А П Загнітко - Лінгвістичні студії - страница 3

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Обозначенные категории выражаются как номинативными единицами, так и грамматическими средствами. Так, в случаях, когда временные отношения категоризуются посредством пространственных, они выступают в виде воображаемой прямой и реализуются, в частности, в лексических значениях слов время идет, движется, дни следуют за днями, минуты убегают и т.д., а также в грамматических значениях, выражаемых предлогами перед, за, к (перед обедом, час за часом, к вечеру).

Представленные наблюдения позволяют сделать следующие выводы.

Формирование новой парадигмы в языкознании определило интерес лингвистов к процессам языковой категоризации, к способам отражения в языке когнитивного опыта. Обращение к этой проблеме требует не только разработки нового инструментария и категориального аппарата исследований, но и существенных изменений в системе взглядов на язык, который сегодня не может рассматриваться независимо от человека.

В картине мира представления о действительности и социально значимый опыт фиксируются в виде языковых единиц и категорий. При этом каждая, даже самая незначительная единица, является творением многих поколений людей и поэтому отражает не только то, как человек видит окружающий его реальный мир, но и историю формирования этих представлений.

Категоризация выступает как процесс членения универсума на относительно простые фрагменты, с помощью которых структурируется безграничное разнообразие мира, находит свое отражение в естественном языке, который фиксирует совокупность знаний о мире не только в лексико-семантической, но и в грамматической системе. Перспективой является дальнейшее исследование процессов языковой категоризации.

Дальнейшая перспектива развития исследований в данном направлении связана, по нашему мнению, с выявлением таких единиц языка, которые позволят рассматривать категоризацию как функционально и прагматически обусловленный процесс, определяющий развитие языковой системы. Для этого необходим анализ инвариантных категорий, которые реализуются позиционно чередующимися вариантами, отражающими связь между структурными и номинативными средствами языка.

Литература

Ажеж 2008: Ажеж, К. Человек говорящий : Вклад лингвистики в гуманитарные науки. Пер. с фр. Изд. 2-е, стереотипное [Текст] / К. Ажеж. - М. : Едиториал УРСС, 2008. - 304 с. - Библиогр. : с. 281-292. -1000 экз. - ISBN 978-5-354-01155-1.

Бондарко 2001: Бондарко, А.В. Основы функциональной грамматики : Языковая интерпретация идеи времени [Текст] / А. В. Бондарко. - СПб. : Изд-во С.-Петерб. ун-та, 2001. - 260 с. - Библиогр. : с. 233-254. -500 экз. - ISBN 5-288-02396-4.

Гаспаров 1996: Гаспаров, Б.М. Язык, память, образ. Лингвистика языкового существования [Текст] / Б. М. Гаспаров. - М. : «Новое литературное обозрение», 1996. - 352 с. - 2000 экз. - ISBN 5-86793-020-3.

Гумбольдт 2001: Гумбольдт, В. фон Избранные труды по языкознанию [Текст] : Пер. с нем. / Общ. ред. Г. В. Рамишвили ; Послесл. А. В. Гулыгин и В. А. Звегинцева. - М. : ОАО ИГ «Прогресс», 2001. - 400 с. -1000 экз. - ISBN 5-01-004726-8.

Золотова 2001: Золотова, Г.А. Грамматика как наука о человеке [Текст] / Г. А. Золотова // Русский язык в научном освещении.- М., 2001. - № 1. - С. 107-113. - Библиогр. : с. 113.

Зубкова 2003: Зубкова, Л.Г. Общая теория языка в развитии : Учеб. пособие [Текст] / Л. Г. Зубкова. - М. : Изд-во РУДН, 2003. - 472 с. - Библиогр. : с. 445-462. - 1000 экз. - ISBN 5-209-01334-0.

Караулов 2006: Караулов, Ю.Н. Русский язык и языковая личность. Изд. 5-е, стереотипное [Текст] / Ю. Н. Караулов. - М. : КомКнига, 2006. - 264 с. - 2000 экз. - ISBN 5-484-00509-4.

Кравченко 2001: Кравченко, А.В. Знак, значение, знание. Очерк когнитивной философии языка [Текст] / А. В. Кравченко. - Иркутск : Издание ОГУП «Иркутская областная типография № 1», 2001. - 261 с. -Библиогр. : с. 241-261. - 2000 экз. - ISBN 5-7971-0100-9.

Кравченко 2004: Кравченко, А.В. Язык и восприятие : Когнитивные аспекты языковой категоризации [Текст] / А. В. Кравченко. - Иркутск : Изд. Иркут. гос. ун-та, 2004 - 206 с. - Библиогр. : с. 184-201. - 500 экз. -ISBN 5-7430-0412-9.

Мельников 2003: Мельников, Г.П. Системная типология языков: Принципы, методы, модели [Текст] / Г. П. Мельников. - М. : Наука, 2003. - 395 с. - Библиогр. : с. 362-388. - 580 экз. - ISBN 5-02-006356-8.

Рудяков 2004: Рудяков, А.Н. Язык, или Почему люди говорят (опыт функционального определения естественного языка) [Текст] / А. Н. Рудяков. - К. : Грамота, 2004. - 224 с. - Библиогр. : с. 211-220. - 1000 экз. -ISBN 966-8066-48-0.

Соколовская 1999: Соколовская, Ж.П. «Картина мира» в значениях слов : Семантические фантазии» или «катехизис семантики»? [Текст] / Ж. П. Соколовская. - Симферополь : РИО ТЭИ, 1999. - 232 с. - 100 экз.

Штелинг 1996: Штелинг, Д.А. Грамматическая семантика английского языка. Фактор человека в языке : Учебное пособие [Текст] / Д. А. Штелинг. - М. : МГИМО, ЧеРо, 1996. - 254 с. - 4000 экз. - ISBN 5-88711-033-3.

В статье рассматривается понятие языковой картины мира с точки зрения антропоцентрической парадигмы, характеризуется взаимодействие семантических и грамматических категорий в процессе формирования картины мира, анализируются концепции, которые учитывают это взаимодействие.

Ключевые слова: картина мира, грамматика, антропоцентризм, категория.

The article considers the concept of the language picture of the world from the point of view of anthropocentrism paradigm, is characterized by the interaction of semantic and grammatical categories in the process of forming a picture of the world, and examines the concept which takes account of this interaction.

Keywords: picture of the world, grammar, anthropocentrism, category.

Надійшла до редакції 20 липня 2012 року.

Oksana Putilina

УДК 81371+81367.625=811.112.2=811.161.2(075.8)

INNOVATIVE PROCESSES IN THE PRESENT-DAY ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN COMPARISON

WITH UKRAINIAN ONE: INNOVATIONS AND PSEUDO-INNOVATIONS

Стаття присвячена характеристиці інноваційних / псевдоінноваційних процесів і явищ (американізмів) у сучасній англійській мові (у зіставленні з українською), встановленню природи і причин змін у лексичному складі, а також на рівні фонетики й орфоепії англійської мови (порівняно з українською), розмежуванню форм функціонування англійської мови в британському та американському варіантах (у зіставленні з українською), кваліфікуванню типів неологізмів в обох зіставлюваних мовах.

Ключові слова: власне-неологізм, інноваційний процес, конверсія, неологічний бум, псевдоінновації, семантичний неологізм, синтаксичний неологізм, стилістичний неологізм, термінологічний неологізм, трансномінація, переосмислення, фонетичний неологізм.

Under the global integration that results in strengthening intercultural relations, development of languages, including English and Ukrainian, is a rapid process, in particular on the lexical level, which is not always predictable. Analysis of examples adjusted by many authors, particularly A. Paunder, L. Bauer, R. Lieber et al., who are concerned about this fact, revealed new structural types of lexical items, such as fragmented elements (splinters), a significant number of highly unstable compound nouns with a separate writing, but common unifying accent (block compounds) and a creation on their basis of compound words / pseudo-compound words (other parts of speech), whose self-morphological identity usually defined only within a specific context for the fulfillment of their syntactic role, that is, their appearance has a strengthening influence of analogy in the formation of composites / quasi-composites that can lead to structural changes of lexical units, including the conversion of compound words in derivatives for potentially unlimited number of new words with unstable and unpredictable grammatically-categorical indicators.

This process is one of the differential features of present-day English, especially British (BE) and American (AmE) variants as competitors that stand out against other variants of English (such as the Australian or Canadian ones) with multiplicity of media, geographical area due to extralinguistic factors of their spread - as the classic, 'original ', 'true' English (as claimed by some supporters of BE) in the status of one of the languages of international communication and as less conservative language with signs of language-cosmopolitan, that absorbed into itself the elements of other languages, which directly contacted, and in the role of the language of the powerful state in the world (AmE), respectively. Lack of substantial research in this area makes the relevance of proposed research.

However, a comprehensive analysis of innovative processes that currently take place in the English language (as opposed to Ukrainian), primarily on the lexical and phonetic levels, not be possible without the differentiation of specific and borrowed items, events, processes, etc. in modern English in comparison with the Ukrainian that is the purpose of our study.

It is quite obvious there is a determination of the main tasks, namely: a characterization of lexical and phonetical processes in present-day English (in comparison with Ukrainian) and their interpreting pro rata AmE, an establishing of the nature and causes of changes in the vocabulary of English (compared with the Ukrainian), a separation of literary / colloquial functioning BE-form of AmE (in comparison with Ukrainian), a classifying types of neologisms in both languages.

It should be noted that the repeated emphasis on the difference between BE and AmE as crucial in today's English language development has serious theoretical basis, which gradually formed on the basis for fixing the regularity of the differential expressions of features in both variants of English language at all levels: from phonetics to syntax. The reason for extension of the active scope of the AmE primarily driven by extralinguistic factors: the dominating position of the United States on the world economic market, the active politically in the international political arena and, of course, a huge influence on other nations through the movies, music and other areas of culture.

In this regard, we note the existence of a large group of words that can not be called new in the U.S., but they recently entered the active vocabulary of world English-speaking community (outside their own States and Canada): majorly (slang extremely) 'надзвичайно, неймовірно, класно' has gained such popularity that has joined the list of new words in English without even a mark AmE in many dictionaries.

If we continue the theme of lexical changes and new processes at this level, the massive borrowing of American words occur in areas related to business, all possible manifestations of youth sub-culture, music (and not only pop, as noted by V. Yelisejeva, but also in other directions - especially the exponential trend becomes since the late 90's about hip hop and R&B, as well as the 70th - beg. 80th marked dominance a soul), Internet and computer technology, and properly is one of the most striking trends in contemporary BE.

Since the beginning AmE and BE were not differentiated, which explained that the first colonists from the Great Britain brought with them the language that was native to them and which, of course, spoke in England (without taking into account the many Irish whose speech was different from the English language), ie language on the exit of the 17th century that is fundamental in this context, because the English of that time has demonstrated exceptional variety and noncodification, varying of the time very vague idea of "normal" depending on the location (County) and social segment of the population belonged to a speaker, and even much more so than now, which is visible even in the analysis © Putilina O., 2013

of spelling, grammar and overall style of W. Shakespeare's and J. Milton's texts, whose works traditionally considered to be models of contemporary standard written speech.

Further deepening of these processes were stimulated with the influx of immigrants to North America from England, because the processes that occurred in the 17th century, not only contributed to achieving the only acceptable norm, but also provoked further changes during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries and differentiation of various variants of the English, from which began to form AmE as a kind of integrity, as opposed to BE. Important, if not dominating, role played in this political-territorial and socio-economic factors, such as a community, the area of integrity, confrontation with British colonization policy in the New World and the independence, the beginning of a new independent state and with it - the origin of national ideas and laying the principles of national identity - understanding ourselves as a nation other than the British, though genetically related, a rapid economic growth and the emergence of the concept of the American dream etc. Understandably, all this strengthened the differentiation and, in some sense, the confrontation of two variants of the English.

It is noteworthy that the differences between BE and AmE easy to find, but remember that expressions of this divergence is not proper innovations, whatever the level of language they are concerned, - is only a manifestation of the internal stratification of the English. Let's briefly list the features of pseudo-innovations that is separate from the real innovation by phonetic, lexical, grammatical and other levels:

1. In the field of spelling differential features of two versions were, in fact, codified by the American lexicographer Noah Webster (1758-1843), who suggested replacement of suffixes in AmE, including -er instead of -re, for example, center 'центр' (AmE) instead centre (BE), meter 'метр' (AmE) instead metre (BE), theater 'театр'(АгпЕ) instead theatre (BE); -our -or, for example, favour 'послуга' (BE) favor (AmE), honour 'честь' (BE) honor (AmE), labour 'праця' (BE) labor (AmE).

2. It belongs to the linguist as an attempt to gradual replacement of French borrowings at the vocabulary if not with actually English words, then at least relatively adapted to the English model lexemes (check 'чек' instead cheque, connection instead connexion 'зв'язок', jail 'в'язниця' instead gaol, story 'поверх' instead storey etc.). It should be noted that lexical differences relate mainly those areas of slang words or standard English, that means strictly American or British reality purely in the social, political, economic, technical and artistic field [Muller 2008], for example: Tube -Subway in London, but their majority is already evidence of innovative processes in both versions of English, not their internal differentiation, the most of such lexemes origins in AmE, even if they subsequently lose its expressive of American origin, getting to the active vocabulary of representatives of all English society (as evidenced by the analysis of factual material), eg: Tinseltown (AmE) - Hollywood (normative English and BE), ride-in - protest against discrimination in travel on buses for whites in the U.S. (the end of 60th of the 20th century) and in the southern states until today (especially in Utah).

3. In the field of normative grammar differences between American and British versions are not consistent and they can be reduced generally to:

1) avoiding by native AmE set of verbal forms in conjunction with collective nouns, as Ukrainian language media does, resulting in a literal translation of British constructions sometimes seems rather strange (cf., the audience were 'публіка були' (BE) - the audience was 'публіка була' (AmE), the government have 'уряд мають' (BE) - the government has 'уряд має' (AmE))

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http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2011/02/19/AR2011021904205.html?hpid=topnews];

2) the Americans more often than the British form nouns from verbs by means of the conversion (in Ukrainian grammar we have instead morpho-syntactic way of creation) (cf., a research 'дослідження'to research 'досліджувати, вивчати', an author 'автор'to author 'створювати');

3) in AmE replacement of shall by will in the Future Tense forms and, accordingly, should by would in Future in the Past Tense forms is typical;

4) the Americans speakers prefer to have got instead of single-component have 'мати' and the compound have gotten usually used in cases where the British use became 'став (стала, стало), почав (почала, почало)'.

Overall, much more significant, according to many linguists dealing with differentiation of these two variants of English, is the general attitude of native speakers to the concept of grammatical correctness [Lieber, Stekauer 2009]: the Americans who have received the appropriate level of education, seek to follow the rules, while the British tend to in order to break them (but this applies only to spoken communication, because the speech of American and British media demonstrate the opposite).

4. In phonetics features of two options are less visible in pronunciation of individual sounds, but more expressive in rhythmics and melody of speech. In AmE the following features are characteristic:

1) vowel in words like God 'Бог', got 'отримав (отримала, отримало)', rob 'грабувати' usually pronounced more like [a:] in father, what as [o] in the cloth 'тканина'

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2) u-like sound in words like dew 'роса', duke 'герцог', new 'новий' most Americans rhymes with too 'теж, занадто', and not with you 'ти', ie pronounce it like [u:], and not like [ju:]

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3) a middle combination of sounds tt, like in butter 'масло', AmE speakers pronounce very similar to [d] [Access mode: http://minnesota.publicradio.org/features/npr.php?id=135040267];

4) postvokal r, like in car 'машина' or 'картка', Americans are often overlooked, unlike the British, and pronounce in his place a certain fuzzy r-like sound [Access mode: http://video.forbes.com/fvn/celeb2011/randy-jackson-reveals-his-american-idol];

5) melodics of American speech differs from the BE less variability in pitch (of tone). At the same time this melodic contour of the end of a sentence in AmE departure from the BE

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6) in index of variability (alternating of accented and unaccented syllables) American speech inherent in preserving the words of three syllables or more secondary accent, and they pronounce unstressed syllables more clearly, cf.: se'cretaVy (AmE) - se^cret'ry (BE), e^xtraoVdina^ry (AmE) - extr'o'rdin'ry (BE), la^b'rato^ry (AmE) - la'b'rat'ry (BE) або labosrat'ry (BE) [Access mode: http://video.forbes.com/fvn/business/inside-frank-gehrys-skyscraper; http://www.blackstarnews.com/news/135/ARTICLE/7112/2011-02-08.html].

In contrast to the mentioned speech characteristics of representatives of AmE and BE, pointing not to the development of innovative processes in modern English, but only on the equivariant contrast, there are several indicators of the new active processes in the English language as a whole at different levels of language, namely:

1. In the field of phonetics and orthoepy there is currently a tendency to change the features of pronunciation of certain sounds and combinations of sounds under the influence of AmE and some of the related option extralinguistic factors [Levelt 1993], cited above. As noted E. Dubenets, which was a direct participant of the team conducted a similar study, revealing in this regard is the speech of teachers and students of Southern England [Дубенец 2003: 5]. These changes are equally affecting vowels and consonants, so conditionally can be divided into changes in the system of English consonants, namely:

1) after vowel a consonant r is increasingly beginning to articulate, although he has not actually pronounced, eg.: car [ka:r] 'машина', heart [har:t] 'серце'

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2) there is a hlotalizatsiya of deaf breakthrough consonants p, t before vowels: butter [Ъл?э] 'масло', happy [Ъж?1] 'щасливий', matter ['гпж?э] 'справа, питання', and before consonants in the middle of words: hopeless ['hau?lis] 'безнадійний'

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А П Загнітко - Лінгвістичні студії