А П Загнітко - Лінгвістичні студії - страница 59

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The stated aim necessitates solving of the following tasks: 1) identify and allocate all VMA of modern German with the meaning of evoking an object' s negative emotions into sets of synonyms , identify their classification types; 2) describe the semantic meaning of each VMA; 3) derive the interpretation formula for each set of synonyms; 4) single out common semantically motivated prefixes for VMA of sets of synonyms; 5) identify the valence of VMA; 6) describe the semantics of VMA in a sentence by means of semantic roles.


The research of verbal lexical units in VMA lexical-semantic subgroup which denote evoking an object's negative emotions, the case study of the German language has made it possible to come to the following conclusions: 1) despite the small number of VMA (155 VMA, grouped in 20sets of synonyms, out of 2500 selected lexical units),

their semantic structure can provide relief model describing the semantics of verbs of mental affect; 2) all prefixes of the VMAs are semantically motivated, the most common of them is prefix be- (25 VMAs) with the meaning of bringing into some condition or giving certain property and prefix ver- (25 VMAs) with the meaning of bringing into some condition; second position is occupied by prefix an- (12 VMAs) with the meaning of growth, increase, accumulation of senses (negative in this case) and auf- (9 VMAs) with general meaning of state change or transition into a certain state; other prefixes, despite minor quantitative composition, are also semantically motivated and have general meaning of state change: in- (3 VMAs), er- (3 VMAs), ent- (3 VMAs), aus- (3 VMAs); ab- (2 VMAs), ein- (2 VMAs), hoch-(2 VMAs); zuriick- (1 VMAs), uber- (1 VMAs), de- (1 VMAs), kon- (1 VMAs); 3) the use of the system of semantic roles allowed to describe the semantics of the verbs of mental affect in detail, to identify their semantic valency and to determine formulas of interpretation for sets of synonyms; 4) the general formula of interpretation for this subgroup is X evokes Y's negative emotions = 'animate/inanimate X consciously/unconsciously psychically affects animate Y and causes Y feel negative emotions of nervous system disorder, unpleasant excitement or depression, sadness, uneasiness, non-acceptance, discontent; 5) half of the sets of synonyms (10 sets of synonyms) is bivalent, the other is trivalent, i.e. there are agents of content, instrument, method and result in speech situation besides prime agents of the stimulus and experiencer; 6) general semes of the subgroups are influence, causality, orientation on the object + identification integral seme for each set of synonyms; 7) the most numerous of the sets of synonyms are as follows: 'to mock' (28 LSVs). The reason why mocking has become the most common emotion, which some people evoke in other people, is human nature, to be more precise, natural evolutionary mechanism, because people laugh at somebody to make him feel sorry and stop doing so or to show that nothing serious has happened, and to get over his/her fear; the second position is occupied by the set of synonyms 'to irritate, annoy, vex' (15 LSVs), because if a person does not have enough means of affecting the situation, the emotion of irritation is evoked automatically as a universal substitute for all other feelings; the third position is taken by the set of synonyms 'to tease' (13 LSVs), 'to frighten' (13 LSVs), 'to anger' (13 LSVs), because teasing, frightening, and angering are the oldest ways for one person to influence another. Perspective

Further perspective of developing the subject matter is advanced analysis and description of other sets of synonyms and subgroups of the lexical-semantic group of the verbs of mental effect for making their semantic classification.

Research highlights

► The article studies semantics of the verbs of mental effect (VMEs) in the modern German language, identifies the regularities of their structural-semantic development and provides semantic classification. The main attention has been given to the study of the lexical-semantic subgroup of VME with the meaning of evoking an object's negative emotions and analysis of sets of synonyms of VMEs included into the subgroup.

Keywords: verbs of mental effect, semantic classification, lexical-semantic group, set of synonyms.


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Correspondence: khruanna@yandex. ru Vitae

Ganna V. Khrupina is the Post-Graduate Student of the Department of Germanic Philology in Donetsk National University. Academic interests are the study of lexical semantics of the German language and semantic peculiarities of the verbs of mental affect.


Maya Kirlash

Department of Translation and General Linguistics, Kirovohrad Volodymyr Vynnychenko State Pedagogical University, Kirovohrad, Kirovohrad region, Ukraine

Available 27 September 2012.

Abstract Relevance

Modern linguistic research directed to the study of language as a unity of regularly arranged and interacting parts of it. Approach to language as a system allows you to get closer to detect complex and diverse connections and relations, which are the words of any language, forming a coherent, only it one characteristic of lexical-semantic system. Complexity of learning the lexical-semantic system due to the multidimensionality of its structure, the heterogeneity of its units and above all openness for continuous addition of new units, and therefore is a constant object of analysis in scientific studies researchers. Numbers of works devoted to the study of the structural elements is growing because of fact that the language is an open dynamic heterogeneous material functional system. Modern exploration directed to study not only the value of a single word, but also the importance of other semantically related words. The most effective way to investigate the semantic aspect of semantic units of language is the component analysis. Successfully applied to describe the kinship terms, phonological and grammatical material, the method used in the present study for semantic analysis of the vocabulary, which is a less structured, namely linguistic unit of various branches of science and engineering.


The purpose of the article is to investigate the internal structure of lexical-semantic units of professional vocabulary to indicate metallurgical process.


To achieve the outlined objectives, the following tasks are: 1) to identify the body of lexical units of the Ukrainian language to signify process of steel spheres; 2) to analyze semantic features of lexical items that form a group to indicate the metallurgical process, and based those process on dictionary definitions;


As a result of continuous sampling of the print and electronic editions of dictionaries of the Ukrainian language Corps of lexical units of the Ukrainian language to signify steel sphere, which is 187 registered vocabulary units was defined. Semantic analysis, units which form LSG to indicate metallurgical process showed that the internal structure is a multiple (from two-component structure minimum of fifteen component structural organization). Increase the value of components of a lexical unit structure leads to a narrowing of sphere of its use and shows dynamic changes in the system of metal vocabulary. Vocabulary is the most sensitive to all external factors of influence it actively affects the action of internal laws of language. It is lexical-semantic level most clearly reflects the linguistic evolution.


Promising research arises to us the lexical-semantic subsystems that form lexical-semantic field as a set of linguistic units of metallurgical terminology.

Research highlights

Semantic structure of word has been examined. A corpus of Ukrainian lexical units denoting steelmaking process has been determined. ► Semantic peculiarities of the lexical units formed lexical-semantic group of steelmaking process have been analyzed.

Keywords: lexical-semantic group, sememe, sememe.


Bragina, E. R. (1988). Strukturno-komponentnyj analiz terminov kibernetiki v anglijskom jazyke v sopostavlenii s ukrainskim i russkim. Avtoref. dis. ... kand. filol. nauk, 32-37. Nauka: Moskva.

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Correspondence: maiakirlash@ukr. net Vitae

Maya P. Kirlash is Senior Lecturer at Department of Foreign Languages, The Post-Graduate Student at Department of Translation and General Linguistics in Kirovohrad Volodymyr Vynnychenko State Pedagogical University. Her research area includes lexical semantics of English and Ukrainian languages.


Irina Kompaniyets

Department of English Language, Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Kharkiv, Kharkiv region, Ukraine

Available 25 September 2012.



In modern linguistic the most interesting is the problem of researching of the constructions which represents different logical-grammatical types of relations, especially the relation of nomination, which were not the subject of complex linguistic description.

The superficial analysis of such sentences are observed in papers which are dedicated to the semantic syntax, for example, in the works of V.G. Admoni, N.D. Arutyunova, V.G. Gak, E.M. Shirayev, T.V. Shmelyova, and also in works of pragmatic of T.A. Van-Deik, J. Ostin, I.P. Susov, J.R. Sirl. However, there is a necessity in the lexical-semantic analysis of sentences with relations of nomination, which are complicated by other meanings, first of all by evaluation meanings.


The purpose of the analysis is the determination of the different types of evaluation meanings in the structure of sentences with relation of nomination.


The stated purpose determines the necessity of solving the tasks, such as:

1) determine the place and role of evaluation component in the semantic structure of sentences with relation of nomination;

2) the clarification of peculiarities of the complication relation of nomination by evaluation meaning;

3) researching the ways of expression the evaluation meaning in the structure of these sentences. Conclusion

Analysis of sentences with relation of nomination shows that in their structure there is a combination of basic semantics, namely the meaning of denomination, and evaluation meaning. Representation of evaluation meanings in sentences with relation of nomination is through lexical units with evaluation semantics - nominal component in predicates name.


Perspective is not only the determination of the place and role of evaluation component in the semantic structure of sentences with relation of nomination, but also research the characteristics of the complications of semantic structure of sentences investigated type by other types of semantic relations.

Research highlights

► The article focuses on the research of evaluative meanings and means of their representation in the sentences with relation of nomination. The research proves that the semantics of the sentences with relation of nomination may be complicated with evaluative component of sense. ► The specific peculiarities of the representation of evaluative meanings in the structure of the sentences with relation of nomination are investigated.

Keywords: sentences with relation of nomination, evaluative component of sense, nominal component, predicate, emotional and rational evaluation.


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Correspondence: komplaren@mail. ru Vitae

Irina V. Kompaniyets, Lecturer at Department of English Language in Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University. Her areas of research interests include syntax of Modern Ukrainian language, semantic and pragmatic aspects of language units.


Maria Koniushkevich

Department of Journalism, Janka Kupala Grodno State University, Grodno, Grodno region, Belarus Available 15 September 2012.



For today, the inventory of methods which are the performance bond in a complex sentence, the Belarusian language hasn't a complete and unambiguous list, not confirmed by an extensive empirical base. This is especially true of analytical indicators for communication, elements of which are located on both sides of a complex sentence. Descriptions and classifications of the correlative words and EU funds (and a description of each of the classes separately), cannot give an objective knowledge of the grammatical structure of the sentence. It's necessary to use another, non-traditional approaches to identifying an indicators of boundaries. The researching of the correlation of preposition in simple sentence and the union funds in a complex sentence, and accounting of isofunctionality of syntaxeme of nominal and predicative unit can be this approach.


On the basis of syntactic functions of predicate ab by correlating of predicate and indicators of the conversion process of syntaxeme into predicative unity show the impact of inventory of nominalizators which are provide such conversion.


The task of describing of all values of syntaxemes which are formed by preposition ab, identifying left and right valence of the preposition, the features of word semantics toe as a critical element of the Union of Belarusian language braces, precedes the stated purpose.


The correlation of the predicate part of complex sentence and the corresponding nominal syntaxeme has the necessary diagnostic power for inventory of performance bond in a complex sentence. The inventory of performance of

communication is much higher than the lists of EU funds, which have been covered in the grammatical and lexicographical literature.

Correlative words and allied facilities in structure of complex sentence are not indicators of different classes, and the elements of analytical buckles which define the constructive solution of techniques of the entering of predicative units into the design instead of the name syntaxeme. Preposition in denominalization included an analytical cementing force as its element.

In language there are prohibitions and permits for selection of index bond during denominalization. They are influenced by the left and right valence of the predicate, predicative value of unity.


The proposed technique in the presence of case-prepositional repertoire syntaxemes not only reveals the most complete list of indicators in the context of a system of complex sentence of the Belarusian language, but also to establish laws which allows or prohibits the compatibility of elements in the analytical scrapie.

Research highlights

► By means of denominalization (the transformation of syntaxeme into a predicative unit) the inventory of connection indices in a composite sentence is revealed. ► The interdependency of syntaxeme meaning and nominalizator (connection index) is demonstrated based on the Belarusian language (in particular, syntaxeme with the preposition аб), the factors of nominalizator choice are defined.

Keywords: syntaxeme, predicative unit, nominalization, denominalization, nominalizator, preposition, connection index, T-words, K-words.


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Konjushkevich, M. I. (2010). Semanticheskij diapazon i sintaksicheskie funkcii slova "to" v slozhnopodchinennom predlozhenii. Lingvisticheskie idei V.A. Beloshapkovoj i ih voploshhenie v sovremennoj rusistike, 61-68. Tjumen': Mandar i Ka.

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Correspondence: marikon9@mail.ru Vitae

Marija J. Konjushkevich, Doctor of Philology, Professor at the Department of Journalism in Janka Kupala Grodno State University. Her research areas include functional grammar, relative grammar, cognitive linguistics, lexicographical linguistics, linguopragmatics, and comparative linguistics.



Department of Language and Intercultural Communication, Drohobych Ivan Franko National Pedagogical University, Drohobych, L'viv Region, Ukraine; Department of Ukrainian Studies, Poznan' Adam Mitskevych University, Poznan', Poland;

Oksana Khaliman

Department of Ukrainian Studies and Latin, National Pharmaceutical University, Kharkiv, Kharkiv Region, Ukraine

Available 21 September 2012.



Functional pragmatic direction of linguistic studies gave the opportunity to investigate new aspects of linguistic signs, in particular the investigation of functional peculiarity of grammatical units gave the opportunity to pay attention to pragmatic significance in communicative process. The investigators emphasize that «grammatical means may express different communicative senses of pragmatic character» [Batsevych 2010: 112] («grammemes in their proper

meanings have semantic information, in unproper meanings - pragmatic» [Apresian 1995: 141-142]). Basing on the fundamentals of linguistic fuctionalism, which is the basis of active type Grammar (works of V. Vynogradov, L. Shcherby, R. Jacobson, O. Bondarko, I. Vyhovanets', N. Huivaniuk, H. Zolotova, A. Zahnitko, O. Kubryakova, O. Remchukova and others), grammatical un its may be investigated as means of expression of estimation, analyzing their structural peculiarities and communicative process. Estimation as a constituent of pragmatic aspect has a wide spectrum of linguistic units that belong to different language levels. Their systematic analysis will give the opportunity to get the status of linguistic category.

Complex analysis of grammatical units as means of expression of estimation causes the necessity to create Grammar of estimation - complete analysis of the system of grammatical means of expression estimation taking into account their pragmatic characteristics.

Pragmatic information that got the status in language is of great interest. The use of pragmatic information is of particular importance.


Purpose of the investigation - to describe means of appearance of grammatic igrems which are used to express estimation senses, that appear on the basis of actualization of grammatical meaning of the Past tense; to give arguments of the use of notion "grammatical precedent", that is connected with the use of grammatical units in the function of estimation.


1) to describe means of modeling of grammatic igrems that are used to express estimation on the material of grammatical meaning of the Past tense; 2) to give arguments concerning the use of the notion "grammatical precedent" , that is connected with the use of grammatical units in the function of estimation.


Transposition of the Past tense forms in the sphere of functioning of the Future tense causes the expression of a negative estimation of a certain fact that is really impossible or doesn't correspond to the norm.

The use of the notion"grammatical precedent" may be applied when grammatical semantics, in particular, secondary is actualized by speakers as a precedent sense. The very cognition of secondary grammatical semantics as a precedent one is a pragmatic presupposition, which provides understanding in a communicative process.


Perspective - analysis of grammatical categories in Ukrainian in a certain aspect to create the theory of «Grammar estimation».

Research highlights

The article focuses on the description of methods of modeling of grammatical igrems to express the meaning of estimation based on the material of grammatical meaning of the Past tense. ► Certain arguments have been given concerning the use of the notion "grammatical precedent" that is connected with the use of grammatical units in the function of estimation which are considered as precedents.

Keywords: estmation, igrem, grammatical meaning, Past tense, grammatical precedent.


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Apresjan, Ju. D. (1985). Principy opisanija znachenij grammem. Tipologija konstrukcij s predikatnymi aktantami, 61-65. L.: Nauka.

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Bondarko, A. V. (1941). Vid i vremja russkogo glagola (znachenie i upotreblenie). M.: Prosveshhenie. Vinogradov, V. V. (1972). Russkij jazik: Grammaticheskoe uchenie o slove. M.: Vyssh. shk. Golub, I. B. (2003). Stilistika russkogo jazyka. M.: Ajris-press.

Kosmeda, T. (2000). Aksiolohichni aspekty prahmalinhvistyky: formuvannya i rozvytok katehoriyi otsinky. L'viv: LNU im. I. Franka.

Kosmeda, T. A. (2012). Ego i Alter Ego Tarasa Shevchenka v komunikatyvnomu prostori shchodennykovoho dyskursu. Drohobych: Kolo.

Naydyuk, O.V. (2006). Pretsedentni znaky yak skladova chastyna dyskursu. Perspektivy razrabotki nauki i tehniki-2006: materialy ІІ nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii (16-30. 11. 2006), 5, 53-55. Dnepropetrovsk: Nauka i obrazovanyje.

Podarunok dlya dytyny do Novoho roku. Beauty Life. Buty harnoyu - modno! E-portal: http://mira-moon.ru/page/podarunok-dlia-ditini-do-novogo-roku.

Raksina, O. Movchannya - znak konfortu. Treninhy peremovyn ta prodazhu trenera Derevyts'koho. E-portal: http://dere.com.ua/library/dzerkalo tyzgnya/movchannya.shtml.

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А П Загнітко - Лінгвістичні студії