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Take-home messages: BLS skills can be effectively taught in groups of three, five and eight students.
Systematic Review of Bedside Teaching Compared to Other Clinical Teaching Methods for Undergraduate Medical Students and Postgraduate Clinicians
Rebecca Dugdale (University of Liverpool, School of Medicine, Liverpool L69 3BX, United Kingdom) Edward Fitzgerald (Chelsea and Westminster NHS Trust, General Surgery, London, United Kingdom) Angharad Care (Liverpool Women's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Obstetrics, Liverpool, United Kingdom)
Background: Bedside teaching can be an effective educational tool in medicine. The setting provides opportunities to expose the learner to knowledge and skills difficult to teach in a classroom environment. Despite this, teaching at the bedside is declining. This systematic review examines studies evaluating the effectiveness, and learner and patient perceptions of bedside teaching in comparison to other teaching modalities.
Summary of work: Embase and Ovid MEDLINE searches were performed to identify English language primary research articles from January 1980 - July 2012, comparing bedside teaching to teaching away from the bedside. A free text search of all fields used the following search terms: "bedside teaching", "bedside learning", "bedside education" and "bedside tuition". Reference lists of the included articles were also manually searched for additional citations. Relevant study details were abstracted. Summary of results: The electronic database search produced 236 titles. Following review, 14 research papers were included based on predetermined criteria. Five papers compared bedside teaching to other settings "objectively" using examinations; five studies examined medical student preferences, three studies examined the preferences of doctors in training and six studies evaluated patient preference.
Conclusions: Bedside teaching can be a useful modality of clinical teaching especially with careful selection of the teaching audience and topic. Bedside teaching is less useful for teaching specific invasive clinical skills or teaching qualified doctors.
Take-home messages: Medical students and doctors in training prefer bedside teaching when directly compared to most teaching modalities. Learners report discomfort presenting and being questioned in front of the patient, however patients report higher satisfaction when presenting occurs at the bedside.
Readiness Scale for Clinical Training
Maria Elizabeth Grageda (University of the Philippines, National Teacher Training Center for the Health Professions, Padre Faura St., Manila 1000, Philippines)
Background: The clinical learning environment is a rich learning environment where students integrate their skills in solving real problems. It presents the student
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 8 TUESDAY 27 AUGUST: 1400-1530
with a learning environment that includes interaction with the clinical instructor and patients. It is therefore important that students enter clinical training with adequate preparation. This study aimed to develop a self-assessment scale designed for pre-clinical students, which will measure their own readiness for clinical training.
Summary of work: A Readiness Scale for Clinical Training was developed based on results of focus group discussions and constructs from literature. The scale was administered to 271 pre-clinical students of various health professions courses in different Philippine schools. The reliability of the scale was determined, and a component factor analysis was done to develop the final version of the scale.
Summary of results: The initial 60-item version revealed a Cronbach alpha of .766. Four items were deleted based on the item-total analysis, increasing the Cronbach alpha to .843. A KMO measurement of sampling adequacy of .804 rendered the sample adequate for factor analysis. Factor loading was analyzed using components with Eigenvalues >1.5. Using the Equamax rotation, 8 component factors were extracted, and ten items with coefficients <.4 were deleted. The Cronbach's alpha of the 46-item final version of the scale was computed at .881. Conclusions: The Readiness scale for Clinical Training is a reliable tool for measuring the readiness of pre-clinical students for training in the clinical setting. It can help determine areas where students may need additional support, counselling, or remediation. Take-home messages: It is important to look for measures to assess student needs aside from testing. A self-assessment measure of the student's readiness for clinical training will be useful to students, teachers and institutions.
Implementing standardised training and assessment for spirometry in post-graduate respiratory medicine using the framework 'Miller's model of clinical competence'
Sharon Mitchell (European Respiratory Society, Education, 4 Ave Sainte-Luce, Lausanne 1003, Switzerland)
Julie-Lyn Noel (European Respiratory Society, Education, Lausanne, Switzerland)
Background: Training and assessment in post-graduate medical education, specifically within respiratory medicine, is not well structured or developed across Europe. In an effort to address training inconsistencies in specific areas of respiratory medicine, HERMES (harmonised education in respiratory medicine for European specialists) was established to achieve harmonization of education and certification. Summary of work: Spirometry is a test used to assess lung function. A training model was developed based on Miller's model of clinical competence in order to establish a quality assessment process. This model incorporates the use of a European online MCQ test, an
assessment portfolio as well as direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS). In order to disseminate at a European level a critical aspect to ensure project success is to recruit and train European teachers. To accompany this model a train-the-trainer was established incorporating small group hands on learning, interactive discussions and role-plays. Summary of results: The goal of this project is to establish standardised documents and activities in the training and certification of spirometry testing. This model was designed to train allied health professionals as well as in-training specialists in respiratory medicine. The model is now being adopted in other specialist areas to teach and assess clinical competence of specific skills within the curricula.
Conclusions: The process will be overseen by the ERS HERMES assessments and board committee. The first training programme and certification of Level 1 and Level 2 will be disseminated from October 2013 - March 2014. Further challenges will need to be considered as training and certification will be disseminated at a European level.
Take-home messages: Translating theory into practice: the design of an applicable and acceptable training and assessment model for post-graduate medical clinical
Factors associated with anesthesiology grade assignments in fifth year medical students
Patiparn Toomtong (Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Anesthesiology, 2 Prannok Road, Bangkok noi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand)
Busara Sirivanasandha (Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Anesthesiology, 2 Prannok Road, Bangkok noi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand)
Saowaphak Lapmahapaisan (Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Anesthesiology, 2 Prannok Road, Bangkok noi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand)
Pichaya Waitayawinyu (Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Anesthesiology, 2 Prannok Road, Bangkok noi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand)
Phongthara Vichitvejpaisal (Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Anesthesiology, 2 Prannok Road, Bangkok noi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand) Jariya Lertakyamanee (Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Anesthesiology, 2 Prannok Road, Bangkok noi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand)
Background: The anesthesiology rotation for 5th year medical students is perceived as short, enjoyable but difficult especially at the examinations. They are scored by many sources; self-directed learning, oral presentation, cognitive skills, attitude and clinical skills at the bedside teaching in operating theatres, and the paper examinations. We would like to know which components have an effect in grade assignments and to see whether the period of their rotation across the academic year has an effect on their final grade or not. Summary of work: The final scores and grades of 470 medical students in 2010 and 2011 academic year were
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 8 TUESDAY 27 AUGUST: 1400-1530
reviewed. Then the scores were analysed with principle component factor analysis with varimax rotation. Then each factor component was calculated and entered to linear regression with an independent variable as grade of each student.
Summary of results: The rotated components yields seven components; as self, decision, situation, skills, time of the year, preparation and problem. The final model shows that five components excluding time of the year and preparation are associated with the student grade outcome.
Conclusions: Grade assignment in anesthesiology is associated with student clinical skill, decision making in patient management, and preoperative evaluation. There is no advantage of later rotation time over earlier rotation in the academic year.
Take-home messages: Successful anesthesiology grade assignment is dependent on all student skills both clinical practice and active participation in case discussion to gain a good decision making for patient management.
8AA Posters: Mobile Learning/Learning Resources
Location: Terrace 2, PCC
MeCuM-Memo, a new flashcard-based e-learning tool for students and teachers
Mathias Woidy (Ludwig-Maximilians-University, MeCuM-Memo, Ziemssenstrafie 1, Munchen 80336, Germany)
Moritz Lux (Ludwig-Maximilians-University, MeCuM-Memo, Munich, Germany)
Stefan Galster (Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Lehrstuhl fur Didaktik und Ausbildungsforschung in der Medizin, Munich, Germany) Martin Fischer (Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Lehrstuhl fur Didaktik und Ausbildungsforschung in der Medizin, Munich, Germany) Volker Brand (Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Medizinische Klinik IV, Munich, Germany)
Background: MeCuM-Memo is a flashcard-based e-learning tool helping students to structure their self-studies. It comprises of a mediawiki related platform giving students the opportunity to edit and share their flashcards online with other students (community-based learning) and a software client to edit and study them offline.
Summary of work: We have developed a new version of our pre-existing software and released it in November 2012 for medical students of the LMU Munich. Additionally we have been encouraging students and teachers to enhance the existing stock of flashcards to perfectly fit the Curriculum of the LMU. We evaluated MeCuM-Memo in February 2013. Our survey consisted of 15 multiple-choice and open questions. 297 students who attempted to download our client were asked to participate, 44 students completed the survey. Summary of results: Since our release in November 2012 we have been registering 297 software downloads (February 2013). The stock of flashcards actually consists of 1272 cards which have been written by medical students of the LMU.
Conclusions: Taking the presented numbers and our survey results into account, we conclude that MeCuM-Memo encourages a part of students to study, but yet not all. A reason for a positive feedback seems to be our "easy-to-use" program, while a negative feedback might be explainable by technical barriers to access the program.
Take-home messages: MeCuM - Memo is a new flashcard- and community-based e-learning tool which might have the ability to structure and ease students' self-studies. To address an even greater part of students, further technical improvements have to be made.
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 8 TUESDAY 27 AUGUST: 1400-1530
To tweet or not to tweet: An evaluation of Twitter epilepsy social network
Samy A Azer (King Saud University, College of Medicine, Medical Education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) Hala A AlGrain (King Saud University, College of Medicine, Medical Education, P O Box 2925, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia)
Sarah M AlEshaiwi (King Saud University, College of Medicine, Medical Education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) Rana A AlKhelaif (King Saud University, College of Medicine, Medical Education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
Background: Twitter is a popular free social networking/ microblogging tool that allows its users to describe their status via short messages. This study examined the activity of Twitter epilepsy social network accounts. Summary of work: Tweet archivist (http://www.tweetarchivist.com/) was searched by three researchers using two key words "Epilepsy" and "Seizure". The research identified 5603 activated Twitter epilepsy accounts in the English language. Recent account activities were analyzed. Summary of results: The authors found 1,522 active Twitter accounts. The accounts had a median of 548 followers and 67% re-tweets per account and 38% were linked to Facebook, or other media. 46% of accounts had >100 tweets. Posted content was largely inconsistent with authentic clinical information; 0% linked to pharmaceutical companies sites and advertising, and 56% had tweets on non-epilepsy issues. Contents of the tweets were categorized into: personal disclosure, sharing knowledge, social issues, personal views, and advertising. Only 9% twitter accounts were linked to professional societies. Conclusions: Despite the 140-character limit, twitter was successfully used among epilepsy social network in sharing their news and reflecting on their life. Take-home messages: Twitter epilepsy social network accounts need to be monitored by professional societies to enhance the educational benefits of such tools.
Short Message System (SMS) revisited
Mads Dahl (Aarhus University, Centre for Medical Education, Aarhus, Denmark)
Eivind Ortind Simonsen (Aarhus University, Centre for Medical Education, Brendstrupgardsvej 102, Building B, 1. Floor, Aarhus N 8200, Denmark)
Background: In a survey regarding the use of technology as a mean of communication with the students, the Faculty of Health, Aarhus University came out worst among the four faculties. The University allotted funds to projects that could better the situation, and one of the accepted projects was the short messaging system. Summary of work: To facilitate better communication, we tested the use of text messages. The system consists of two parts: one engine for sending the messages, and one backend where lectures could construct and send
messages. The backend was developed in-house, whereas the engine was purchased from a company. One undergraduate course was chosen as pilot test. The students answered some questionnaires, and provided feedback at the end of the course duration. Summary of results: The students rated the service highly. Their main interest was to get information about cancellation of classes, moving of lectures and information about exams. Unfortunately not all messages reached their intended recipients (success
Conclusions: Text messages are an effective tool to provide information about sudden changes in the schedule or cancellation of a lecture. Text messages fill an important niche which, combined with other means of communication, provides a more coherent communication service to the students. Take-home messages: Short messaging system might not be a cutting-edge technology, but in many circumstances it is the technology called for, when mass communication of abrupt changes is needed.
3D virtual table in anatomy education
Mads Dahl (Aarhus University, Centre for Medical Education, Brendstrupgardsvej 102, Building B, 1. Floor, Aarhus N 8200, Denmark
Eivind Ortind Simonsen (Aarhus University, Centre for Medical Education, Aarhus, Denmark)
Background: The 'Anatomage' is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections and intersections can be supported by technology like the Anatomage.
Summary of work: Primo 2013 Aarhus University acquired a digital table to use in the anatomy classes at the university. Until now the preparations for the inclusion of this table have been ongoing, and from September onward this table is going to play a bit part in the anatomy education.
Summary of results: The preparation where done in collaboration with a second-year medical student. His job was to ensure, at that material was provide in Danish, and grow accustomed to the technical use of the table. Alongside this preparatory work we invited people in key positions to take a look at the table and figure out, if this was something they could use. Conclusions: Without prior knowledge about anatomy you won't get much from this table. What it provides is a 3D understanding, which cannot be as easily gained from textbooks.
Take-home messages: Good preparation is key to a successful inclusion of new technology within an old classical subject. Furthermore the technology should be recognised as supplementing and reinforcement of the learning environment.
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 8 TUESDAY 27 AUGUST: 1400-1530
Five problems, one solution: utilising online resources to meet the needs of disparate groups of learners
Katrina Calvert (King Edward Memorial Hospital, Postgraduate Medical Education, 374 Bagot Road, Subiaco, Perth 6014, Australia) Frances Gratwick (King Edward Memorial Hospital, Postgraduate Medical Education, Perth, Australia)
Background: Western Australia covers 2.5 million square kilometers, with one tertiary hospital postgraduate medical education department servicing the education and training needs of more than 50 pre-vocational trainees, 35 specialist registrars and 120 community based obstetric care providers. With limited teaching resources available, single resources, such as videos of lectures given in the tertiary hospital setting, were considered for adaptation for use by different groups of learners utilizing different features of the online learning system.
Summary of work: Utilising one learning management system (MOODLE - Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) five separate courses were created, each aimed at a defined group of learners. Summary of results: Uptake rates for the courses aimed at rural and remote trainees were particularly high. Informal feedback regarding the online resources has been extremely positive.
Conclusions: Frequently in education separate resources are created whenever the learning needs of a new group are identified. This is not always required, as different aspects of the same resources can be used to accommodate the needs of different groups. Cross-posting relevant resources allowed for specific targeted education without the necessity for duplication. Formal evaluation of the different MOODLE courses is currently underway.
Take-home messages: Online technologies and cross-posting of resources allow for tailored education to be provided across different groups of learners in an efficient and timely manner.
Facilitating Learning On-line so the e-patient does NOT Die!
Ranjana Acharya (National Healthcare Group, General
Internal Medicine, Singapore)
Noi Keng Koh (National Institute of Education,
Humanities and Social Studies Education, Singapore)
Otrysia Otrysia (National Healthcare Group, ACO
(Education) Office, Singapore)
Koh Nien Yue (National Healthcare Group, General
Internal Medicine, Singapore)
(Presenter: Glorijoy Tan Shi En, National Healthcare
Group, General Internal Medicine, Tan Tock Seng
Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433,
Background: The ability to handle acute medical emergencies is a core curriculum all doctors must have. Ensuring this is well taught is important for all residents. Difficulty in attaining 100% attendance with the current didactic classroom teaching approach, due to exigencies of service and duty hour constraints motivated Faculty to explore e-learning and investigating: Would an online e-learning module on core acute medicine lead to easy, universal access by residents, in a safe environment? Would blended learning improve educational outcomes? Summary of work: An interactive and evaluative on-line module was designed and distributed via our learning management system. A total of thirteen acute medicine interactive real life scenarios with multiple choice questions were created. Content was provided by content experts. Face-to-face sessions with dedicated faculty to clear further doubts followed. 104 residents attempted this module within one month of joining the hospital.
Summary of results: Improvement in the attendance of face-to-face sessions. High feedback scores on meeting learning objectives. Focused group discussions revealed that the blended approach to learning was well received. They appreciated the face-to-face discussions following the eLearning for clarifications and reinforcement of their learning. Faculty appreciate that pre diagnostic test of their entry level (pre test scores) helped in addressing the training gap. Conclusions: Better attendance, high feedback scores and focused group sessions suggest improved educational outcomes. Important questions remain; learner's preferred learning environment and attitudes towards e-learning and more importantly, whether this mode translates to improved patient outcomes warrants further study.
Learning medical terms with the wiki
Sara Morales (UNAM, Integration de Ciencias Medicas, Av. Universidad 3000, Mexico 04510, Mexico) Rotio Garcia (UNAM, Integration de Ciencias Medicas, Mexico, Mexico)
Background: The development of Web 2.0 enabled a generation of communities to share content, creativity and resources through social networks. Regardless of the diversity or geographic location, the wiki is a content management system with these features that enables collaborative work.