Автор неизвестен - Mededworld and amee 2013 conference connect - страница 25

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3L/2

Should Asians do as the Romans do? Exploring the factors that influence Asian performance in small group learning

Takuya Saiki (Gifu University, Medical Education Development Center, Yanagido1-1, Gifu 501-1194, Japan)

Rintaro Imafuku (Gifu University, Medical Education Development Center, Gifu, Japan)

ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 3 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 1045-1230

Kazuhiko Fujisaki (Gifu University, Medical Education

Development Center, Gifu, Japan)

Masayuki Niwa (Gifu University, Medical Education

Development Center, Gifu, Japan)

Yasuyuki Suzuki (Gifu University, Medical Education

Development Center, Gifu, Japan)

Background: As the learning process and view are different across cultures such as east and west, both students and faculties should understand how others learn or teach based on their cultural assumption when they learn collaboratively. Since little is known about Asian learners internationally, we aim at describing Asian characteristic and view of learning to seek a better understanding for international faculties. Summary of work: To construct a conceptual framework, both realistic literature review and semi-structured interview were conducted. A review was mainly focused on learning process and Asian characteristics in group learning situation. The interview was done with the Japanese who have cross-cultural experiences of group learning in a medical context. Summary of results: Literature review revealed several key features such as the order of learning, performance in group, several functions of listening, educational orientation, group dynamics, which comes from Confucian Heritage Culture's (CHC) collectivism and uncertainty avoidance. The interview data showed the Japanese had lots of cultural shock, confusion and dilemma when they situated in the group discussion which was different from their previous experiences. Interestingly the data described how they challenged to change their behavior to solve the situation. They also appreciated discussing the learning process with peers and teachers.

Conclusions: A useful conceptual framework of Asian group learning process based on CHC was demonstrated based on the literature. This study indicated several hypotheses of the next study into cultural difference and its implications in group learning. Take-home messages: Understanding other cultures and sensitivity to the group situations will enhance learning effectiveness in cross cultural settings.

3L/3

Perceptions of self-direction in learning in Pharmacy undergraduates at the School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Sunway campus, Malaysia

Wee-Ming Lau (Monash University Malaysia, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Petaling Jaya 46150, Malaysia)

David Weng-Kwai Chong (Monash University Malaysia, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia)

Background: Self-direction in learning is strongly associated with deep learning, and has been described as both an educational process and a goal. The

development of self-direction is considered a pre­requisite for effective lifelong learning. Summary of work: This study was conducted amongst pharmacy undergraduates in all four Year levels, of a total enrolment of 178. Data from focus group discussions (based on a standard question set) was thematically analysed.

Summary of results: Study subjects were generally able to describe their pre-university learning in terms of the degree of teacher versus self-direction, but not all differentiated conceptually between self-directed learning (SDL) and directed self-learning (DSL). These concepts were not explained by the university. There was consensus that early years of learning in Malaysia are characterised by spoon-feeding, but that this progressively lessens as students approach and enter tertiary education. The development of self-direction was not universally seen as desirable although many subjects enjoyed the experience of self-direction. At university, adequacy of time, study programme and the perceived requirements of assessment strongly influenced the actual degree of self-direction. Conclusions: The data are consistent with the concept of assessment driven learning, and appear to show intelligent or strategic use of learning methods to achieve perceived learning goals. Quantitative data are required to evaluate the extent of self-direction in the total subject population, in the context of their degree programme.

Take-home messages: The development of self-direction in learning requires adequate conceptual explanation, structured opportunities within a degree programme, and robust evaluation.

3L/4

Sherlock Holmes & Dr. House: Can we teach philosophical concepts and psychological pitfalls that underlie medical decision-making with the help of popular role-models?

Stefan Reinsch (Universitat Rostock & Charite-Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Institute for General Medicine (Rostock) & Institute for the History of Medicine (Berlin), Uferstrasse 13, Berlin 13357, Germany)

Jorg Pelz (Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Dieter Scheffner Fachzentrum, Berlin, Germany)

Background: Arthur Conan-Doyle's "Sherlock Holmes" is one of the most popular figures of literature. It has been adapted to over 200 films. His strategy of solving crimes was explicitly modeled after one of Conan-Doyle's medical teacher's diagnostic approaches. Recently, the character of Holmes has been used in the television series House M.D. We used the pop-cultural models of Holmes & House for teaching basic philosophical concepts and psychological pitfalls in medical decision-making.

Summary of work: We designed, conducted and evaluated two seminars (32 hours each) in two consecutive years. Students had to deal with problems of decision-making from real life (Firefighters, Mount

ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 3 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 1045-1230

Everest Expedition,..), literature (Holmes) and medicine (House). Finally they analyzed a case story from Sherlock Holmes. 40 papers were separately analyzed by two independent reviewers.

Summary of results: Most students were able to explicate the problem solving strategy used in the case (92%). They were able to highlight at least one (96%) or several (84%) sources of bias in the case. Conclusions: Students were able to translate problem-solving strategies between the contexts of literature, medicine and everyday life.

Take-home messages: Using the popular models of Holmes & House proved a stimulating and fruitful strategy to teach basic philosophical & psychological concepts.

3L/5

Portfolio case reports in medical education: experience from one medical center in Taiwan

Fen-Yu Tseng (National Taiwan University Hospital, Internal Medicine, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan)

Wang-Huei Sheng (National Taiwan University Hospital,

Internal Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan)

Shyang-Rong Shih (National Taiwan University Hospital,

Internal Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan)

Tien-Shang Huang (National Taiwan University Hospital,

Internal Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan)

Shan-Chwen Chang (National Taiwan University

Hospital, Internal Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan)

Guan-Tarn Huang (National Taiwan University Hospital,

Internal Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan)

Background: The clinical training course for the 5th year medical (M5) students and the 7th year medical (M7) students (interns) at the Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital is 9 weeks and 13 weeks respectively. Since 2009, students must submit a brief case report with reflection on core competences before finishing their clinical rotations Summary of work: Students submit their reports to the program directors by e-mail and get feedback from the program directors individually. Core competences reflected in the reports were recorded and analyzed for this study. Both reports (M5 and M7) of individual students were compared.

Summary of results: Percentage of M5 students had reflection on medical knowledge (MK), patient care (PC), interpersonal and communication skills (IC), professionalism (PR), practice-based learning and improvement (IM), and systems-based practice (SP) of

98.2%, 57.9%, 95.6%, 28.9%, 44.7%, and 32.5%,

respectively. Percentage of interns had reflection on MK, PC, IC, PR, IM, and SP of 96.6%, 99.2%, 99.2%,

82.2%, 65.3%, and 61.9%, respectively. From M5 to M7,

students were more competent on medical knowledge, patient care, and communication skills. Most students appreciated the value of being a good doctor and presented holistic patient-centered care, but a few were frustrated by heavy clinical loading.

Conclusions: Case reports focusing on core competence reflection provide valuable information on cultivation of medical students. The reports also disclose referable messages to train faculty and reform teaching program. Take-home messages: Portfolio case reports are effective in assessing students' competence development.

3L/6

Comparison of jeopardy game format versus traditional lecture format as a teaching methodology in medical education

Mohammad Nasim Khan (Umm Al-Qura University, Pediatrics, Makkah, Saudi Arabia) Abdulwahab Telmesani (Umm Al-Qura University, Pediatrics, P.O.Box13069, Makkkah 21955, Saudi Arabia)

Background: To compare students' performance, satisfaction, and retention of knowledge between a jeopardy game format' and a 'didactic lecture format' in teaching viral exanthema to fifth-year medical students.

Summary of work: We conducted a parallel-group randomized controlled trial in the Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia from November 2008 to January 2009. We randomized fifth-year medical students into 2 groups. We taught viral exanthema to group one in lecture format, while group 2 received the same instruction in a jeopardy style game format. Both groups underwent a pretest, post-test I, and satisfaction survey. We conducted post-test II after 2 months to assess the retention of knowledge. The satisfaction survey consisted of 5 questions using a 5 point Likert scale. We used the paired sample t-test, and independent sample t-test to compare the results.

Summary of results: Eighty-two students participated in the study (41 in each group). Both groups showed significant improvement in their knowledge on the post-test I compared with the pre-test scores. However, the post-test II conducted after 2 months showed that retention of knowledge was significantly better in the game format. The satisfaction survey showed that the game format was more enjoyable and fun. Conclusions: The game format teaching strategy has an added advantage in retaining knowledge of the subject for a longer time compared with a lecture format. Take-home messages: Gaming is one of the good methods of teaching and it is recommended to consider using educational games more frequently.

3L/7

The impact of medical television on medical students

Ian Wilson (University of Wollongong, Graduate School of Medicine, Wollongong 2522, Australia) Roslyn Weaver (University of Western Sydney, School of Medicine, Campbelltown, Australia)

Background: Students enter medical training with a "knowledge" of what they will be doing, mostly derived from medical television programs. Summary of work: This paper will explore first year students' perceptions of television medical programs. It will present the results of both quantitative and qualitative studies.

Summary of results: This study investigated the responses of a large number of students from the first four years of a five year school leaver course. Medical students watch a large number of medical television programs and believe they are reasonable representations of professional and ethical issues arising in medicine. Almost 60% of students had discussed issues arising in the programs with their family or non-medical peers. The qualitative study raised three dichotomies in students' minds - empathy versus clinical knowledge, commitment versus work-life balance and clinical practice versus administration. For students in this study the dichotomy of empathy versus clinical ability created the most discussion. Conclusions: Medical television programs are a powerful driver of student attitudes and provide a rich resource of important issues that could be used for discussion. Students have well developed views of medicine when they commence training. The dichotomies highlighted in this study also indicate the difficulty students have in conceptualising practice that is both empathic and clinically sound.

Take-home messages: Medical television is a powerful influence on our students. Medical students commence training with a well-developed, often incorrect, understanding of medicine. It will be important to discuss the both/and approach to empathy and clinical expertise.

3M Short Communications: Student as

Teacher 1 Location: Club D, PCC

3M/1

Peer lectures in the medical undergraduate curriculum: a valid tool for learning?

SB Naidu (UCL, Medical School, London, United Kingdom)

Owain Donnelly (UCL, United Kingdom) Tanmay Kanitkar (UCL, United Kingdom) Patrik Bachtiger (UCL, United Kingdom) Elissa Rekhi (UCL, United Kingdom) Vruti Dattani (UCL, United Kingdom)

Background: Near-peer teaching is increasingly recognised as a valid tool in undergraduate medicine. This usually involves tutorials or clinical skills teaching, often in small groups, while lectures are seen as the remit of doctors. We designed and delivered ten interactive 'peer lectures' for large groups of 100 students, and explored whether such lectures can be similarly validated.

Summary of work: Students provided feedback at the end of each lecture, using a questionnaire which rated various criteria from lowest (1) to highest (5). Questions focused on whether peers could provide high-quality interactive case-based lectures comparable to standard medical curricula. Tutors completed similar questionnaires to assess any benefits gained. Free text responses were encouraged. Summary of results: The results from 633 students demonstrate that students found both the content of the lectures and the quality of the lecturers excellent (4.45; 4.52 respectively). They were also enthusiastic about future lectures (4.80). Feedback from 18 tutors reveals benefits including consolidating their existing knowledge (4.82) and developing teaching skills (4.71). Conclusions: Medical students perceive peer tutors as fulfilling a high standard of teaching, which can supplement the undergraduate curriculum. Our feedback shows peers confer additional benefits: they are more approachable and intensively engage students by incorporating case studies and tips from personal experience. Since doctors are expected to teach not only small groups but also deliver presentations for large groups, the opportunity to develop these skills early is extremely valuable.

Take-home messages: Students interested in medical education should consider developing peer-teaching schemes that include lectures for large groups as this benefits both learner and teacher.

ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 3 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 1045-1230

3M/2

Peer learning in an undergraduate clinical medicine course - implementation, compliance and lessons learned

Lisa Sanden (Uppsala University, Unit for Medical Education, Medicine Programme, Tegnergatan 40A, Uppsala 75227, Sweden)

Martin Wohlin (Uppsala University, Unit for Medical Education, Medicine Programme, Uppsala, Sweden) Maria Magnusson (Uppsala University, Unit for Medical Education, Medicine Programme, Uppsala, Sweden)

Background: The use and evaluation of peer learning has become more widespread in higher education and should be considered as a supplement to the traditional approach of the medical practice. This study investigates medical students' attitudes towards and perceptions of a specific method for peer learning. Summary of work: A group of medical students at Uppsala University tried out peer learning during their clinical rotations on the fifth term. The peer learning model and method was evaluated by a questionnaire survey and a focus group interview. Summary of results: The students perceived that the peer learning model was simple to use and that the evaluation from a peer was helpful in practicing and consolidating basic clinical skills. In general, students wished for more feedback on their performances during clinical placements and they found peer learning as one way to meet this desire.

Conclusions: The peer-learning model was assessed and regarded as a valuable method by the medical students. Letting peers cooperate and supervise each other is one way to meet the students perceived needs of more feedback. The method has the potential of being a valuable contribution to the students learning. Take-home messages: Peer learning is a useful method for medical students during their clinical rotations.

3M/3

The Tuebingen peer tutor concept: How can a quality assurance system ensure sustainable quality in an established qualification program?

Jan Griewatz (University of Tuebingen, Competence Center for University Teaching in Medicine Baden-Wurttemberg, Tuebingen, Germany) Tamara Zajontz (University of Tuebingen, Competence Center for University Teaching in Medicine Baden-Wurttemberg, Elfriede-Aulhorn-Str. 10, Tuebingen D-72072, Germany)

Ira Manske (University of Tuebingen, University Hospital, Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Tuebingen, Germany)

Friederike Holderried (University of Tuebingen, Faculty of Medicine, Dean's Office, Tuebingen, Germany) Stephan Zipfel (University of Tuebingen, Faculty of Medicine, Dean's Office, Tuebingen, Germany) Maria Lammerding-Koppel (University of Tuebingen, Competence Center for University Teaching in Medicine Baden-Wurttemberg, Tuebingen, Germany)

Background: The increasing relevance of peer teaching in medical education requests an efficient quality assurance system (QAS) to control quality standards and save resources. In 2001, the Faculty of Medicine in Tuebingen implemented a dual qualification program for peer tutors: a standardized didactic training, followed by a specific professional training by the responsible departments. Evidence was given that the original program was highly effective and well accepted. Program expansion, with currently 17 departments demanding for tutorial support, meant heterogeneous requirements and increasing financial strain. The aims are to develop a QAS concept to ensure the quality and transferability of the training program, providing an acceptable cost-benefit ratio. Summary of work: Based on an intensive literature research, a comprehensive QAS concept addressing all parties was designed. Structured interviews with 10 teachers guiding tutors in representative departments were conducted to illuminate tasks, conditions and challenges of tutors. All peer tutors trained in 2012 (n=103) were surveyed twice (pre and post tutorials; response: 98%, 45%) using 5-point Likert scale questionnaires.

Summary of results: Tutors highly estimated most didactic modules pre and post tutorial (e.g. "leading groups" 1.66+0.08 vs. 1.65+0.70; "presentation" 1.79+0.10 vs. 1.82+0.73). Ratings of the module "practical skills" differed significantly (F(8/82)=2,953, p=0.006), as it was not relevant for all tutorials. Tutorial profiles were derived; didactic training profiles with definite interchangeable modules were developed. Tutors required occasional meetings with professional and didactic experts (70%). Regular exchange meetings were initiated.

Conclusions: The QAS contributed to more transparency and efficient structuring. It initiated high cooperation of all parties and revealed prospects of development.

3M/4

The impact on student learning of assessing peers alongside supervisors in the long case

Annette Burgess (The University of Sydney, Sydney

Medical School - Central, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital,

Missenden Road, Camperdown 2050, Australia)

Chris Roberts (The University of Sydney, Sydney Medical

School - Northern, Sydney, Australia)

Kirsten Black (The University of Sydney, Sydney Medical

School - Central, Sydney, Australia)

Craig Mellis (The University of Sydney, Sydney Medical

School - Central, Sydney, Australia)

Background: In stage 3 of the medical program, Sydney Medical School, students are required to sit a formative long case examination. Students act as co-examiners of their peers, together with an academic examiner. We sought to investigate: (1) The level of agreement in marking between student and academic examiner; (2) Whether acting as a peer examiner improves one's own student examination performance; (3) The perception of the student per examiners' learning experience.

ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 3 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 1045-1230

Summary of work: Over a 3 year period (2010 to 2012), students (N=197) were randomly allocated to co-examine their peers and to be examined themselves. Marking sheets of academic and student examiners were compared to assess agreement. Student examination performance scores were collected. All students (N=197) were asked to complete questionnaires and were invited to attend focus groups. Summary of results: Marking sheets: 92% (182/197) were analysed. Student examiners consistently marked higher than academics across all marking domains. Data on order of examination were available for 92% (181/197) of students, showing no significant difference in student performance based on the order of examination. Questionnaire response rate 93% (183/197). Eight focus groups were held, with 27% (53/197) attendance. Acting as a student co-examiner was perceived by students as useful in preparing students for their own long case examinations. Students experienced difficulty providing critical feedback to peers.

Conclusions: Students were more lenient markers than the academic examiners. Participation as a peer assessor did not improve examination performance. The activity provided a rich learning experience for students, in preparation for their own summative examination. Take-home messages: Further training in both assessment and feedback may enhance student educational and professionalism outcomes.

3M/5

Preparing students for career challenges through teaching practice

Taciana Figueiredo-Soares (Faculty of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Propedeutica Complementar, 190/400, Alfredo Balena Av. CEP: 30130100, 40, Geraldo Magela Pereira Str. CEP: 30840380, Belo Horizonte 30130100, Brazil) Wanessa Clemente (Faculty of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Propedeutica Complementar, Belo Horizonte, Brazil)

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