47 were already outlined in the ACFJD with an additional 32 professional skills which were deemed significant. In addition, findings revealed a poor concordance throughout the college curricula with less than 50% generalizability for 20 competencies, and 75% generalisability for 13 competencies only.
Conclusions: Generally, there was poor consensus as to what professionalism constitutes. Further research is required to further explore professional skills for JMOs.
Teaching Professionalism to Interns: Evaluating the Impact of a Preparation-for-Practice Workshop
Terina T Pollock (South Auckland Clinical School,
University of Auckland, Middlemore Hospital, Otahuhu
Private Bag 93311, New Zealand)
Joanna M Strom (South Auckland Clinical School,
University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand)
TC Yu (South Auckland Clinical School, University of
Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand)
Andrew D MacCormick (South Auckland Clinical School,
University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand)
Andrew B Connolly (Middlemore Hospital, Department of
Surgery, Auckland, New Zealand)
Andrew G Hill (South Auckland Clinical School, University
of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand)
Background: The Medical Council of New Zealand asserts that intern training includes professionalism and clinical leadership. As part of the modular training curriculum for interns at Counties Manukau District Health Board (CMDHB), a preparation-for-practice (PROshop) workshop was designed to address key skills including leadership, workplace professionalism, understanding of medico-legal principles, and career development.
Summary of work: Interns were assigned to one of four, two-day PROshops during 2011. Evaluation utilised two methods. Multi-source feedback (MSF) was obtained for one of the four groups of participants. Pre- and post-surveys examined knowledge, perception and attitudes regarding various domains of professionalism. Summary of results: In 2011, there was 97% attendance. Results of MSF showed that participants scored very highly on measures of professionalism post workshop. Free text comments highlighted participants' value of the small group discussion format. Qualitative data from pre- and post- surveys showed knowledge; perception and attitudes were either unchanged or improved.
Conclusions: This is the first professional skills workshops described for interns in Australasia. Strengths of the workshop were high attendance due to protected teaching time and the small group discussion format. Despite being resource-intensive, MSF has the potential to be a valuable method of assessing professionalism. Other hospitals should consider adopting a similar modular approach to delivering their education curriculum for interns and special emphasis should be placed on informing their interns about CPD requirements for the transition to PGY2 and beyond. Take-home messages: 1) Protected teaching time and small group discussion formats are highly valued by participating interns. 2) MSF can be a valuable tool in assessing professionalism.
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 10 WEDNESDAY 28 AUGUST: 0830-1015
Why do doctors go to support people suffering from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami? : A qualitative case study to explore doctors' altruism in medical professionalism
Tomio Suzuki (Nagoya University Hospital, Department
of General Medicine, Nagoya, Japan)
Tomoko Matsui (Nagoya University Graduate School of
Medicine, Department of General Medicine, Nagoya,
Noriyuki Takahashi (Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of General Medicine, Nagoya, Japan)
Ryo Oda (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Japan) Hiroshi Nishigori (Kyoto University, Center for Medical Education, Kyoto, Japan)
Background: Professionalism in medical education, especially teaching altruism in doctors, has recently become a topic of interest. In order to explore the behaviours of highly altruistic doctors who can be role models when teaching it, this report describes the motives of doctors supporting people suffered from the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011. As a case study, we clarify elements of doctors' altruistic behaviours with their narratives. Summary of work: Using qualitative methodology, we conducted semi-structured interviews for fifteen doctors who went to areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake for medical support, principally regarding their motives. Interview data were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim, followed by analysing it using thematic analysis, one of the qualitative research methods.
Summary of results: The six following concepts with narratives were extracted as motives: 'prosociality', 'trial of clinical expertise', 'desire for real experience', 'sense of belonging', 'noblesse oblige' and 'feeling of guilt'. Conclusions: The result revealed that their motives were related to their desires and dilemmas as humans or professionals rather than simply to the concept of 'altruism'. Further, they did not independently exist, as multiple elements correlated with each doctor. Take-home messages: Doctors' behaviours which apparently looked altruistic turned out to be not so simplistic. When teaching medical professionalism, especially altruism, we have to consider their motives including their desires and dilemmas.
Professionalism of Dental Hygienists in Japan
Yukiko Nagatani (Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima-shi 734-8551, Japan) Kayo Kajitani (Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima-shi, Japan) Taiji Obayashi (Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima-shi, Japan)
Miyuki Nakaoka (Hiroshima University Hospital, Department of Dental Hygiene, Hiroshima-shi, Japan) Toshinobu Takemoto (Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health sciences, Hiroshima-shi, Japan)
Tetsuji Ogawa (Hiroshima University, Department of Advanced General Dentistry, Hiroshima-shi, Japan)
Background: With the aging of the population, an increase of chronic disorders and other social changes, dental hygienists (DHs) in hospitals have to provide oral health care as inter-professional with dental and medical staffs for patients who face to general and oral complex problems. The aim of this study is to improve the college program education and the professional education by clarifying the context and the developing process of professionalism in DHs. Summary of work: The questionnaire survey about professionalism was performed to DHs (n=708) who work in the 27 university hospitals of the dentistry in Japan. The linguistic information (n=603) which obtained from the answers was analyzed quantitatively. Moreover, the information replied from the 42 persons who answered many descriptions was analyzed qualitatively by using SCAT (steps for coding and theorization).
Summary of results: The context of professionalism of the DHs divided into 3 categories, "scientific", "humanity" and "sociality". In their 20s, the description about "scientific" was shown frequently. The descriptions about "humanity" and "sociality" increased in their 30s and 40s. The gap between ideal and reality, needs from society, self-growth and contribution for patients were the important factors for continuous development of professionalism. Conclusions: This is the first result about the professionalism of the DHs working at hospital in Japan. This construct may be able to be adapted not only for working DHs in Japanese hospital but also for global
Take-home messages: These results were useful to improve the education program of professionalism for
Implementation of a new 30 ECTS professional track in the medical master curriculum
Louise Binow Kjaer (Aarhus University, Unit of Medical Education, Brendstrupgaardsvej 102, Aarhus N 8200, Denmark)
Anne Mette M0rcke (Aarhus University, Unit of Medical Education, Aarhus, Denmark) Mette Krogh Christensen (Aarhus University, Unit of Medical Education, Aarhus, Denmark)
Background: In 2011 the Faculty of Health at Aarhus University started a major curriculum reform within the Master's degree program in medicine. A crucial part of this reform is the implementation of a new 30 ECTS module: "The professional track". The professional track includes courses directly related to the seven roles of
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 10 WEDNESDAY 28 AUGUST: 0830-1015
the practicing physician: Course 1. Medical expert and health advocate; Course 2. Communicator, collaborator and manager; Course 3. Scholar; Course 4. Professional. The track is concluded by a portfolio exam each semester - one portfolio per course. Summary of work: The implementation runs from August 2011 to June 2014. Our aim is to give the medical students early experiences with professional challenges. Therefore we expose the students to a range of professional courses - and not just the highly rated clinical training.
Summary of results: The first standard evaluation showed that 70 % of the students said they benefitted very much from the courses. It also shows that the students rated clinical and communication skills training much higher than courses related to the scholar and the professional roles. However, portfolios indicate that the students obtain the learning goals of the courses. Conclusions: The next step is the preparation of a research project for the purpose of investigating how students think about professionalism in medicine and how and when students develop professional identity. Take-home messages: The professional track formalizes a range of important components in the medical curriculum. Even though some courses in the professional track are not the most popular among the students, portfolios indicate that they obtain learning goals.
10CC Posters: Basic Science Location: South Hall, PCC
Medical Students' Cell Drawings as snapshots of cellular anatomy understanding
Eduardo Anselmo Garcia (Paulo Prata Faculty of Health Sciences - FACISB, Medical Education Unit, Avenida Loja Magonica Renovadora 68, N° 100, Barretos 14785-002, Brazil)
Fernando Rodrigues (Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), ICVS/3B's - PT Government Associate Laboratory, School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal)
Nuno S Osorio (Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), ICVS/3B's - PT Government Associate Laboratory, School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal)
Manuel Joao Costa (Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), ICVS/3B's - PT Government Associate Laboratory, School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal)
Background: Undergraduate medical curricula normally include cell biology courses. However, research into student misconceptions on cell structure is lacking. We considered asking students to draw cells to gain insights into students' misconceptions about cellular anatomy. Summary of work: A surprise drawing assignment was applied to the first practical microscopy class to 120 undergraduate medical students. Students were asked to make two drawings: the scheme of an animal eukaryotic cell and their vision of an epithelial human scrub slide under the microscope. Then, they prepared a scrub of their own buccal cells and observed the slides under the microscope. The drawings were analyzed and 4 categories were created: number and organization of the cells; presence of entities with sizes bellow the optical microscope detection limit; cell nucleus position and odd representations. Each drawing was individually scored according to these categories by 4 researchers and reached consensus.
Summary of results: Drawings revealed one of the following misconceptions in every students: scrubs have tissue-like structure (20,8%); wrong scale notions, revealed by representations of the cell membrane (66,7%), organelles and cellular structures (19,2%); positioning the nucleus bordering the cell membrane (26,1%); making odd representations (8,3%), pointy shape (8,3%), blood cells (2,5%), enzymes (1,7%) or extreme dimension disparities (1,7%). Conclusions: Students held various misconceptions about cell structure.
Take-home messages: Drawing can be a powerful tool for the identification of medical student misconceptions.
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 10 WEDNESDAY 28 AUGUST: 0830-1015
The improvement of senior medical students' teaching abilities in the anatomy orientation after taking lessons of teaching methods
Ja Kyung Kim (Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 1 Kangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701, Korea, Republic of (South Korea))
Seok Hoon Kang (Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Education, Chuncheon, Korea, Republic of (South Korea))
Background: The anatomy orientation, especially osteology, for the first grade medical students of medical school in Korea is usually taught by second grade medical students who had learned it the previous year. But as a rule the quality of lectures by senior medical students is suspected to be boring, abstruse and is out of the concern in the medical education field. Summary of work: Six second grade medical students preparing lectures of anatomy orientation for the first grade medial students at Kangwon medical school in 2013 year were interviewed as a focus group and were asked to answer the self questions about their teaching abilities. A four-hour training of teaching methods for them was done by a family physician who worked in medical education and six anatomy orientation lectures: Upper Extremity, Lower Extremity, Chest, Abdomen, Head & Neck, Vertebra, were opened to fifty first grade medical students. First grade medical students evaluated the new anatomy orientation by questionnaires the same as those used for professor's lecture evaluation at Kangwon medical school. Summary of results: Six second grade medical students thought their experience of anatomy orientation lectures which they had received from their senior at the time when they were a freshman as a nightmare, because of the impromptu amusement of their senior medical students' lectures. After taking lessons of teaching methods, six medical students thought that they gained self confidence and they could teach anatomy orientation better than their senior. Conclusions: The education of teaching methods for senior medical students can improve the quality of medical students' anatomy orientation for freshman. Take-home messages: Anatomy orientation taught by senior medical students is a part of medical education field and it is important to prepare them to teach well.
The Combined Teaching of an Airway Management Simulation with Head and Neck Anatomy Improved Student Performance on Anatomy Exams
Rose-Claire St. Hilaire (Ross University School of Medicine, Integrated Medical Education, Portsmouth, Dominica)
Mallikarjuna Barremkala (Ross University School of Medicine, Anatomy, Picard, Portsmouth, Dominica)
Lisa Buckley (Ross University School of Medicine, Integrated Medical Education, Portsmouth, Dominica) Diana Callender (Ross University School of Medicine, Integrated Medical Education, Portsmouth, Dominica)
Background: Ross University School of Medicine previously submitted research showing that the coupling of a heart sounds simulation with physiology lectures improved student performance on exams. We examined whether there would be a similar effect in coupling airway management simulation with the teaching of head and neck anatomy.
Summary of work: Students were taught basic airway management and head and neck anatomy using the Laerdal task trainer. Sessions were co-facilitated by a clinician and an anatomist. Students were evaluated using MCQs and their performance was compared with 2010 controls that had not had simulation. Summary of results: Data from 2010 and 2012 was evaluated. Students obtained an average score of 70% (n=975) and 85% (n=1659) respectively on the anatomy MCQs. The average of the upper 27% increased from 84% to 88% while the lower 27% went from 48% to 80%. Conclusions: The results show an improvement in performance on the head and neck anatomy questions in students who did the simulation with the greatest increase in the lower 27% of the class. As in physiology, students in the lower 27% of the class benefited most from reinforcing anatomy with a simulation. Take-home messages: The use of simulation to reinforce lecture material may be more beneficial to students with lower academic performance. Further study is needed to determine the reasons for this.
The state of students' knowledge about human anatomy within two different medical curricula
Stefan Schauber (Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Dieter Scheffner Center for Medical Teaching and Educational Research, Berlin, Germany) Waltraud Georg (Helios Kliniken GmbH, Berlin, Germany) Irene Brunk (Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Dieter Scheffner Center for Medical Teaching and Educational Research, Chariteplatz 1, Berlin 10117, Germany)
Background: The importance of knowledge about anatomy for medical practice is generally accepted. Since 1999, a traditional and a problem based learning reformed curriculum have been conducted at the Charite Medical University of Berlin. Within these curricula anatomy is taught in fundamentally different ways: There is no systematic teaching of anatomy in the reformed course. It is uncertain, whether students acquire the same level of anatomy knowledge in both curricula. However, this information is crucial for the integration of the subject in a new competence-based curriculum, which is currently implemented at Charite. Summary of work: A questionnaire was used to assess how students rate their own knowledge of anatomy. Performance in anatomical questions of the Progress-Test Medicine (PTM) provided objective data. From both
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 10 WEDNESDAY 28 AUGUST: 0830-1015
curricula students in their fifth year were compared in order to reveal potential differences. Summary of results: Students from the problem based learning curriculum considered their knowledge of human anatomy to be poorer than students from the traditional curriculum did. This result was confirmed by the students' scores in anatomical questions of the PTM. Conclusions: Our data indicate a difference in acquisition of anatomy knowledge depending on the type of medical curriculum. This difference is also perceived by the students themselves. The data do not provide information about the application of anatomy knowledge in clinical settings. Take-home messages: Integration of anatomical education in a medical curriculum has to be considered carefully during planning. Analysis of students' performance in a subject in different curricula is important for planning new curricula.
A questionnaire based study of the available resources to teach human anatomy among first year medical students
Anupa Sivakumar (International Medical University,
Human Biology, 126,Jalan Jalil Perkasa19, Bukit Jalil,
Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia)
Khin Ma Ma (International Medical University, Human
Biology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
Sunil Pazhayanur Venkateswaran (International Medical
University, Pathology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
Background: Anatomy teaching is generally an essential of medicine and this teaching has been prevalent from the 17th century. Most of our knowledge of Human Anatomy comes from dissection of cadavers. The 21st century is seeing the use of latest technology to teach Human Anatomy to students. With this in mind we aim to look at all the teaching resources in anatomy among first year medical students through a questionnaire. Summary of work: At our university we use a variety of resources to teach Human Anatomy viz. Plenaries, Medical museum sessions where models and plastinated cadavers are used and video demonstrations. We will prepare a validated questionnaire and distribute this among first year medical students. We aim to look at which of the resources is popular or unpopular among students and the reasons for being so.
Summary of results: Currently the study is in progress. All data will be analysed at the completion of the study. Statistical analysis will be carried out as required. Conclusions: Conclusions will be drawn with respect to the results obtained from the study. Take-home messages: Anatomy is a vital component of medical teaching and it is important we identify the right resources that are being used to teach this subject.
How to Teach Relevant Clinical Embryology
Laura Burton (University of Glasgow, School of Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, 86 Menock Road, Glasgow G44 5SE, United Kingdom)
Robert Carachi (Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgical Paediatrics, Glasgow, United Kingdom)
John McClure (University of Glasgow, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Glasgow, United Kingdom)
Background: Clinical embryology is important in the medical curriculum. Knowledge of embryology is essential to understand normal and abnormal human development as well as the treatment of malformations. Students often struggle to grasp the concepts of embryology and many do not enjoy the subject. We sought to establish the effectiveness of a single lecture entitled 'the clinical embryology of the limbs'. Summary of work: 178 volunteers in 1st year at the University of Glasgow were given a questionnaire to fill out before a lecture on clinical embryology of the limbs. The questionnaire tested the students' current knowledge. At the end of the lecture the students were given an identical questionnaire to see if their knowledge had improved. Students were asked to rate the usefulness of the lecture and whether they would like more clinical embryology teaching. Summary of results: There was a mean increase in test