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Association of Critical Thinking Ability and Mental Health in Medical Students
Angela Fan (National Yang-Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box22072, Taipei 100, Taiwan) Russell Kosik (Stanford University, School of Medicine, San Jose, United States)
Thomas Tsai (Harvard University, School of Medicine, Boston, United States)
Tom Su (National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan)
Shuu-Jiun Wang (National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan)
Qi Chen (Nanjin Medical University, School of Medicine, Nanjin, People's Republic of China)
Background: The cultivation of critical thinking ability in medical education has been emphasized lately. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between critical thinking ability and mental health status in medical students.
Summary of work: Data were collected from first and second year medical students (n=183) from Yang-Ming
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 5 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 1600-1730
University in Taipei, Taiwan between 2011 and 2012 using the Chinese Version of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CTDI-CV). A composite CTDI score and domain subscale scores were calculated for each student. All participants also completed surveys that included questions concerning family background, stress, and various assessments of health, as measured by the CHQ (Chinese version of GHQ) and the CESD. Summary of results: The highest mean score was on the Open-Mindedness subscale and the lowest on the Reflective Thinking subscale among both first and second year students. Mother's education level, father's education level, low overall as well as depression subscale CHQ scores had significant positive correlations with the CTDI score, as did the cumulative
Conclusions: The correlation between critical thinking ability and mental health suggests that enhancing mental health ability could be also a way to improve critical thinking ability in medical students. The low Reflective Thinking subscores found may be a result of current teaching strategies and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. Take-home messages: The correlation between critical thinking ability and mental health suggests that enhancing mental health ability could be also a way to improve critical thinking ability in medical students. The low Reflective Thinking subscores found may be a result of current teaching strategies and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models.
Critical thinking of undergraduates at the beginning and the end of training: a comparative study
Shahnaz Azizi (Kashan University of Medical Sciences,
Research Center, Kashan, Iran)
Farzaneh Hossein-Pur (Kashan University of Medical
Sciences, Research Center, Kashan, Iran)
Fakhrossadat Mirhosseini (Kashan University of Medical
Sciences - Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Kashan,
Mehrdad Mahdian (Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Trauma Research Center, Kashan, Iran) Shoaleh Bigdeli (Iran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Education, Center for Educational Research in Medical Sciences (CERMS), Tehran, Iran)
Gholamabbas Moosavi (Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Statistical Department, Kashan, Iran)
Background: Human life is interlaced with thinking. Critical thinking is reflective reasoning about beliefs and actions. During the process of anesthesia, it may improve flexibility, decision making and problem solving authority. Many studies have shown considerable effects of training factors and their impacts on improving critical thinking. This study was designed to compare the critical thinking of students at the beginning and the end of training course in anesthesia
undergraduate students in Kashan University of Medical Sciences.
Summary of work: During a descriptive study, California questionnaire was distributed among 43 students of anesthesia, 27 freshman students and 16 at the end of the course. The questionnaire was included the 5 components of critical thinking: analysis, evaluation, inference, deductive reasoning, and inductive reasoning. ANOVA was used to compare mean scores of critical thinking components.
Summary of results: Of the 43 students, 27 were female and 16 male. Generally, there were no significant difference between the mean scores of two groups regarding four components of critical thinking, and just in "inductive reasoning", students at the end of training had significantly more scores than freshman (P=0.055). The scores of female students were significantly more than male in this component. (P=0.029) Conclusions: Higher scores in "Inductive Reasoning" in the students at the end of their course compared to new students may be due to improve justified and ma thematic logic after passing of theoretical and practical courses in the university. Authorities should have the effective plans to improve the other components of critical thinking in the students.
Take-home messages: Authorities should have effective plans to improve the other components of critical thinking in the students.
5FF ePosters: Basic Sciences
Location: North Hall, PCC 5FF/1
An investigation of the relationship between the laparoscopic box trainer score and timed practical anatomy score of pre-clinical medical students
David Williams (Durham University, School of Medicine,
Pharmacy and Health, 12a Avene Street, High Shincliffe,
Durham DH1 2PT, United Kingdom)
William Malins (Durham University, School of Medicine,
Pharmacy and Health, Stockton-on-Tees, United
Gabrielle Finn (Durham University, School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health, Stockton-on-Tees, United Kingdom)
Background: There has been shown to be a moderate relationship between general clinical skill ability and the level of competence in comprehending anatomy in undergraduate medical students. This study therefore, aims to determine the relationship between laparoscopic box trainer performance (measuring visuospatial awareness and dexterity ability) and timed practical anatomy examination score of medical students. Mental cognition is vital in both the comprehension of the physical aspect of understanding anatomy and the manipulation of laparoscopic tools in a simulated environment.
Summary of work: Sixty pre-clinical medical students at Durham University will be quantitatively assessed using a laparoscopic box trainer. These scores will then compared against their corresponding timed-practical anatomy examination results to ascertain whether there is a link.
Summary of results: Results will be established discerning whether students with a high laparoscopic box trainer score also possess a high timed-practical anatomy examination result. Data has been collected and is currently in the process of being analysed. Conclusions: Evidence of a student's visuospatial awareness and dexterity ability can be used as a predictor to determine whether they will be successful in comprehending anatomical structures. Take-home messages: This study could add to the evidence base of basic skills required for the effective comprehension of gross anatomy and help guide teaching decisions in the future.
The "Elementary Kidney Ultrasound Teaching Programme" for medical students -- experience of the largest medical centre of Taiwan
Chang-Chyi Jeng (Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Nephrology, Medical Education, 7F, No.1, Ln.25, Sec. 2, Hangzhou S. Rd., Da'an Dist., Taipei 10641, Taiwan) Kuo-Chang Juan (Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Nephrology, Taipei, Taiwan)
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 5 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 1600-1730
Chun-Yen Lin (Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Medical Education, Taipei, Taiwan) Ji-Tseng Fang (Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Nephrology, Medical Education, Taipei, Taiwan) Cheng-Chieh Hung (Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Nephrology, Taipei, Taiwan)
San-Jou Yeh (Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Second Section of Cardiology, Medical Education, Taipei, Taiwan)
Background: A well-designed teaching programme can help students to integrate the basic and clinical medical knowledge, and apply the basic knowledge into clinical skills. The "Elementary Kidney Ultrasound Teaching Programme" (EKUTP) is designed for the above purposes.
Summary of work: EKUTP contains pre-/post- multi-choice questionnaire (MCQ) of medical knowledge of kidney field, pre-/post-evaluation of clinical skill - the practice of kidney ultrasound (KU), lecture & operation demonstration of KU, and satisfaction questionnaire for the teaching programme. Medical students who completed the 90-minute teaching programme from October, 2012 to February, 2013 were enrolled. The evaluation forms were designed for KU practicing performance evaluation. The paired and independent t tests were applied for analyzing the results. Summary of results: Eighty six medical students (34 5th grade, 52 7th grade) were enrolled. In medical knowledge field, 40 students (46%) failed in KU interpretation in pre-MCQ. In clinical skill field, 36 students (41%) failed to place the kidney image in the middle of the ultrasound screen in pre-evaluation. Comparing with 5th grade students, 7th grade students had better pre-/post-MCQ score (especially in KU interpretation) and similar performance in practicing performance. All students had significant improvement in both medical knowledge and clinical skill fields after teaching, and responded high level of satisfaction. Conclusions: The EKUTP is a useful for achieving the goals of enhancing student's performance of medical knowledge of kidney field and clinical skills of KU. Take-home messages: A well designed teaching programme, including pre-/post-evaluation, lecture and operation demonstration, will show student's weak points, improve their performance, and assist their learning.
10-years' experience with "Anatomy and Imaging" - from an elective to a curricular course
Anna M Schober (University of Muenster, Institute of Anatomy and Molecular Neurobiology, Vesaliusweg 2-4, Muenster 48149, Germany) Claus C Pieper (University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn, Germany)
Rebecca Schmidt (University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster, Germany)
Jan C Becker (University of Muenster, Institute of Medical Education and Student Affairs, Muenster, Germany)
Werner Wittkowski (University of Muenster, Institute of Anatomy and Molecular Neurobiology, Muenster, Germany)
Background: Recent advances in radiology and the widespread availability of imaging facilities require medical students to have thorough anatomical knowledge and to be able to apply it to a variety of medical imaging techniques. At the same time the methods of teaching gross anatomy are under debate (including the use of cadavers versus/in addition to the use of medical imaging).
Summary of work: In 2001, we established the elective course "Anatomy and Imaging" in undergraduate medical education as an interdisciplinary project of the Departments of Anatomy and Radiology. Radioanatomy (including CT) and ultrasound anatomy is taught by tutors in small groups (5-10 students), supervised by anatomists and radiologists. There are 32 lessons and a final examination. Anonymous evaluation has been performed continuously. Here we want to share our 10-years' experience with "Anatomy and Imaging". Summary of results: 618 (306 females) second-year-students took part in the course between 2001 and 2012. Evaluation return rate was 90.1%. The general approval rate was 1.33 (scale from 1 = excellent to 5 = poor). Highest marks were given for clinical relevance (1.17). Thus, the Medical Faculty of Muenster decided to integrate "Anatomy and Imaging" into the undergraduate curriculum in addition to the dissection course from 2013.
Conclusions: Integration of imaging in undergraduate medical education is highly accepted. Clinical relevance is evident.
Take-home messages: Beside the dissection course medical imaging must become an integral part of teaching gross anatomy.
Physiology teaching and learning in a large, diverse, multi-disciplinary first semester service module: an analysis of the success rates of first year students
Susan B Higgins-Opitz (University of KwaZulu-Natal, Discipline of Physiology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Durban 4001, South Africa)
Mark A Tufts (University of KwaZulu-Natal, Discipline of Physiology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, Durban, South Africa)
Background: Our research has shown that Health Science (HS) students at UKZN perform better in their professional as compared to their physiology modules. Pass rates of physiology modules have steadily declined, particularly in the first year basic physiology module taken in the first semester. Although a risk monitoring system is in place, its activation is dependent on
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 5 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 1600-1730
completion of the module. Struggling students thus need to be identified earlier in the semester. Summary of work: Using biographical data, correlation analyses were undertaken of various performance indicators based on qualification, gender, home language and admission points etc. Summary of results: The 2011 class size was 214 students, of whom 67% were female, 53% were English first language speakers, and comprised sport science (57%), dental therapy and oral health (18%), speech language pathology (13%) and audiology (12%) students. Pass rates approximated 70% for HS students of the latter three disciplines, in contrast with that of sport science students (42%). Class admission points (based on the National School Certificate) averaged 33 ± 3.6. These did not correlate well with the module mark for the whole class (r = 0.41) nor when analyzed for qualification, gender and home language. In contrast, test 1 and the final examination results correlated well (r = 0.76). Interestingly, differences were noted between language groups.
Conclusions: Student performance in the first class test is a valuable tool to identify students at risk. Take-home messages: Preferably, the appropriate testing should be held as early as possible.
Musculoskeletal ultrasound module increases medical students' knowledge of gross anatomy
Catherine Brandon (University of Michigan, Radiology, 3050 Whitmore Lake Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, United
Patricia Mullan (University of Michigan, Medical
Education, Ann Arbor, MI, United States)
David Jamadar (University of Michigan, Radiology, Ann
Arbor, MI, United States)
Background: Medical school curricula currently provide less time for gross anatomy and limited and late exposure to ultrasound. The study evaluated the feasibility and impact of an introductory module on musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging to supplement existing gross anatomy teaching to first year medical students
Summary of work: A one-hour module was developed for students who had completed the existing gross anatomy instruction on upper extremity anatomy including dissection. The module included terminology, basic physics, and scanning techniques, followed by a real-time ultrasound demonstration on a volunteer's arm emphasizing ultrasound's anatomic and dynamic capabilities, concluding with a presentation about the appearance of selected upper extremity musculoskeletal pathologies. Assessment included pre and post educational intervention of students' knowledge and perception of the module's impact. Participation was voluntary and anonymous.
Summary of results: One hundred ten students (65%) participated. Students demonstrated an increase in basic knowledge of ultrasound (p<.01). They indicated the module was most useful in learning anatomic
function (72%) and enhancing their appreciation of gross anatomy (65%) but were less convinced of their own ability to use ultrasound as a tool for learning (49%) or to understand specific structures (39%). Conclusions: Anatomic and radiology educators both learned to stress surface landmarks to encourage student use of ultrasound. This study confirmed the feasibility and acceptability of an ultrasound teaching module to enhance first year medical students' interest in anatomy.
Take-home messages: The study identifies strengths and limitations of ultrasound as a teaching and clinical modality and illuminates techniques that educators might use to reinforce medical students' understanding of functional anatomy.
The cadaver as the first clinical encounter: emotional impact in first year medical students
Maria Amelia Ferreira (Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Department of Anatomy, Alameda Professor Hernani Monteiro, Porto 4200-319, Portugal) Elizabete Loureiro (Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Center for Medical Education, Porto, Portugal) Madalena Abreu (Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Center for Medical Education, Porto, Portugal) Milton Severo (Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, Porto, Portugal)
Background: Anatomy and dissection play an important role in developing attitudes that apply to the doctor-patient relationship. In this scope, this research was endeavoured in order to assess perceptions of medical students towards the cadaver prossections as their first clinical encounter.
Summary of work: 131 first year medical students from the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto participated in a longitudinal study with three moments of assessment: (M1) beginning of the first semester -before they have had contact with anatomy classes and cadavers; (M2) beginning of the second semester and (M3) beginning of second year. All completed Appraisal of Life Events Scale (ALE) and a structured survey with open questions.
Summary of results: ALE results reveal higher mean scores in subscale challenge throughout the study [M1: 22.83, M2: 21.25 and M3: 20.17, p<0.001], and lower scores on the subscales threat [M1: 12.35, M2: 5.89 and M3: 8.95, p<0.001] and lost [M1: 3.95, M2: 2.49 and M3: 4.02, p<0.001]. Students considered the cadaver as a learning tool (56%), as the first contact with human body (37.7%) and as a real patient (21.2%); these perceptions remained at long-term, with the exception of the first that decreased. Conclusions: The medical students report cadaver dissection as a positive significant life event before and after experiencing this exposure and only 1/5 consider the cadaver as a real patient.
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 5 MONDAY 26 AUGUST: 1600-1730
Take-home messages: Efforts are needed to improve the perceptions of medical students towards the cadaver prossections as their first clinical encounter. The project was supported by PTDC/SAU-SAP/112908/2009 FCT grant
Introducing the Objective Standardized Practical Examination (OSPE) - a novel anatomy and clinical based exam
Noah J Switzer (University of Alberta, Faculty of
Medicine & Dentistry, 2J2.00 WC Mackenzie Health
Sciences Centre, Edmonton T6G 2R7, Canada)
Ron Damant (University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine
& Dentistry, Edmonton, Canada)
Kent Stobart (University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine
& Dentistry, Edmonton, Canada)
Anil Walji (University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine &
Dwight Harley (University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, Edmonton, Canada) Bryan Dicken (University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, Edmonton, Canada)
Background: Medical school assessment is based on the concept of developing an examination that is both able to predict clinical performance and is practically feasible. Standardized tests in medical school usually consist of only a few accepted formats and are becoming less focused on anatomy.
Summary of work: We developed a novel anatomy and clinical based Objective Standardized Practical Examination (OSPE) for year 2 students. Based upon core curriculum objectives, it was compared to the gold standard year 2 comprehensive examination. The OSPE was set up as pre-designed stations in the anatomy lab. Stations were comprised of a clinical vignette followed by three independent questions: 1- anatomy question using anatomically labelled specimens or images, and 2-clinically related questions.
Summary of results: 186 and 168 second year students in successive years (2011-12) participated. Comparisons between the OSPE and comprehensive tests revealed moderate correlation with a Pearson's correlation of 0.436 and 0.402 for 2011 and 2012 respectively. This corresponded to a coefficient of determination of 0.190 and 0.162 respectively.
Conclusions: The OSPE is a novel method for examining students based upon anatomy principles. There appears to be a 15-20% knowledge correlation between the comprehensive exam and the OSPE, allowing for the necessary translation of theoretical concepts into clinical scenarios but also ensuring there is little redundancy in testing strategies.
Take-home messages: The clinical focus of the OSPE bridges the gap between the theoretical knowledge acquired in the first two years of medical school and clinical duties starting in year 3.
Teaching clinically relevant basic science knowledge
Antonia Pelz (Universitatsklinik und Poliklinik Psychiatrie Bern, Psychiatrie, Bolligenstrasse 111, Bern 60 CH 3000, Switzerland)
Anthea Luckow (Charite-Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Dieter Scheffner Fachzentrum, Berlin, Germany) Harm Peters (Charite-Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Dieter Scheffner Fachzentrum, Berlin, Germany) Pelz Jorg (Charite-Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Dieter Scheffner Fachzentrum, Berlin, Germany)
Background: In the traditional curriculum of the Charite (Berlin) like in all traditional curricula in Germany, basic sciences are taught according to the 'H'-model during the two preclinical years. This is believed to lay ground for a scientific understanding of ailments and to foster abilities for clinical reasoning and decision making during the clinical years.