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Summary of work: To study the number, buying reasons, usage, necessary medical application, role in medical education, effects and opinion in promoting smartphone and tablet for support of medical education among first to sixth year medical students in Prince of Songkla University. In this descriptive cross sectional study, the data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire that was completed by 646 students. Summary of results: There were 646 subjects included in the study which accounted for 82.93% response rate. The subjects were 18-31 years old, 55.11% were female, and their incomes were 7,000 baht/month. Most of medical students use only smartphone (74.61%). Calling is the main reason for owning smartphone (90.66%). Education is the main reason for owning tablet (95.44%). Total time of using smartphone are 6 hours/day same as tablet. They use smartphone for social network for 2 hours/day while they use tablet for education and entertainment for each 2 hours/day. Most necessary medical application in preclinical students is Dorlans Medical Dictionary and in clinical students is Medscape. Conclusions: Most medical students use either smartphone and tablet and think that devices support medical education and agree with using smartphone and tablet in medical learning.
Take-home messages: The smartphone and tablet are options in medical learning.
Healthcare professionals' use of mobile phones and the internet in clinical practice
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 2 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 0830-1015
Christine McMenamin (Monash University, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing & Health Science, Melbourne, Australia)
Olga Vujovic (Monash University, Microbiology, Melbourne, Australia)
Nicole Koehler (Deakin University, Deakin Learning Futures, Melbourne, Australia)
Background: Little is known in regards to healthcare professionals' (HCP) use of and attitudes towards smartphones within clinical practice. Aims of this study were to enumerate the number of HCPs that use mobiles within clinical practice and compare attitudes towards using mobiles and the internet. Summary of work: Forty-three HCPs completed an anonymous online survey.
Summary of results: 91% of HCPs owned a mobile of which 87% used it during clinical practice. No HCP was supplied with a smartphone by their clinical workplace. Consequently they used their privately owned device. For ten out of eleven statements HCPs had significantly more positive attitudes towards the internet than mobiles. Mobiles were only perceived negatively for two statements: 1) in regard to confidentiality; and 2) HCPs' having the perception that patients may think that they are using mobiles for non-medical purposes. Conclusions: Mobiles, including smartphones, are commonly used within clinical practice and at present most HCPs use their privately owned device. Despite HCPs having more positive attitudes toward internet use, their attitudes towards mobile use were largely positive.
Take-home messages: Mobile use, in particular smartphone use, within clinical practice is likely to increase in the future.
Just in Time? Using QR Codes for multi-professional learning
Joseph Jamu (Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust,
Education, London, United Kingdom)
Hannah Lowi-Jones (Imperial College Healthcare NHS
Trust, Medicine, London, United Kingdom)
Colin Mitchell (Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust,
Medicine, London, United Kingdom)
Background: Clinical policies and guidelines are widely available but access can be difficult at the required time and place. Clinical staff with smartphones could use QR codes for contemporaneous access to relevant information, supporting good practice - the 'Just In Time Learning' (JIT-L) paradigm.
Summary of work: A list of high-yield clinical guidelines was generated and content adapted for smartphone viewing. QR Codes were generated for each topic and positioned around a medical ward. Website analytics and semi-structured interviews were performed to evaluate usage and educational value. Summary of results: Use was intermittently high but not sustained. Thematic analysis demonstrated a positive assessment of the JIT-L paradigm. However,
notable barriers included usability of QR codes and appropriateness of smartphone use in front of patients. The JIT-L paradigm was valued but not fully exploited with some participants also creating 'information libraries'. Usage was affected by technological skills, individual educational requirements and acceptance of smartphone use in clinical environments. Conclusions: JIT-L for education and reference may be beneficial for healthcare professionals. Alternative methods of information retrieval for less technologically-literate users and a change in culture of mobile-device use in clinical areas are needed. Take-home message: •Healthcare staff use and value timely, high-yield, contextually relevant clinical information. •Smartphone use is viewed as inappropriate within ward areas, even when used for clinical support. •Smartphones can deliver educational resources, however a system is needed to link the online resource with the real-world situation. One such system, QR codes, worked poorly in practice.
Smartphones in Western medicine - is our use eroding core ethical principles? A review of clinical cases compromising medical ethics
Abdul Hassan (University of Leicester, Medical School, Leicester, United Kingdom)
David Ferguson (University of Leicester, Medical School, 22 Greenhill Road, Leicester LE2 3DJ, United Kingdom) Nader Hanna (University of Nottingham, Medical School, Nottingham, United Kingdom)
Background: Smartphone technology is increasingly utilised in the daily management of patients within western medicine. Recent evidence suggests that 75% of junior doctors own smartphones with 57% admitting to using them during ward rounds. We believe core medical ethics are in danger of erosion with the increased use of smartphone technology in the hospital setting.
Summary of work: Four distinct clinical scenarios were identified where adherence to core medical ethical principles was drawn into question. They were: (1)An Anaesthetist engaged in smartphone based games intra-operatively; (2) Use of non-accredited translation software on a ward round; (3) Utilisation of smartphones by junior doctors to communicate sensitive patient information; (4) Use of medical applications by patients to guide treatment. Each scenario was analysed using one of the four medical ethical principles of Autonomy, Non-Maleficence, Beneficence and Justice.
Summary of results: Owing to the vast spectrum of opportunities for smartphone use in western medicine, we determine that clinicians should critically appraise each situation when they resort to smartphone use. It is our hope that through the discussion points we raise, clinicians are better informed on the correct use of mobile technology, resulting in the maintenance of core medical ethics and ensuring the highest levels of patient safety.
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 2 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 0830-1015
Conclusions: Through this discussion of the common scenarios encountered in clinical practice we hope to have reviewed the use of smartphones and ultimately improve the integration of emerging technologies for the benefit of patient care. Take-home messages: We hope to improve the integration of emerging technologies into western medicine for the benefit of patient care.
Using blogs to teach Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) to medical students
Abdulmohsen Al-Zalabani (Taibah University, Family and Community Medicine / Medical Education, PO box 42317, Madinah 41541, Saudi Arabia)
Background: Blogs are one of the web 2.0 technologies that allow interaction and collaboration in the online environment.
Summary of work: The current study used blogging to augment teaching of an Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) course to undergraduate medical students. The course is based on classroom teaching of the principles of EBM and composed of tutorials and practical sessions. Students are required to register in a blog service and post their work regularly. Each student selects a topic, formulates a question, identifies suitable databases, describes their search strategy and the results they got. At the same time, each student should give feedback for at least 2 other students. At the end of the course, students were invited to complete an online evaluation survey.
Summary of results: About 69% believe that using the blogs make the course more enjoyable while 57% think it increased their enthusiasm. The blog discussion was believed to help understanding the EBM concepts mainly through reviewing others' work and being reviewed by others (63% and 34% of students respectively). Most of participants (76%) recommend using the approach in similar courses. Conclusions: Using blogging activity seems to be a successful strategy for student engagement. Moreover, being asked to review their peers' work make students more attentive to the concepts and methods used in EBM and can lead to deeper learning. Further studies to measure the effect on learning outcomes is needed. Take-home messages: Augmenting classroom teaching by blogs as a platform for practice and discussion can improve the learning experience.
Facebook Medicine in Taipei Medical University
Wen Chen Huang (Taipei Medical University Wan Fang Hospital, Clinic Skill Center, Taipei, Taiwan) Che-Wei Lin (Taipei Medical University Wan Fang Hospital, Clinic Skill Center, Taipei, Taiwan) Chien-Chih Wu (Taipei Medical University, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan) Gi-Shih Lien (Taipei Medical University, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan)
Mai-Szu Wu (Taipei Medical University, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan) Shyr-Yi Lin (Taipei Medical University, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan)
Background: Social networks especially Facebook have become a great venue for medical educators to teach various skills and techniques or to share information with medical students. Facebook comes in very handy especially when medical staff is working and material can be shared online in real time. A group started at Taipei Medical University (TMU) Wan-Fang Hospital successfully exploited Facebook's features to make training more efficient and interesting. Summary of work: The group was named WFH Echo Course. Members within the group are the only ones sharing information without interfering with the rest of Facebook's activities of any of the group's members. Members can post information related to emergency medicine, images and related material only. They can only invite others with related background to join and bring in ideas, suggestions or to undergo training. They also use Facebook to make class appointments. Summary of results: WFH Echo Course group grew from 8 members to 337 in 15 months. They comprise educators, specialists and medical staff that are either training others, participating with ideas or are undergoing training. All members expressed a faster, more efficient and more interesting learning process as a result of the group formed.
Conclusions: The benefits are not only for medical staff undergoing training but also educators are able to learn various new things. By posting various materials both instructors and trainees take advantage of easily providing necessary information and feedback but most importantly reaching out and educating a lot more people than just medical staff. Take-home messages: Facebook's features makes possible for discussions on both horizontal and vertical levels regardless of the rank in education or profession of the people in the group. The learners expressed great satisfaction and increasing interest in this social network since both learning from their educators and other experienced individuals and experts in the field is possible.
Using a Mobile Application as a Supplemental Tool for Student Evaluations - Adding iEvaluation to e-Evaluation
Jesper Hessius (Faculty of Medicine Uppsala University, Ferlinsgatan 11B, Uppsala 754 28, Sweden) Niclas Lewisson (Institution of Surgical Sciences, Department of General Surgery, Uppsala, Sweden) Jakob Johansson (Institution of Surgical Sciences, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Uppsala, Sweden)
Background: In 2012, we developed a mobile application (app) for the iOS platform enabling students to access our clinical teaching assessment instrument
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 2 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 0830-1015
using their smartphone. It is not yet known if application-based evaluation is a useful addition to web-based evaluation.
Summary of work: The assessment instrument, a web-based questionnaire of 10 questions (Likert scale 1-6) and text box for comments, was ported to a mobile app. The app was launched for the autumn semester of 2012 for third- to fifth-year medical students at Uppsala University (Sweden). Evaluations submitted through the app were compared to those submitted through the website.
Summary of results: Approximately 45 % of the students concerned owned an iPhone at the end of the semester. Out of 1734 submitted evaluations 21.7 % were submitted using the app (n = 376) versus 78.3 % submitted through the website (n = 1358). Female students were more prone to evaluate using the app
(female: 25 % versus male: 17 %) (p<0.001). No
difference in mean ratings±SD was observed between app evaluations (4.30±1.12) and web evaluations (4.36±1.08) (p=0.38). The distribution of ratings on the scale (1-6) was similar in both groups. The prevalence of free text comments did not differ between app evaluations (49 %) and web evaluations (53 %) (p=0.16). Conclusions: Evaluations submitted through a mobile application did not differ in mean ratings or prevalence of free text comments compared to web evaluations. Take-home messages: Mobile app-based evaluation appears to be a useful addendum to web-based instruments.
Staff experience of online education
Gillian Aitken (University of Edinburgh, Centre for Medical Education, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, United Kingdom) Michael Ross (University of Edinburgh, Centre for Medical Education, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)
Background: E-learning continues to expand in the delivery of clinical education. Much has been published on learners' experiences of e-learning while the experience of those delivering the education has received less attention.
Summary of work: The experiences of those involved in the delivery of an online masters programme in clinical education were sought by means of semi structured interviews. Teaching involvement includes recording lectures and delivering live synchronous video tutorials. Questions centred on the differences between online and face-to-face teaching. Ten interviews were undertaken and the transcripts analysed using a grounded theory methodology. Summary of results: The emergent themes centred on the steep learning curve for staff involved in this aspect of education. Specifically the additional time required for the preparation of online resources, the challenge of working out of their comfort zone, the development of new skills (in particular multi-tasking in online tutorials). The strength of the online community was highlighted along with the level of student engagement. Variable
internet connection was often a distraction to the academic discourse.
Conclusions: The staff interviewed were generally positive about their online teaching experiences but in agreement that the experience was very different to teaching face-to-face and required a different skill-set. The additional preparation time was unexpected and due mainly to the perceived need for back-up plans should the technology fail.
Take-home messages: Technology requires further development to meet the challenges required of it for effective online pedagogy. Staff require different skills to teach effectively online affecting training needs. Online teaching does not take less time than face-to-face,
"Virtual Rounds": an e-learning tool to optimize medical students' in-hospital experience
Tiago de Araujo Guerra Grangeia (UNICAMP, Emergency, Rua Jasmim, 810, apt 33B, Campinas 13087460, Brazil)
Marcelo Schweller (UNICAMP, Emergency, Campinas, Brazil)
Marco Antonio Carvalho Filho (UNICAMP, Emergency, Campinas, Brazil)
Background: In the last decade we have seen the emergence of new educational tools directed to students who are connected to the internet throughout the day. We have developed a website based on daily discussion of real clinical cases and related topics, with links directing to relevant clinical papers. Summary of work: Moodle was used to host the pedagogical material assessed by 109 sixth year medical students during 2012. In Virtual Rounds, a clinical problem solving activity, a real case was discussed over a week. Every day, a question about the data released was performed, allowing students to debate in virtual environment. We provided a quiz section with commented questions and answers and the Extreme Decisions category, in which an emergency case was analysed in the form of successive multiple-choice questions, with the correct answer leading to the next question until the resolution of the case. Weekly examples of electrocardiogram, chest x-ray and arterial blood gas were also provided. Summary of results: Each student had, on average, 1,244 pageviews (15-6,869), 41 accesses (1-253), and 21 posts (0-363) during the year, although their participation was concentrated in the two months they were at the curricular course of emergency. Virtual Round accounted for 38% of the accesses, followed by Extreme Decisions (30%) and the Quiz (17%). There were, on average, 414 pageviews per day, getting to 5,342 in the days before the exams. Conclusions: Virtual Rounds were widely accepted by students as a way to complement and optimize in-hospital experience and as a study tool for exams. Take-home messages: E-learning tools based on daily medical activities encourages students' clinical
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reasoning and should be included among the options available for study and training.
A German web-based training curriculum "Prevention of child sexual abuse" for medical students and health professionals
Johanna Niehues (Ulm University, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychotherapy, Steinhoevelstrasse 5, Ulm 89075, Germany) Jorg M. Fegert (Ulm University, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychotherapy, Ulm, Germany) Hubert Liebhardt (Ulm University, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychotherapy, Ulm, Germany)
Background: Health professionals frequently come into contact with or are chosen by sexually abused children as confidants whom they entrust with being able to help. However, as the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) has acknowledged, current medical education does not sufficiently prepare health professionals for this complex task. Summary of work: Financed by the BMBF from 20112014 a 30 hours web-based training for medical students and health professionals concerning child sexual abuse and child protection (www.elearning-kinderschutz.de) is being developed and evaluated. The course utilises texts, case studies, collaborative exercises and video interviews. Its quality and different learning settings are being evaluated using knowledge gain, self-efficacy and acceptance of abuse myths as dependant variables.
Summary of results: Currently 52 medical students and 379 medical professionals are part of the approx. 3000 users of the course. Before its start, 49% of all participants answered that they do not or rarely feel confident of knowing how to act when confronted with a case of child sexual abuse. After participating in a quarter of the course 95% of the users (fully) agree on gaining theoretical knowledge and 64% on gaining practical knowledge on how to react competently to a case of child sexual abuse.
Conclusions: The aim of our research project is offering an accredited, standardised and evaluated web-based training on the prevention of sexual child abuse as a resource for medical students and health professionals. Take-home messages: The gap in the current medical education concerning the prevention of child sexual abuse is being closed with this web based training course.
From cyber to a nationwide academic forum: A 10 year experience developing expertise and an educational platform in clinical infectious diseases in Japan
Harumi Gomi (Medical University, Center for Clinical Infectious Diseases, 3311-1, Yakushiji, Shimotsuke 3210431, Japan)
Kentaro Iwata (Kobe University Hospital, Division of
Infectious Diseases, Kobe, Japan)
Norio Ohmagari (National Center for Global Health and
Medicine, Disease Control and Prevention Center, Tokyo,
Naoto Hosokawa (Kameda Medical Center, Department of General Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Kamogawa, Japan)
Akihiko Saitoh (Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Pediatrics, Niigata, Japan)
Background: The subspecialty of infectious diseases is a new area of expertise in Japan. Implementing integrated curriculum in infectious diseases has been a major challenge and it still requires critical mass in this expertise.
Summary of work: This is a case study to report a cyber forum and its activities and developments over the past 10 years. A mailing list including 12-13 experts or trainees in clinical infectious diseases was initiated in 2002. The major purpose of this cyber network was to discuss clinical cases in infectious diseases to support doctors or trainees without specialists in their institutions.
Summary of results: Since 2005, stemming from this cyber forum, a nationwide academic association (Infectious Diseases Association for Teaching and Education in Nippon, IDATEN) has been developed with over 5,500 participants. The number of exchanged emails is approximately 1,000 per year with a total number of over 10,000 since 2002. IDATEN has initiated a face-to-face interactive conference four times a year, and short intensive seminars in clinical infectious diseases twice a year.
Conclusions: The impact of this cyber forum has been tremendous in providing clinical advices, cutting-edge learning opportunities, and networking among those who are interested.
Take-home messages: While maximizing efforts to improve formal medical curriculum throughout Japan, the impact of this cyber and live network is noteworthy in clinical infectious diseases.
Are webinars an effective educational tool to improve spinal patient care?
Michael Cunningham (AO Foundation, AO Education Institute, Stettbachstrasse 6, Zurich 8600, Switzerland) Katharine de Boer (AOSpine, Europe, Middle East, and Africa, Zurich, Switzerland)