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S. G. Golovko, candidate of historical sciences (National aviation university, Ukraine)

V. V. Sobkova (National aviation university, Ukraine)

 

PROMINENT RESEARCHERS OF SPACE ERA

 

The formation and development of cosmonautics in works and scientific projects of prominent researchers of theory and of mastering of circumterrestrial space is lighted in the article. A contribution of native and foreign scientists in the branch of missile technology and their influence on forming of modern space technologies is analyzed here.

One of the greatest achievements of scientific and technological progress in the last century was the creation of automated and manned rocket and space systems, which successful launches enabled man to overcome Earth's gravity, to get into open space and to set foot on the Moon. The achievements of science and technology which are underlying of these bold projects, advanced the time when, the founder of Astronautics, an outstanding Russian scientist Konstantyn Tsiolkovsky predicted, "... mankind will go beyond the bounds of their planet and begin to develop close and distant objects of outer space

This year is rich on prominent dates in history of cosmonautics. In January, 105 years since the birth of Sergei Korolev - academician, chief designer of the first rockets-vehicle and manned ships is celebrated. In June, the scientific community celebrated 115 years since the birth of Yuri Kondratyuk (Alexander Sharheya), native engineer, researcher, pioneer of astronautics. His «star route» opened a way to the realization of one of the boldest ideas of humanity, which was embodied by American astronauts - Flight to the Moon. 125 years ago was born a talented designer Frederick Tsander who worked on the first jet reactive engines. 55 years ago, in October, 1957, the first artificial satellite (FAS) was placed in a circumterrestrial orbit, the start of which put the beginning of practical researching of space.

The way of humanity from fantastic descriptions of space trips to the real embodiment of bold ideas was protracted and difficult. Although the detailed and systematic research of space began comparatively recently (for the point of counting out may be chosen the start of first FAS), however history of studying space, beginning from the first observations of star sky by an old man lasts for many millenniums.

For the development of space particularly important and crucial moment was when, after lengthy discussions about the possible ways of practical embodiment of idea of interplanetary connecting, scientists and designers came to the idea, that to overcome the force of gravity is possible only on rocket engine which will work on reactive basis. Therefore, the development of astronautics and raketotehniky can outline the following steps: researches of Jet Propulsion by ancient scientists; the usage of powder rockets in military affairs; projects of first aircraft for space flights; theoretical substantiation of usage of resources of Jet Propulsion; experiments with the first jet rocket engines; the first controlled rocket-propelled ballistic missiles; launch of the first artificial Earth satellite and the beginning of systematic researching of space by automated spaceships; flights of manned space vehicles and systems.

On each of these stages successes were achieved due to hard work of researchers and designers from different countries.

One of the first mentions about reactive devices is dated by the IV item B.C. Greek Arkhitas Tirentskiy described a wooden bird which was planned to move using a steam reactive stream which followed from him. Jet engine in the book "Pneumatics" was considered by Heron of Alexandria. First gunpowder reactive rockets (and more precisely, gunpowder primers) were known in Old China. The Chinese warriors applied darts, charged with gunpowder, which flew and burst, and also gunpowder rockets for fireworks. In Middle Ages such devices were met in the countries

of Asia, Africa and Europe.

Mentions about similar devices with "unknown mixture" were found in the times of Kiev Rus. About in 1250 Mark Greek described the missiles of different countries in the "Book of Fire". In 1379 the Italian Murtori first used the word "rocket". Zaporozhian Cossacks at the beginning of the XVI century used "rourke" which flew and hit the target, bursted. By such arrows, stuffed with the gunpowder of own production, they defended their fortifications.

From the end of the XVII century in Europe and Russia various rockets were widely used for fireworks, for the guiding of which the special establishments were created. It is known that the students of the Kiev Mohyla academy started fireworks.

Lieutenant-General of the Russian army artillery Konstantin Konstantinov in 1847 designed a missile ballistic pendulum, at which examined the dependence of change of moving forces of rocket on time, and the influence of shape and design of rockets on its ballistic properties. The inventor has created a missile flight range of up to 5 km. From 1867 year he managed the Mykolaiv rocket factory.

Among the designers of artillery rockets we should remember our countryman, Lieutenant-General Alexander Zasyadko, who was born in the village Lyutenka Hadiach County of Poltava province, served in the army of Alexander Suvorov. O. Zasyadko constructed missiles of three calibers: 4 -, 2 - and 2.5 - inch, which in range of flight did not yield to European.

In 1881 the project of aircraft for motion of which there was not necessary in atmosphere was offered by Mykola Kibal'chich, which was born in a town Korop of the Chernigiv region. In 1881 M. Kybalchych was imprisoned as a member of the attempted assassination of Alexander III. M. Kybalchych was accused of making four casting shells for an attempt on March 1. On the walls of the cell researcher whom the prosecutor called "the great specialists and talented inventor," painted a design of an aircraft. Marking the contribution of scientist in the rocketing, a crater on the Moon was called by his name.

For practical realization of numerous projects of reactive aircrafts, which appeared in the second half of the XX century, it was necessary to perform the detailed calculations of both devices and the conditions and parameters of their motion. One of the first scientists, who probed the theoretical aspects of this question there was Isaac Newton, which in his work "World Systems" described the leading out a body from a surface to the orbit of satellite of Earth by using giving it the necessary speed.

The end of XIX - beginning of XX century was characterized by new tendencies in development studies about reactive movement. The special place in the development of cosmonautics belongs to the prominent Russian scientist Kostyantynu Tsiolkovskomu, who executed the detailed theoretical researches and one of the first considered the possibility of their use for practical realization of interplanetary flights. In 1903 the scientist published his classical work "The researching of world spaces with reactive devices". Konstantyn Tsiolkovsky proposed to use multi-stage rockets and circumterrestrial space stations and also expounded the prospects of development of humanity and trips in boundless spaces. Works of K.Tsiolkovskogo made a considerable influence on development of cosmonautics in the whole world.

Upon the first theoreticians-pioneers of cosmonautics an important place takes Yuri Kondratyuk (Oleksandr Shargey), talented engineer and explorer. Oleksandr Shargey was born in Poltava where being a high school student started to work over manuscript "For those who will read in order to build". He expounded ideas about reactive movement and the use of reactive devices for the space flights. The researcher examines in detail the design of a rocket. Now the suggestion of the researcher to use sun energy to get a rocket fuel (unhitching of the water to components) is still relevant.

In 1929 scientist at his own expense published the work "The conquest of interplanetary spaces", which summarized his researches. When World War II began, Yuri Kondratyuk went as a volunteer on front. A prominent researcher perished in February, 1942 on Kryvtsivskiy springboard. By the name of famous compatriot was named a crater on-the-surface of the Moon and one of minor planets of the Solar system. Yuri Kondratyuk regardless of Konstantyn Tsiolkovsky by other

methods showed out basic equation of motion of rocket. A scientist probed the structure of ramjet, types of fuel for a ramjet, usage gyroscopes for the orientation of space vehicle, extraterrestrial stations and their services, advanced idea of flight to the bodies of Solar system by the special chart, which later will be named the "star route of Kondratyuk". Just after it was carried out the program "APOLLON", which was developed by the American scientists, and which was completed with going out of man on the surface of the Moon.

In one period the time of Kondratyuk our countryman, Georgy Langemak worked as Pioneer of rocket production. He was born in city Starobilsk of the Kharkiv province. In 1934-1937 G.E.Langemak was a deputy chief and main engineer of the Reactive scientifically-research institute. Together with Boris Petropavlovskij Heorhij Langemak was the main designer of jet-projectiles on a hard fuel, which became basis of creation of shells for the known guards mortars in the years of Great Patriotic war - "Katyush". G. Lanhemak is the author of several publications.

One of the first researchers of Jet Propulsion, who tried to convert the problems of interplanetary flights in the plane of their practical implementation, was Frederick Tsander who in his school days checked the calculations of K.Tsiolkovskij and persuaded in the possibility of space flights. From 1917 the inventor worked on the questions of flights to other planets, constructing ramjets and rocket equipment, conducted the mathematical calculations of expedition on Mars, probed the systems of life-support.

Fridrih Cander specified on the necessity of researching of difficult, inserted one in other (multi-stage) rockets, and also combination of rocket with airplane (equipment of the interplanetary ship during a start with wings for a flight in an atmosphere and lowering on Earth), usage as the fuel worked out parts of spaceship. In 1931 year began the collaboration of F.Cander with S.Korolev, when was created GRJP (group of research of jet propulsion). The first members of the group were Tsander, Korolev, Vetchynkin, Pobedonostsev, Tyhonravov, Fedorenkov, Chernovskyi, Sumarokov, Zabotin, Levitsky. Fridrih Tsander headed the group.

The co-ordinator of large group of researchers of jet propulsion and designers of rockets was a prominent scientist and organizer Serhij Korolev, who was born in the city Zhytomyr, studied at the Kiev polytechnic institute. In 1923 S.Korolev constructed his first glider which was found suitable for a construction by the aviation-technical department. In 1932 S.Korolev became the leader of Group of research of jet propulsion. In 1946 he became the main designer of ballistic rockets of distant action and in 1947 he became the member-correspondent of Academy of artillery sciences. In 1954 S.Korolev made a proposition relatively to creation and start of an artificial Earth satellite, which was realized in 3 years, in October 1957. The first satellite was designed as a sphere of mass 83.6 kg and a diameter of 580 mm and had four antennas with length 2,4-2,9 m. The first satellite lasted 92 days and made about 1400 turns around the Earth. In 1958, the scientist was elected to be the Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and since 1959 he was working on an automatic station "Luna-1". Huge success and the result of many years of hard work of the team, led by scientist, became the launch of the first space shuttle with the first astronaut Yuri Gagarin aboard in 1961.

Last November was celebrated the 100th anniversary of the birth of Michael Yangel known scientist and designer in the field of astronautics. Yangel surname comes from the "young" - ladle, iron scoop where Cossacks cooked a meal. Yangel's family (grandfather) lived in Chernihivschyna and then moved to eastern Siberia. Here in the village Zyryanov Michael Yangel was born. In 1931 he entered the Moscow aviation institute. In 1938 M.K. Yangel went to the USA at personnel representation for acquaintance with the best aviation examples. After studying at the Academy began the collaboration of M.K. Yangelya and S.P. Koroleva. In 1954 M. Yangel went in business trip, which was lasted for 17 years. He was appointed chief designer of one of the leading design bureau (DB) - Mikhail Kuzmich comes to Ukraine, on Pivdenmash. Scientific potential, organizational capabilities, allowed M.K. Yangelyu to convert DB headed by him into the cradle of bold ideas which was incarnated in practice. Under the direction of M. Yangelya the new space-rocket systems were developed. From 1954 to 1971 M.Yangel worked as the main designer of DB "Pivdenne" which carries his name today. In DB "Pivdenne" and production association

"Pivdenmash" the strategic rockets of military-oriented of "R-12, - 14, - 16" were developed. From 1962 there work on a long term program "Space" started.

Jet engines are the most important components of rocket and space systems. Over their development and improvement many designers were working. Among them, Valentin Glushko, who was born in Odessa. Being a schoolboy, he studied works of K.Ciolkovskogo and corresponded with a prominent scientist. Together with the employees V.Glushko was engaged in the selection of effective components of rocket fuel. In 1974 on the base of experimental designer bureaus of V.Mishina, successor of S.Koroleva and V.Glushka, other scientific and production organizations, research and production association "Energy" was established. Valentine Glushko became a leader and general designer. Research assistants of "Energy" carried out projects "Soyuz" - "Apollon", it was placed on the orbit the station "Salute" of the second generation, pilot-controlled ship "Soyuz -TM", pilotless "Progress". The biggest achievement was a creation of rocket-transmitter "Energy" and ship of multiple-use "Buran". The birth of this new rocket-space system is associated with the name of its chief designer V.Hlushko. The main designers of rocket and engines were Sergij Korolev and Valentine Glushko. The collaboration of prominent scientists lasted many years.

A reasonable part in development of the space system engineering played Volodymyr Chelomej, who was born in a teacher-family, graduated from the Kyiv Institute of Aviation postgraduate course of the Academy of Sciences (1939). And already in 1940 25-years-old scientist entered to special doctorate in personnel of the 50 best candidates of sciences from all republics. From 1941 Volodymyr Chelomej worked in the Central institute of aviation motor construction. In 1945 a rocket "10 X" was tested which was started from the airplane of "Pe-8". On this wing-rocket was tested the first pulsating ramjet constructed by VChelomej. During 1945-1954 under the direction of VChelomej a few types of wing-rockets were created. His idea of opening of wings in the air has been widely used in a rocket technique. In 1959 the scientist was appointed a chief designer. In his DB was created a rocket-carrier "Proton" and research stations "Proton".

Except of separate talented researchers, payment of Ukraine to the matter of mastering of space is determined by the concrete projects of designer bureau "South" which was created in Dnipropetrovsk in 1954 as one of main enterprises of the USSR in production of strategic battle rockets, and afterwards space systems. M.Yangel was the first general designer of DB "Pivdenne". During more than forty-year activity in DB "Pivdenne" were created 26 space vehicles "Space" and "Interkosmos" for researching Galaxy; a 21 space vehicle is for researching Sun; more than 50 space vehicles for researching planet Earth and circumterrestrial space; 11 space vehicles which were pertaining to national economy.

The national contribution to the space mastering is not limited with important achievements of theorists and designers. Many representatives of numerous detachments of cosmonauts are our countrymen (see a table 1).

Table 1

The Ukrainian researchers are in detachment of astronauts

 

Name astronaut

Place of birth

Popovych P.

v.Uzyn Kyivskiy region

Beregovyj G.

v. Fedorivka Poltavskiy region

Shonin G.

c.Rovenki Luganskiy region

Dobrovolskyj G.

c. Odesa

Zholobov B.

v. Zburivka Khersonskiy region

Lyakhov V.

c. Antratsyt Luganskiy region

Popov L.

c. Oleksandriya Kirovogradskiy region

Kyzym L.

c. Krasnyj Lyman Donetsky region


After a historical overview of the history of space exploration, we can conclude that the development of this branch of science and technology required and will require association of considerable efforts of a large cohort of scientists and engineers from different countries, among which an important role always played Ukrainian researchers. And our state has powerful scientific and technological potential, which is necessary for further effective research and mastering of space, and occupies an important place in the association of space countries of the world.

 

 

References:

1.  Аксіоми для нащадків: Українські імена у світовій науці. Зб. нарисів / Упоряд. О.К. Романчук. - Львів: Меморіал, 1992. - 544 с.

2.  Кондратюк Ю.В. Завоевание межпланетных пространств / Ю.В. Кондратюк. -Новосибирск, 1929. - 76 с.

3.  Пионеры освоения космоса и современность: сборник научных трудов. - М.: Наука,

1988. - 228 с.

4.  Фёдоров О.П. Космическая деятельность Украины: подходы к созданию стратегии / О.П. Фёдоров, Л.Н. Колос // Космічна наука і технологія. - 2011. - №1. - Т. 17. - С. 3 - 11.

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