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Correspondence: nikishinat@mail. ru Vitae
Tatiana I. Nikishina, Post-Graduate of Berdyansk State Pedagogical University, Assistant at Department of General Linguistics and Slavic Philology in Institute of Social Studies and Communications of Berdyansk State Pedagogical University. Areas of her research interests include sociolinguistics, cognitive linguistics, and political discourse.
THE SEMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS IN CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE UKRAINIAN PREPOSITION ДО AND THE SERBIAN PREPOSITIONS ДО AND КОД Oksana Orlenko
Department of General Linguistics, Lviv Ivan Franko National Pedagogical University, Lviv region, Ukraine Available 8 September 2012
The relevance of this theme is caused by the lack of study of semantic relations of primary prepositions of Ukrainian and Serbian languages due to mental structures, making it difficult to distinguish the differences and parallels between the basic cognitive mechanisms of different language representatives.
The purpose of the article is to describe the semantic relation, which represent Ukrainian preposition до and correlative (partially) to the Serbian prepositions до and код, based on the content that conceptualize in prepositional constructions due to relations between its parts.
The declared purpose predetermines the necessity of decision of such tasks: 1) to trace the possibilities of use of the preposition до in Ukrainian and Serbian languages; 2) to determine the similarity of basic and derived relations, that are profiled in prepositional constructions with до in Ukrainian and Serbian languages; 3) to analyze relations that are profiled by Serbian preposition код into syntactical constructions; 4) to clarify the correlation between the usage of prepositions до and код in Serbian language; 5) to define the model and the motivation of the development of the semantic system of prepositions.
It is typical for the preposition до in Ukrainian and Serbian languages to have complex and extensive system of meanings, which develops due to the ability of a preposition to be used with words of different meaning, so the initial spatial meaning of the direction (distance) becomes important not only for relations between physical objects placed in space, but for the time, process and mental concepts that are used by appropriate contextual elements in the prepositional constructions at the modern stage of languages development. Serbian preposition код has a less extensive system of meanings, we believe that because the meaning of 'short distance' is profiled by greater number of lexical elements, each of them can develop various additional meanings, and their duplication with the help of other elements is not necessary, and even superfluous. In addition, the total distance criterion, in any case, is used more and those additional relations that are profiled by preposition до, relevant for the meaning of the small distance. It seems that in order to save cognitive efforts, metaphorical development of preposition relations with more abstract meaning is sufficient, and the formation of similar relations for the preposition with narrower abstract meaning does not acquire necessity.
Research runs within the dissertation, which involves identifying of semantic relations, which represent prepositions in the systems of English, Serbian and Ukrainian languages in order to clarify the mechanisms of
perception and cognition of the world and the representation of knowledge by means of national languages. Today the research of prepositional system of English in the cognitive aspect reaches a significant level but in Ukrainian and Serbian languages such scientific research is only at the initial level. According to the English studies, our purpose is to trace semantic relations between simple prepositions in these language systems as one of the representations of space perception.
► The author studies the use of the Ukrainian preposition до and the Serbian prepositions до and код. ► The aim is to reveal the conceptual content of these prepositions and semantic relationships they profile. ► The basic metaphorical relations between representative senses of the preposition до in Ukrainian and Serbian have been under consideration.
Keywords: preposition, semantic relationships, profiling, metaphorical relations, conceptual content. References
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Oksana V. Orlenko is the Post-Graduate Student on the specialty 10.02.15 - "General Linguistics" at Department of General Linguistics in Lviv Ivan Franko National Pedagogical University. Her research areas include cognitive linguistics, comparative linguistics, and corpora linguistics.
THE PECULIARITIES OF ATTRIBUTIVE CONSTRUCTION IN THE PREDICATIVE GROUP Lyudmyla Ostrovska
Department of Ukrainian studies, Donetsk State University of Management, Donetsk, Donetsk region, Ukraine
Available 29 August 2012.
Aspect of the functioning of syntactic units is important, because only study of their structural-semantic organization would be incomplete. The syntactic structure exists in a certain context. On the one hand, the internal system properties of the unit determine its forms in a speech. On the other hand, linguistic properties of the units are derived from its numerous and specific usage in context. The context is one of the means of implementation of the
systematic approach. Communication is an implementation of the language system but not in the sense that some abstract linguistic system is expressed in a particular communicative segment, and that the communication is the existence of the language, and it was thoroughly imbued with the language system. Thus, this aspect of the functioning of syntactic constructions is topical and important.
The aim of the proposed article is the correlation of the internal system properties attributes structures with the peculiarities of their functioning in the conditions of the context.
Achieving this goal requires the following specific tasks: 1) to find out the peculiarities of attributive design in the predicative group; 2) to determine the peculiarities of interaction of the attribute structure with the grammatical subject of the structural-semantic and conceptual levels; 3) to establish the specifics of the interaction of the attribute design with grammatical predicate.
The functioning of the attribute design is carried out, first of all, in the conditions of simple common proposals, statements, where it interacts with the predicative group and with other components of the structural-semantic and conceptual levels. Significant role in this interaction plays a structural-semantic essence of the design.
The peculiarities of attributive design in the predicative group for interaction with the grammatical subject lies in the fact that the dependent component of the attribute structure, the main component of which is simultaneously an active bearer of the predicative signs, are involved in the implementation of subject-predicate relations. This complicates the design of simple common proposal on the conceptual level additional attributive-predicative relations, which do not have their own subject, and is adjacent to subject-predicate relations.
The peculiarities of attributive constructions of various structures in the predicative group in cooperation with grammatical the predicate is in the redistribution of the semantic load due to actualization of the related component designs. Dependent component of the attribute structure is involved in the composition of the predicative group and participates in the implementation of предикативности the entire offer, making it difficult communicative-and-syntactic complex.
To the prospects of the studies attribute structures in the communicative aspect is the category of attributive from the point of view of the pragmatists, where it acts not only as a structural-semantic data, not only as a function, but as a phenomenon, which is based on a special selection of means of the language (speech) for the most accurate expression of certain characteristics of the object, different shades of attributive.
► The question of a parity of internal system characteristics of attributive constructions with features of their functioning in the conditions of a context of a simple extended sentence is taken up. ► The peculiarities the interaction of attributive construction with grammatical subject and predicate on semantic and structural-semantic levels are determined.
Keywords: communication, a context, functioning of an attributive constriction, simple extended sentence, structural-semantic level of sentence.
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Correspondence: А.1 @mail.ru Vitae
Lyudmyla S. Ostrovska, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at Department of Ukrainian studies in Donetsk State University of Management. Her research areas include the grammar of the modern Ukrainian language, in particular syntax.
VERBALIZATION OF MICROCONCEPT OCCUPATION WITH FIGURATIVE NOUNS DENOTING A PERSON IN UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE
Department of English Philology, Mariupol State University, Mariupol, Donetsk region, Ukraine Available 2 September 2012
Modern stage of language development is characterized by the increase of interest for the research of figurativeness. It is caused by dynamic development of lexis and the emersion of linguo-cognitive paradigm in science, in the focus of which there is a language as a general cognitive mechanism. Though the research of figurativeness has an ancient philological tradition and reveals the diversity of approaches and aspects to this category in the theory of semasiology, not all aspects of figurativeness have been researched in terms of semantic, cognitive, linguo-culturological approaches. Hence the topicality of the research. Such angle of study is a must for the exposing of specific features of figurative nomination of a person. National peculiarity of the conception of the world and the system of ethno-cultural values, dominances of Ukrainian lingual community are reflected via these specific features.
Determination and description of semantic peculiarities of figurative nouns denoting a person which verbalize microconcept OCCUPATION in Ukrainian language are the research aims.
The stated aim requires solving of the following tasks: 1) to examine the peculiarities of verbalization of the microconcept OCCUPATION with figurative nouns denoting a person in Ukrainian language; 2) to trace the semantic amount, synonyms and etymological characteristics of the microconcept name; 3) to find out semantic features of the microconcept figurative constituent; 4) to ascertain the semantic amount of the name and the figurative constituent of the microconcept and to determine the types of correlative bonds between them; 5) to determine specific character of lexicographic presentation of figurativeness in Ukrainian nouns denoting a person.
The results of the analysis give the grounds to state that figurative nouns denoting a person verbalize individual, ethical, confessional, professional and other cultural peculiarities of the representative of Ukrainian community. These peculiarities are conditioned by certain extralinguistic factors of cultural and historical character.
The research of figurative nouns denoting a person is considered to be prospective in typological aspect, e.i. which belong to diverse-structured languages.
► The peculiarities of the verbalization of the microconcept OCCUPATION with the nouns denoting a person in Ukrainian have been considered. ► The semantic amount, synonyms and etymological characteristics of the microconcept name have been traced. ► The semantic amount of the microconcept name and the figurative constituent of the microconcept have been ascertained, the types of correlative bonds between them have been determined. ► The specific character of lexicographic presentation of figurative component in the structure of lexical meaning of the word has been depicted.
Keywords: figurativeness, figurative component, lexical meaning of a word, figurative nouns denoting a person, microconcept, figurative component, semantic features.
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Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org Vitae
Olena F. Peftieva is Associate Professor, Senior Lecturer at Department of English Philology in Mariupol State University. The sphere of her scientific interests is cognitive linguistics.
METAPHORICAL MEANS OF SACRAL CONCEPTS IN THE TURKISH FOLK RIDDLES
Department of Turkic Language, Kyiv National University, Kyiv, Ukraine Available 12 September 2012.
Relevance of the study of linguistic expression of sacral concepts in the texts of Turkish folk riddles is to identify the cognitive links between language and consciousness, mechanisms of reflection of national connotation information in the Turkish language, which manifest in metaphor of sacred concepts that got into the system as of Turkish riddles a result of lasting impact of sacral area (pre-Islamic mythological beliefs, Christian and Muslim (including Sufi) texts) on the mentality and attitudes of Turkish ethnics, typical for secular language picture of the world.
The aim of the analysis is to determine the metaphorical means of sacral concepts in the Turkish folk riddles, interpretations of which have been deprived of religious content.
The stated goal requires solving tasks such as clarification of the concept of Turkish mystery as the object of linguistic research; identification and characterization of metaphorical meanings of sacred concepts of Turkish riddles; establishing cause-and-effect relationships between primary and secondary nomination of these concepts.
Metaphor processes in Turkish folk riddles have deeper meaning and they are represented fairly diverse and national bulleted secondary nominations of sacred concepts. Mostly metaphors are becoming difficult and incomprehensible without cultural-linguistic analysis forms for a foreign recipient to understand. In spite of the fact that all the above riddles belong to secular language picture of the world, they reflect the influence of the supernatural factor on the human and his conceptualization in his consciousness of Turkish ethnics, reflected in the linguistic form.
Prospects for future research are to disclose the symbolic meanings of sacral concepts in other genres of oral folklore, to identify specific for a certain genre and universal for all folk genres features.
► The article deals with sacral concepts in modern Turkish language with partial and complete loss of their primary nominations by the example of Turkish folk riddles context, which requires the specific encode of the lexical units. ► Nationally-specific expression of the sacred concepts in language is an integral part of the linguistic picture of the world of Turkish ethnic group and classified as markers of national consciousness Turks.
Keywords: sacred concepts, Turkish riddles, metaphorical meaning, second nomination.
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