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Summary of results: Results were in the form of a description of the faculty's lived experiences with the PBL. Findings indicated that faculty responded to the PBL as a very useful learning tool. Moreover, they experience that they not only understand the 'teaching skill' by solving the 'real teaching problem scenario' but they also understand the PBL process and facilitation skill as well and acquire the peer feedback and reflection
Conclusions: This phenomenological study indicated that a well constructed PBL case, based on a common and real teaching problem scenario, can have a substantial effect on faculty/medical teacher's performance that helps in better learning transfer of teaching skill.
Take-home messages: PBL is effective faculty development approach.
Awareness of "ethics" as an important training activity of CFD- Experience in Taiwan
Dena Hsin-Chen Hsin (China Medical University, Center for Faculty Development CFD, 91 Hsueh-Shih Rd, Taichung 40402, Taiwan)
Background: Rapid advancements in medicine make it essential that faculty in medical institutions and teaching hospitals should take realistic consensus-driven actions on the ethical issues of today's real world. Opportunities and incentives are needed to encourage faculty development and to generate the infusion of ethical thinking into their teaching and professional activities.
Summary of work: A series of three-level programs of Bioethics were held by the Center for the Faculty Development (CFD) at China Medical University, Taiwan in three consecutive years. This program was designed to help faculty matching for ethical maturity in medical profession. The distinct emphases in each level imply the need for diversity of methods in learning ethics. In general, we designed the program as a move from formal lectures to more small groups, learner-oriented and case-based interactions. There was a total of 529, 196 and 204 attendance for elementary, middle and advanced program respectively. Summary of results: According to the feedback, most participants appreciate better interactive discussions in small group. The morale of the faculty has conspicuously been greatly enhanced by the program and the outcome may be addressed by the participants' commitment to be developed as a reflective practitioner. Conclusions: With such an experience, we suggest bioethics learning as a regular program for faculty development in medical institutes.
A positive learning experience with the course "Art of medical education": a qualitative study
Mladenka Vrcic Keglevic (Croatian Association for Medical Education, Medical School, University of Zagreb, Rockefellerova 4, Zagreb 10 000, Croatia) Neda Pjevac (Croatian Association for Medical Education, Medical School, University of Zagreb, Croatia) Suncana Kukolja Taradi (Croatian Association for Medical Education, Medical School, University of Zagreb, Croatia)
Milan Taradi (Croatian Association for Medical Education, Medical School, University of Zagreb, Croatia) Antun Smalcelj (Croatian Association for Medical Education, Medical School, University of Zagreb, Croatia)
Background: «The art of medical education)) is the basic course for young and inexperienced medical teachers. The course was developed and delivered by the members of the Croatian Association for Medical Education. 220 teachers from the Medical School, University of Zagreb finished the course. A comprehensive evaluation, including focus group discussion, was performed after ten years of experience. We would like to present here the results of qualitative evaluation related to the participants' learning experiences.
Summary of work: Four topics have been discussed within the focus-groups: motivation for the course; positive learning experience during the course; impact on the everyday teaching and suggestions for the course improvement. Four focus groups, with 32 participants, were held. Discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using grounded theory. Summary of results: Nine themes emerged important as positive learning experience during the course: 1) possibilities to exchange experiences with teachers and colleagues; 2) feedback of peers as a learning tool; 3) self-reflection as a method of learning; 4) learning as being learner; 5) learning from the teachers as a role model; 6) small-group as a learning tool; 7) task based learning; 8) handbook as a source for learning and 9) enthusiasm and positive atmosphere as a vehicle for learning.
Conclusions: The participants highly appreciated the applied adult learning principles and methods. Take-home messages: Staff development programs should always be based on the respect to the learners as adult persons.
Faculty development in veterinary education: the literature lacks published evidence and consistent terminology
Catriona Bell (University of Edinburgh, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Easter Bush Campus, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, United Kingdom)
Background: Faculty (or staff) development is a well recognised and important topic and discipline within medical education, with a number of peer-reviewed publications available in the literature. The importance of using evidence-informed approaches to design faculty development programmes for teaching and learning in veterinary education is equally relevant, but, to date, has received limited focus.
Summary of work: This work aimed to identify what evidence is available in the published literature regarding faculty development in veterinary education. The terms 'faculty development' and 'staff development' were used to search relevant databases including Pubmed, Medline and CAB abstracts to identify relevant peer reviewed publications.
Summary of results: Only three veterinary education publications were identified which included the term 'Faculty Development' in their title. A further two relevant papers were identified from the contents of their abstracts. Alternative terms such as 'staff development', 'professional development', and 'professional education' were also identified as alternative search terms in the veterinary education literature. Furthermore, a systematic review of faculty development in the medical education literature was found to use the additional terms 'in-service training', 'medical faculty', 'faculty training/development' and 'continuing medical education' for their literature search and also discussed 'instructional effectiveness' within the text.
Conclusions: The lack of publications regarding faculty development in veterinary education suggests that either: a) few faculty development initiatives are being implemented in veterinary schools, or b) few veterinary schools are publishing the work that they are undertaking on faculty development. This has resulted in a major gap in the literature, particularly when compared to other allied professions such as medicine. Take-home messages: There is currently a major lack of available published literature about faculty development programmes in veterinary education, and the ability to identify relevant publications is further hampered by the inconsistency in terminology used by authors.
3D Short Communications: Basic Science 2: Anatomy
Location: Meeting Hall IV, PCC
A study to explore medical students' perceptions of the style and adequacy of anatomy teaching in 17 British universities
M A Ali (University of Oxford, Medical Sciences Division, Oriel College, Oriel Square, Oxford OX1 4EW, United Kingdom)
M U Halim (University of Oxford, Medical Sciences Division, Oxford, United Kingdom) Akif Malik (University of Oxford, Medical Sciences Division, Oxford, United Kingdom)
Background: Increasingly, there has been a trend towards reducing the teaching time dedicated to anatomy in medical schools despite an almost universal belief regarding its importance.
Summary of work: The aim was to assess British medical students' perceptions about anatomy teaching and whether they feel it will prepare them for clinical practice. An online questionnaire-based study was sent to all British medical schools.
Summary of results: 912 current medical students from 17 universities were recruited. The M:F ratio was 35:65. 97.7% agreed or strongly agreed that anatomy is an important aspect of medical education. 19.2% believed they did not receive sufficient teaching. Hours of anatomy teaching strongly correlated with belief that there was i) sufficient teaching (r=0.92) ii) sufficient preparedness for clinical practice (r=0.89). Using a Likert scale, students taught by dissection instead of prosection (60.9% vs. 39.1%) were more confident of their future clinical competency (3.90±0.04 vs. 3.66±0.05, p<0.0001). 71.3% believed that anatomy should be taught by dissection.
Conclusions: There was almost universal agreement that anatomy is an important discipline. Interestingly, only a minority of participants felt they did not currently receive sufficient teaching. The majority preferred teaching via dissection. Those with more teaching and those taught by dissection were more confident that it would ensure greater clinical competency. In summary, anatomy remains an important aspect of medical education and greater teaching, particularly via dissection, increases confidence about future clinical competency.
Take-home messages: Almost all medical students believe anatomy is important. It should continue to form a substantial part of the undergraduate syllabus. Teaching via dissection should be preferred.
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 3 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 1045-1230
Evaluation of peer coaching and linked novel assessment strategy in physiotherapy education
Catherine Moore (University of Nottingham, Division of Physiotherapy Education, Clinical Sciences Building, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham NG51PB, United Kingdom)
Sarah Westwater-Wood (University of Nottingham, Division of Physiotherapy Education, Nottingham, United Kingdom)
Roger Kerry (University of Nottingham, Division of Physiotherapy Education, Nottingham, United Kingdom)
Background: Ladyshewsky (2006) defined Peer coaching (PC) as: "a method whereby individuals with equal status actively help and support each other in learning tasks". Critical theorists have acknowledged peer coaching, and the group responsibility it provides, as a potential driver to deeper learning. PC group factors of sharing and responsibility might be utilised in assessment processes.
Summary of work: To evaluate introduction of PC and a linked novel assessment strategy in undergraduate education. Undergraduate physiotherapy students (N=280, 2005-2009 intakes) studying Neuromusculoskeletal Studies were allocated to PC model learning sets (LS) (3 - 5 per set). Monthly LS anatomy spot assessments were implemented. Summary of results: Pre-post module marks were statistically significant (p<0.05, mean 56.49% SD 8.39: 63.32% SD 10.73 respectively) with a mean increase of
7.03% (CI 5.05-9.01).
A questionnaire (5-item Likert scaling and free text) to assess student satisfaction found 70% enjoyed the process, 64% felt learning was supported and 62% thought LS were helpful to studying. Main themes identified benefits of social interaction, social support and team-working. Limitations were social loafing, restriction in co-worker choice and peer member distraction.
Conclusions: Qualitative themes relate well to critical theory, with key themes being social in nature. This concurs with others research. The assessment marks comparison demonstrates a potential short term positive impact on anatomical knowledge. Future research should investigate which factor might be most influential in determining academic improvement PC or the novel assessment.
Take-home messages: The PC strategy and linked novel assessment encouraged greater anatomical knowledge.
Students learn more from performing a clay-modeling exercise than from viewing the same exercise on video
Jan G.M. Kooloos (Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Anatomy, PO Box 9101, Nijmegen 6500 HB, Netherlands)
Marc A.T.M. Vorstenbosch (Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Anatomy, Nijmegen, Netherlands)
Background: Because of budget reasons, teachers of anatomy are challenged to invent new methods for learning anatomy that can be taught outside the dissection room. Two of these methods used more and more are clay-modeling and video-viewing. From these two video-viewing is easier to apply and cheaper, but does this method reach the same learning gain as clay-modeling?
Summary of work: We copy-pasted a published clay-modeling exercise of deep brain structures and also video-taped the construction of such a clay-model, during which the clay-model was slowly turned from different viewpoints during each stage in the construction. Groups of about 30 students either performed the clay-model exercise or watched the video, consecutively. Both tasks lasted 20 minutes. All students took a pretest and the posttest. All tests had the same format: 10 MC's, 10 EMQ's, and 15 fill-in names. T-tests were used for analysis. Summary of results: In total 209 students performed the clay-model exercise and 190 watched the video. The clay-modeling group scored 3.29(1.49) and 5.37(1.40) and the video-viewing group 3.17 (1.35) and 5.00 (1.57), for the pretest and posttest respectively. There was no difference on the pretest between the two groups (p=0.40), but a significant difference on the posttest was
Conclusions: The students who clay-modeled outperformed the video-viewers in learning gain. Take-home messages: Hands-on exercises are preferred as vehicles for learning anatomy compared to videos.
Randomised crossover study of task-based vs didactics for teaching medical students anatomy in laboratory classes
Samy A Azer (King Saud University, College of Medicine, Medical Education, P O Box 2925, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia)
Background: This study was set up to investigate which approach for teaching anatomy in laboratory classes is effective and preferred by students. Summary of work: In a crossover study, second-year medical students were randomised to task-based (T-B) or didactic (D) learning. The T-B group (45 students were allocated into small groups of 5) completed written tasks on cranial nerves and used pre-dissected specimens, anatomy atlases and plastinated models as resources and the D group (46 students were allocated into small groups of 5) learned via traditional teaching conducted by tutors using pre-dissected specimens. The learning in both groups was measured by means of pretest-posttest MCQs. During a second instruction session, the students crossed over and were taught the cerebellum and balance system using the opposite modality and a similar assessment was conducted. Inn
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 3 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 1045-1230
both sessions, students in both groups were asked at the end of the session to rate satisfaction and preferred teaching approaches using a 5-point Likert questionnaire.
Summary of results: Using paired t-test, results showed statistically significant improvement in posttest scores compared to pretest scores in both groups, with p values ranging from 0.001 to <0.001. No significant differences were observed in the posttest means between the two learning approaches. The questionnaire showed that students enjoyed learning through the tasks but favoured a combination of task-based learning followed by feedback from the tutors on tasks completed.
Conclusions: Both approaches are equally useful in teaching anatomy. However, students favoured the use of a combination of the two approaches in anatomy laboratory classes.
Take-home messages: Task-based learning followed by tutor's discussion and feedback is ideal for teaching anatomy than traditional/didactic learning
How does presenting content in context increase acquisition, retention and recall of knowledge? An empirical study in anatomy education
Esther M Bergman (Maastricht University, Department
of Educational Research and Development, Postbus 616,
Maastricht 6200 MD, Netherlands)
Anique BH de Bruin (Maastricht University, Department
of Educational Research & Development, Maastricht,
Marc ATM Vorstenbosch (Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Department of Anatomy, Nijmegen, Netherlands)
Jan GM Kooloos (Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Department of Anatomy, Nijmegen, Netherlands)
Albert JJA Scherpbier (Maastricht University, Institute of Medical Education, Maastricht, Netherlands) Cees PM van der Vleuten (Maastricht University, Department of Educational Research & Development, Maastricht, Netherlands)
Background: Teaching in context is said to improve learning: increasing acquisition, retention and recall of knowledge. We studied the attribution of the cognitive dimension of the context model (Koens et al. 2005), which states that superior memory develops because context activates prior knowledge and provides retrieval cues. Semantic networks are knowledge networks as stored in one's memory. No two persons have exactly the same knowledge about a topic as semantic networks are based on individual experiences. Therefore, we hypothesized that characteristics of the context, defined as students' familiarity with the context and relevance of context to content, may influence prior knowledge activation and retrieval cue storage, and thus the quality of semantic networks (superior memory). Summary of work: Learning task is dissection room session on 4 musculoskeletal subjects; a control group
taught without context (1) and experimental groups being taught with relevant familiar (2), relevant unfamiliar (3), irrelevant familiar (4) or irrelevant unfamiliar context (5). Pre-, post- & retention tests are mcq's & free recall task.
Summary of results: Students' results in groups 3, 4 & 5 are possibly mediated by 'novelty' or 'nonsense effect': interesting unfamiliar and unusual irrelevant context also increases acquisition, retention and recall of knowledge.
Conclusions: Creating a context that actually improves learning is not as straightforward as often thought, as characteristics of the context may influence the outcomes to a substantial extend. Take-home messages: We do not yet fully understand all the (im)possibilities of teaching (anatomy) in context and further research is therefore necessary.
3E Research Papers: The Teacher and
Location: Meeting Hall V, PCC
Trialling Parameters for Evaluation of Faculty Development (FD)
Olanrewaju Sorinola (University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School, Gibbet Hill, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom)
David Davies (University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School, Coventry, United Kingdom) Jill Thistlethwaite (The University of Queensland, School of Medicine, Herston, Queensland, Australia) Ed Peile (University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School, Coventry, United Kingdom)
Introduction: The extent, scope and views of FD activities in UK medical schools remains underexplored. This study on Faculty Development (FD) in UK medical schools focused on developing parameters to evaluate FD using realistic evaluation as the theoretical framework (Pawson and Tilley, 1997). This framework is used to address the question 'What are participants' views of the determinants of effective faculty development activities for medical educators?' Methods: Based on a previous pilot, three key parameters were found to be the key factors influencing learning on a FD activity; motivation, engagement and perception. This was further tested by observation and interviews of 33 participants attending a FD course at Warwick Medical School between Jan/April 2012. A 5-point engagement scale based on three descriptors (behavioural, cognitive and emotional) was used to score participants' engagement during the session. Participants were interviewed to explore reasons for attendance, course relevance and usefulness. The interviews, observations and engagement scores were used in developing constructs for the three parameters. Results: A two-axis construct was derived for each parameter; for motivation it was external/internal vs. individualistic/altruistic. Individualistic (30) was the main motivation rather than altruistic (3) with similar external (18) and internal (15) motives. This was irrespective of stage of career, funding source or previous teaching course attendance. Engagement construct was informative/repetitive vs. interesting/intense. 31 participants found the sessions interesting/informative with the facilitating context being the multimodal, interactive approach. Two found the sessions repetitive/intense. Perception construct was useful/unproductive vs. relevant/irrelevant. Most participants (29) felt that FD on teaching was useful/relevant as it gave them the confidence to practice various teaching methods. Four participants felt some of the sessions were irrelevant / unproductive. Discussion and Conclusion: There was good correlation between the three data sources used in deriving the constructs for the three parameters. Motivation, engagement and perception and their underlying mechanisms are key to participants' learning. Individual
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 3 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 1045-1230
motivation appears to be the key driver for participation in FD rather than altruistic motivation. External and internal factors are finely balanced and merit further exploration. A multimodal, interactive approach is the key to engagement, and without engagement there is no deep learning as engagement is the bridge between learners and their learning target (Hargreaves, 2006). Observation data supported the participant perceptions of increased confidence in teaching. Engagement was the key mechanism and the activating context was the reflective process following experiential practice during the course and the post-course assessment (peer observation).
This study was important for trialling metrics of motivation, engagement and perception, across two cohorts of clinicians attending a FD course. It helps to understand what works for who, in what context and why. This is an important evaluative method for FD developers.
References: Hargreaves, D. (2006) Personalising Learning 6: the final gateway: school design and organisation London: Specialist Schools Trust Pawson R., & Tilley N. (1997). Realistic Evaluation. London: Sage.
Does clinician teachers' high work engagement result in better teaching performance?
RA Scheepers (AMC, Center for Evidence Based Education, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, Netherlands)
OA Arah (UCLA, Public Health, Los Angeles, United States)
MJ Heineman (AMC, Directory Board, Amsterdam, Netherlands)
MJMH Lombarts (AMC, Center for Evidence Based Education, Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Introduction: Adequate supervision in residency training benefits patient outcomes of residents (1), which affirms the significance of clinician teachers' high teaching performance. Since research demonstrated that work engagement is positively related to job performance in general (2), we were interested in whether work engagement also would result in high teaching performance of clinician teachers specifically. As clinician teachers typically perform their work in the roles of physicians and teachers, this study (i) explored the levels of clinician teachers' work engagement in both their roles as physicians and teachers and (ii) investigated the relationship of work engagement in these roles with their teaching performance. Methods: A cross-sectional, multicenter survey was conducted at 61 residency programs, covering 25 medical specialties, in two academic and six non-academic medical centres in the Netherlands. Teaching performance was measured with the validated System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ), consisting of clinician teachers' self- and resident evaluations on 21 items, using a 5-point scale. We used the validated, 9-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) to
measure clinician teachers' work engagement on a 7-point scale and applied it to both the physician and teacher role. Statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS 20.0, using a paired sample T-Test to explore clinician teachers' levels of work engagement in both their roles. Next, we performed multilevel regression analyses to study associations between work engagement in both roles and teaching performance. Results: In total, 627 (78%) clinician teachers self-evaluated and 549 (68%) residents filled out 4305 evaluations. Clinician teachers reported significantly higher work engagement in their roles as physicians than in their roles as teachers (mean difference = 0.97, p < .01). Clinician teachers' work engagement as teacher was significantly related to teaching performance (p =.31, p <.01), while work engagement as physician was not (P = -.05, p > .05).