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Conclusions: (1) Students can effectively identify and fill gaps in their curriculum by designing new teaching materials (2) Students prefer detailed explanations of examination routines, rather than prescriptive 'how to pass the OSCE' guides. (3) Junior doctor teaching should be actively encouraged.
Take-home messages: Students and junior doctors should be encouraged to design learning resources in response to student feedback.
Improvement of students' understanding of complex assessment tools with adaptive comparative judgement
James Garden (University of Edinburgh, Clinical Surgery, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)
(Presenter: David Pier, University of Edinburgh, Clinical Surgery, Royal Infirmary, 15 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SA, United Kingdom)
Background: A reflective e-portfolio was developed to foster critical reflection and reflective practise. Submissions are categorised by core areas of clinical competency and marked on learning objectives aligned with key reflective skills. Using formative peer assessment trainees were able to judge others work using the marking criteria and receive feedback on their submissions prior to summative assessment in the hope of improving their understanding of the assessment. Summary of work: E-portfolio entries were peer assessed using adaptive comparative judgement software. Peer feedback was also entered in to the software. An iterative and adaptive algorithm was used to scale the distribution of trainee work and provide a rank order. Anonymous peer feedback was provided to trainees. Trainees were surveyed at the end of the exercise.
Summary of results: 70% of trainees completed the survey. 90% found the peer review exercise to be helpful in their understanding of the reflective e-portfolio assessment.
Conclusions: Adaptive comparative judgement is not only a useful peer assessment tool but it was found to be important in developing an understanding of complex assessment tools.
Take-home messages: Adaptive comparative judgement is a valuable peer assessment and learning tool for complex assignments.
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 4 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 1400-1530
Qualitative student evaluation of preparatory material in a Team Based Learning focused medical school curriculum
James Stratford-Martin (Imperial College London, London Office of the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Level 12 Electrical and Electronic Engineering Building, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom)
Senita Mountjoy (Imperial College London, London Office of the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom)
Naomi Low-Beer (Imperial College London, London Office of the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom)
Background: Team Based Learning (TBL) requires preparatory material which is aligned to learning outcomes. Medical students undertake both individual and group assessment based on the preparatory material and then apply that material in application exercises. Therefore we feel that medical student review is important when developing TBL preparatory material. Summary of work: A new joint medical school in Singapore will use TBL as the primary teaching method for non-clinical teaching. During the design phase, outcomes for each TBL session were written and then preparatory content created aligned to those outcomes. Three medical students reviewed the learning outcomes and content to check alignment and applied a traffic light system of evaluation: green- no change required, amber- modification suggested, red- no content aligned to learning outcome.
Summary of results: Medical students reviewed 4 main curriculum areas in year 1: (1) Cardiorespiratory: Green 84.1%, Amber 7.5%, Red 8.4%; (2) Renal & Endocrine:
Green 84.8%, Amber 9.3%, Red 5.8%; (3) Skin: Green 80.8%, Amber 15.2%, Red 4%; (4) Musculoskeletal: Green 69.1%, Amber 16.4%, Red 14.5%. Qualitative
comments were also collected. Conclusions: Medical student review contributed important information during the development of new educational material. The results were triangulated with feedback from faculty, clinicians and curriculum developers and informed the development of TBL preparation material.
Take-home messages: Medical student views are a valuable source of information for the preparation of education content in a TBL focused medical school curriculum.
Student Perceptions towards the Efficacy of Peer Representation at Medical School
Aaron Braddy (Barts & The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London, Centre for Medical Education, c/o Professor Olwyn Westwood, Garrod Building, Turner Street, London E1 2AD, United Kingdom)
Kerrie Wilson (Barts & The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London, Centre for Medical Education, London, United Kingdom) Olwyn Westwood (Barts & The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London, Centre for Medical Education, London, United Kingdom)
Background: Peer representation is a recognised feedback mechanism at medical schools, where they act as the feedback mediators for the wider student body, presenting key issues to faculty. There appears to be no current published work on the efficacy of peer representation. This study aimed to provide an insight into student perceptions towards their use. Summary of work: All medical students at Barts and The London were invited by email to: (i) complete an on-line questionnaire exploring their use of peer representatives and their perceptions towards their efficacy, (ii) participate in focus groups to explore key themes identified by the questionnaire. Thematic analysis of transcripts was performed following the focus groups discussions. Summary of results: Of the 122 students who responded, 45.9% (n = 56) had contacted their student representatives. Of the remaining 66 students who had not 87.5% (n = 58) stated it was that they had "nothing to discuss". Peer representatives were mainly used to flag up the academic issues, as an interface with the medical school to promote student advocacy. Less common issues were around "signposting for welfare and support services". The in-depth evaluation of the qualitative data derived from the focus groups is discussed.
Conclusions: There appears to be a clear evidence base on peer representation at medical schools. Preliminary data shows utilisation of them is high amongst students with academic issues and their main perceived role is student advocacy.
Take-home messages: Student representatives need to share strategies for augmenting student engagement with the peer advocacy process.
4AA Posters: Interprofessional Education 2
Location: Terrace 2, PCC 4AA/1
Interprofessional education - experiences of developing and implementing an IPE module for 10 different health education programs
Anita Iversen (University of Troms0, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromso, Norway)
Ragnhild Nilsen (University of Troms0, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromso, Norway)
Arnfinn Sundsfjord (University of Troms0, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromso, Norway) (Presenter: Nanna Hauksdottir, University of Troms0, Faculty of Health Sciences, MH-bygget, Breivika, Troms0 9037, Norway)
Background: Our aim was to prepare for and improve interprofessional skills as team work among students in all our ten health education programs to qualify for patients' needs in the future. Summary of work: An introductory IPE-module (10 ECTS) was developed for 700 students from ten programs; medical laboratory technology, medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, odontology, dental care, pharmacy, physiotherapy, psychology and radiography. The learning outcomes were described in relation to the following themes: Scientific approach - critical thinking, information competencies, early patient contact, communication skills, ethics and the Norwegian welfare system. Learning activities included online discussions and lectures, cases, scientific literature, interprofessional seminars, and out-clinic meetings with patients were organized. The final exam for the students included two written texts. The introductory IPE module is currently under evaluation and will be further developed. A new subsequent IPE module aiming at interprofessional teamwork in the clinical settings is currently being developed.
Summary of results: The students' evaluation of the content and the learning outcomes in the module is positive, and they ask for more interprofessional meetings. There were some obstacles in the process; the logistics associated with organization of 700 students from different educational programs was intriguing, the timing of activities was more difficult than expected. Interprofessional qualifications and attitudes among mentors seem to be of importance. Conclusions: IPE is a complex process. It will require continuous evaluation, motivation and adjustments to establish a robust IPE-culture within the faculty and among partners in the clinical setting. Systematic faculty development processes are crucial to succeed. However, the initial experiences are primarily positive among the students.
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 4 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 1400-1530
Learning methods and theory of Inohana IPE in Chiba University.
Yoshinori Takahashi (Chiba University, School of Nursing, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba-shi 2608670, Japan)
Takashi Maeda (Chiba University, School of Medicine, Chiba-shi, Japan)
Satoshi Okada (Chiba University, School of Medicine, Chiba-shi, Japan)
Mayumi Asahina (Chiba University, School of Medicine, Chiba-shi, Japan)
Ikuko Sakai (Chiba University, School of Nursing, Chiba-shi, Japan)
Misako Miyazaki (Chiba University, School of Nursing, Chiba-shi, Japan)
Background: Chiba University began its Interprofessional Education (IPE) program in 2007 through the collaboration of three healthcare-related faculties: The School of Medicine, The School of Nursing, and The Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Seven years have passed from the start; in order to improve this program, we have re-positioned the practice using some learning theory.
Summary of work: Inohana IPE, named after the Inohana Campus in Chiba, offers a multi-level four- year structured program that is a compulsory subject for undergraduate students currently enrolled in one of the three departments. There are about 300 students per one school year. Through empirical methods in mix-groups, they learn actively while making reflections. Summary of results: We consider the learning activities in Inohana IPE, and found learning theories that we should be strongly aware of in order to improve. Those are "Situated learning" by Lave & Wenger, "Reflective learning" by Schon, and "Experiential learning" by Kolb. Taking notice of these learning theories, we have come up with; reflection sheets, self and peer assessment, feedback, learning environment, portfolio, etc . Conclusions: Students develop their own professional identity and interprofessional competencies through IPE program. In order to improve this program, we would like to consider a more effective method of learning in the future.
Promoting careers in medical research via interprofessional student led initiatives
Hydar Faruqi (The University of Manchester, School of Medicine, 50 Trafalger Street, Rochdale OL16 2EB, United Kingdom)
Oluwafikunayo Orekoya (The University of Manchester, School of Medicine, Manchester, United Kingdom) Danielle Nimmons (The University of Manchester, School of Medicine, Manchester, United Kingdom) Tony Freemont (The University of Manchester, School of Medicine, Manchester, United Kingdom)
Background: Despite the University of Manchester's large research profile, there are few outlets directed specifically at students that showcase research and promote careers in academia. Due to this, and the well-recognised decline of Academic Medicine in the UK, The Manchester Medical Research Student Society (MMRSoc) was established.
Summary of work: MMRSoc is led by a team of fifteen students with representatives from across two faculties. It aims to foster a research culture amongst students and improve research related opportunities. Some initiatives include: inspirational lectures encouraging students to consider a research career, educational lectures and workshops that equip students with the skills needed to build a research portfolio, and the development of a 'Research Placement Database'. Initiatives have been evaluated using questionnaires. Summary of results: Within 6 months MMRSoc has garnered over 450 members. Educational lectures were attended by an average of 132 students. Lectures that aimed to inspire were attended by an average of 94 students, and feedback has shown that 96% of attendees felt more inspired to pursue research careers. Currently 83 potential placements have been confirmed for The 'Research Placement Database'. MMRSoc has also encouraged changes in the Medical School curriculum and has established itself as part of Manchester's research network. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that student societies can foster interest in medical research. On account of effective teamwork, management, and publicity, MMRSoc has successfully raised awareness of and promoted medical research. Take-home messages: Student societies are a useful tool in reversing the decline of Academic Medicine. As medical research is multidisciplinary, initiatives should encourage inter-professional student participation.
Analysis of an Integrated Inter-professional Education Model for Care Ethics through Formal Curriculum and Hidden Curriculum
Shio-Jean Lin (Chi Mei Medical Center, Genetics, 901 Zhonghua Rd, Youngkang Districs, Tainan 710, Taiwan) Meei Ren Wang (National Cheng Kung University, Sociology Technology Medicine, Tainan, Taiwan) Chyi Her Lin (National Cheng Kung University, Pediatrics, Tainan, Taiwan)
Ching Huey Chen (National Cheng Kung University, Nursing, Tainan, Taiwan)
Chung Ching Chio (Chi Mei Medical Center, Surgery, Tainan, Taiwan)
Background: For health care professionals, caring has been regarded as one of the core virtues and usually cultivated on a relationship basis. The goal of this action research is to examine care ethics education for students in various disciplines of health professions. We took an approach that combines methodology from history, sociology and adult learning theory to explore the enculturation of caring in formal curriculum and
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 4 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 1400-1530
hidden curriculum. Besides, this action research emphasizes inter-professional education and we ad teamed up faculties from different backgrounds and also fostered interaction among students from different disciplines.
Summary of work: We selected core courses for general education, basic science courses and clinical courses that were required for students of medical, nursing and rehabilitation departments from a university in Taiwan. Through content analysis on curriculum design, direct observation on classroom teaching, service learning and clinical rotation, we selected key elements for enculturation of caring.
Summary of results: A total of 294 undergraduate students were enrolled to evaluate their perception of these courses and were measured using a scale of caring. Students reported that team work in the field, small group discussions with patients and family members and videotaping to foster reflection showed the highest effectiveness. We also found that two operational indicators namely "acceptance of peer assistance" and "influence of peer learning" can be added.
Conclusions: We recommend that curriculum design for education on caring should include interactive learning from peers and patients, and methods that foster natural communication and reflection among students. Take-home messages: Education on care ethics can be effectively implemented in an inter-professional model.
The "Safe Discharge Challenge" - Orienting to the Multidisciplinary Team by Doing
D Chipperfield (University of Saskatchewan, Division of General Internal Medicine, Saskatoon, Canada) MS Sheppard (Saskatoon Health Region Saskatoon, Canada)
HA Ward (University of Saskatchewan, Division of General Internal Medicine, Saskatoon, Canada) (Presenter: SE Card, University of Saskatchewan, Division of General Internal Medicine, Royal University Hospital, 103 Hospital Drive, Saskatoon S7K 4Y3, Canada)
Background: Methods to teach key collaborative competencies (including communicating and becoming familiar with roles of other health care professionals (HCP)) early in postgraduate internal medicine (IM) training are unclear.
Summary of work: As part of the first year IM postgraduate orientation, a brief introduction to a team communication strategy (SBAR- situation, background, assessment, recommendation) was provided prior to initiating an interactive case-based "safe discharge challenge". Teams of IM residents were tasked to discharge a virtual paper-based patient and to work with other HCP in achieving a safe discharge. "Offices" where HCP could be consulted at the request of each resident team were created. If communication and collaboration with the HCP was clear and appropriate recommendations were quickly obtained. The goal was to be the first resident team to have all patient
discharge needs addressed. Satisfaction with the educational session and usefulness of SBAR was assessed by the residents.
Summary of results: The session was rated as very valuable by the IM residents (mean 4.3 (5 point Likert scale)). All IM respondents indicated that the session should be continued in the future. 15/24 (63 %) found the SBAR technique very useful and 8/24 (33 %) somewhat useful for communicating with other HCP. Satisfaction was improved from the previous year's didactic session (mean 3.3 (5 point Likert scale)). Conclusions: IM residents perceive an interactive case-based session with other HCP as a valuable method for learning basic collaboration competencies including the use of communication techniques (SBAR) for interprofessional communication. Take-home messages: Interactive, goal based collaboration teaching improves learner satisfaction.
Perceptions of the pharmacist's role and professional development needs in the era of expanding scopes of practice
Christine Hughes (University of Alberta, Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3-171 Edmonton Clinic Health Academy, 11405-87 Avenue, Edmonton T6G 1C9, Canada)
Theresa Schindel (University of Alberta, Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Edmonton, Canada)
Jason Daniels (University of Alberta, Faculty of Extension, Edmonton, Canada)
Nese Yuksel (University of Alberta, Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Edmonton, Canada) Rene Breault (University of Alberta, Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Edmonton, Canada)
Background: Pharmacy practice has been shifting towards collaborative and patient-centered care. Researchers have underscored the importance of education and training, and understanding professional roles in change efforts. We investigated how pharmacy students, pharmacists, and allied health professionals perceived the pharmacist's role in the changing Canadian health care environment as well as professional development needs. Summary of work: We invited pharmacy students, pharmacists, and allied health professionals to participate in focus group interviews using convenience sampling. Questions were semi-structured in nature; interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data was coded and analyzed for themes using a constant comparison technique.
Summary of results: Three focus groups interviews have been conducted with pharmacists (n=8), pharmacy students (n=8), and allied health professionals (n=7). In all 3 focus groups, pharmacists were identified as drug therapy experts, however the need for a strong professional identity and consistency in practice were noted. Collaboration with physicians and other professionals were viewed as integral to support the
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 4 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 1400-1530
pharmacist's expanded role and improve delivery of patient care. The need for additional training in patient assessment was deemed important. Conclusions: Our data suggests that while pharmacists and allied team members view the role of the pharmacist as drug therapy expert, inconsistencies in practice and training impede widespread recognition of this role.
Take-home messages: Increased professional training (in practice settings) may facilitate pharmacists' understanding, ability and confidence to take on expanded roles. Expanding opportunities for interprofessional education may enhance understanding of professional's roles and ability to delivery care in a collaborative environment.
Using reflective learning to engage primary care practitioners in interprofessional collaboration
Brigitte Vachon (Universite de Montreal, School of rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy Program, C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal. Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada)
Bruno Desorcy (Agence de la sante et des services sociaux de la Monteregie, Longueuil, Quebec, Canada) Michel Camirand (CSSS de la Pommeraie, Cowansville, Quebec, Canada)
Louise Quesnel (Agence de la sante et des services sociaux de la Monteregie, Longueuil, Quebec, Canada) Claude Guimond (Federation des medecins omnipraticiens du Quebec)
Background: Optimizing the ability of professionals to collaborate to deliver care in line with the precepts of the Chronic Care Model remains a challenge. Interprofessional education (IPE) approaches, based on the development of reflection and professionalism, should be used to support clinicians in this transformation. In 2009, a new IPE intervention, based on reflective learning, was developed in Quebec's Monteregie region (Canada). The objective of this presentation is to describe the theory underlying this intervention, its components and the assessment of its acceptability.
Summary of work: This IPE intervention consists of a three-hour workshop led by two facilitators: a physician, a nurse or a pharmacist. It is composed of three main activities: feedback, reflection, and action planning. Six workshops were observed to assess the plausibility of the program theory. Data were collected on the characteristics of the educational process, group dynamics, level of interprofessional exchange, facilitation process, workshop's impact and participants' satisfaction.
Summary of results: The workshop's acceptability was found to be very good even if the reflective-learning approach represented a new way of delivering CE activities. Satisfaction was quite high. Participants said the workshop increased their understanding of other professionals' roles, changed their previous assumptions about collaborations and facilitated networking. Action
plans to improve quality of primary care were collaboratively developed by participants. Conclusions: We think this format of IPE intervention is promising if it is repeated and integrated into practice on at least an annual basis.
Take-home messages: An IPE intervention composed of feedback, reflection and action planning is promising to improve interprofessional collaboration in primary care.
Defining Interprofessional Teaching Competencies at a Large Mental Health Teaching Hospital
Ann Pottinger (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, CAMH, Professional Practice, 100 Stokes St, Toronto M6J 1H4, Canada)
Latika Nirula (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health,
CAMH, Education, Toronto, Canada)
Sophie Soklaridis (Centre for Addiction and Mental
Health, CAMH, Education Research, Toronto, Canada)
David Wiljer (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health,
CAMH, Education, Toronto, Canada)
Ivan Silver (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health,
CAMH, Education, Toronto, Canada)
Background: Professionals at Canada's largest mental health hospital perform in diverse teaching capacities; serving as supervisors, preceptors, mentors, faculty, and clinical instructors. While these roles are crucial to education, research, and knowledge transformation, current preparation largely emphasizes knowledge generation in the field. Much less attention is placed on teaching competencies that may contribute to knowledge translation. Competency-based (CB) educational design enables transparency, accountability and objective teaching evaluation. CB approach to teaching excellence sets the stage for individualize educators' professional development, change teaching practice, and enhance students' experiences. By defining teaching competencies, key faculty development (FD) priorities may be defined institutionally, driving educational opportunities consistent with health care's changing landscape (Frenk et al 2010). The purpose of the study is to explore how teachers from various disciplines: 1. Describe interprofessional teaching competencies within the mental health/addiction field; 2. Define developmental indicators for teaching excellence;