Н М Мартиненко - Історія української культури для англомовних студентів тема друга - страница 1
УДК 378-057.875-054.62:39(=161.2) (091)
«ІСТОРІЯ УКРАЇНСЬКОЇ КУЛЬТУРИ» ДЛЯ АНГЛОМОВНИХ СТУДЕНТІВ. ТЕМА ДРУГА
Автор статті аналізує українські культурні джерела і пропонує матеріал для викладання нормативного курсу «Історія української культури» для англомовних студентів першого курсу неісторичних спеціальностей.
Ключові слова: джерела української культури, неолітична революція, Трипільська культура, етно-генетичний зв'язок, кіммерійці, скіфи, сармати, грецька колонізація, слов 'янська етнічна спільнота, східні слов 'яни, антропоцентризм, язичницька культура.
Необхідність висвітлення проблеми джерел української культури, на нашу думку, є ключовою, оскільки різноманіття культурного конгломерату першокурсників-іноземців, які обрали англомовну форму навчання істотно збільшилося. «Історія української культури» є таким нормативним курсом, який в узагальненому вигляді має показати значну кількість спільних рис у культуроґенезі народів Євразії. На жаль, якісної літератури англійською мовою, в якій матеріал подано стисло й доступно для підготовки до лекційних занять ще не було. Це пов'язано з тим, що назва та зміст курсу змінювалися, отже зміщувалися основні акценти. В курсі «Українська та зарубіжна культура» головним, на наш погляд, був компаративістський підхід до вивчення культур, «Культурологія» аналізувала переважно філософсько-теоретичні моменти, а в «Історії української культури» є сенс подавати матеріал таким чином, щоб студенти на лекції і теоретичний, і історико-культурний фактичний матеріал.
Отже, метою даної статті є композиція матеріалу до проведення другої теми курсу, присвяченої дослідженню джерел української культури.
Авторка врахувала специфіку базової мовної та загальноосвітньої підготовки іноземних студентів. Надано текст, з яким студенти і викладачі можуть працювати на лекційних та практичних заняттях.
Topic 2: Sources of Ukrainian culture
1. Historical preconditions of Ukrainian cultural formation.
2. Early cultural forms in Ukrainian lands.
3. Trypillian culture.
4. Early Slavonic culture.
5. Heathen culture.
Sources of Ukrainian culture we could find in primitive time. Our culture is one of the most ancient European cultures. People appeared here, at this territory for about 3000 years ago. All the territory of modern Ukraine was settled in late Palaeolithic period (35-40 thousand years ago). 8000 years ago Neolithic Age started at this territory. It had been existed up to the 3rd millennium B.C. Sometimes scientists name changes of this period Neolithic revolution. During this period the transition from two divisions of labour had been held: formation of agriculture, stock-raising, and handicraft; people started to use fire; language and thinking were formed. Primitive arts started to form at this period (mostly round sculpture and relief), music and dancing, and painting. Primitive people had practical knowledge in medicine, pharmacology, toxicology that gave them the chance to treat fractures, dislocations, wounds and injuries.
The earliest agricultural tribes at the territory of Ukraine were Trypillian ones. This culture integrated in Right-Bank Ukraine and developed in 4th-3rd millennium B.C. (1500-2000 years B.C.). Famous Ukrainian archaeologist Vikentii Hvoika (1850-1914), Czech by origin was the first scientist, who investigated this culture. V.
Hvoika was a teacher, he lived in Kyiv. He started archaeological excavations not far from the village Trypillia (Kyiv region, 50 km to the South from Kyiv) in 1893. Sometimes scientists name this archaeological culture "culture of painted ceramics". In Ukrainian territory archaeologists had found more than 1000 settlements of this culture. Minimal number of population of Trypillian culture was 1 million people.
Trypilians cultivated land with the help of stone and bone hoes (мотыг). Later they started to use primitive plough (рало). Trypillian tribes cultivated wheat, barley (ячмень), millet (просо), beans, and flax (лен). In gardening they have grown apricots, plums and cherry-plums ^ычу) (by the way they are still popular here). Each 50-100 years people should change place of living because the land became exhausted. Stock-raising was also developed (cows, pigs, horses). Trypillian people knew the wheel. Hunting and fishing were also important for this culture. Trypillians were skillful in handicrafts. They made nice clothes not only from fur (skin of animals), but also from linen (полотно).
High level of development had ceramic production. Trypillian people made ceramics by hands (they did not know the potter's wheel). Beautiful ornaments, original small plastic, wonderful ceramic forms are the evidence of high level of spirituality of Trypillians.
Trypillian people lived in big settlements that are usually named proto-cities (first cities). Territory of some settlements occupied hundred hectares, and the population was 10-15 thousand people. It points on high level of social organization of Trypillian tribes. Typical Trypillian settlement consisted of houses, placed on a circle with a special square in the middle. Houses were 2 or 3 storied. They were divided into some living rooms and depositories. Each room had stove (печь) and big ceramic pots that used like grain tanks. The clay was the main material for building.
Trypillians worshipped to their own gods, carried on astronomic observations, had their own calendar, original imagination about the Universe. They had relations with Eastern Mediterranean and Danube regions (by the way, they received copper from Danube region). Social-economic level of Trypillians was similar to the Mesopotamians. But in full understanding it was not developed civilization because
Trypillians had no State, developed cities, and written language. Nomadic tribes caused the transformation of this culture and in 3rd millennium B.C. it disappeared.
Modern science has not found ethno-genetic connection of Trypillian tribes with newcoming ones. Direct genetic continuation Trypillian culture had no here. So, we could not say that Trypillians were Ukrainian ancestors. Ukrainian people was formed and integrated later, in the Middle Ages.
But culture has its own laws of development. Culture likes heredity (наследственность). We could find some elements of their culture in our life: household system, decoration of houses, and specific ceramic decoration.
Among autochthonous (aboriginal) sources of Ukrainian culture we could mention Trypillian culture of 4-3 millennia B.C. and Cimmerian-Scythian-Sarmatian cultural symbiosis of 2-1 millennia B.C.
Cimmerians were the most ancient people at Ukrainian territory. They lived between rivers Tir (Dnister) and Tanais (Don) and also Crimean and Taman peninsulas. Historical sources related to 9th -first half of 7th century B.C.
Cimmerians had nomadic stock-raising, high culture of bronze and ceramics with colourful inlays (инкрустациями). Cimmerians started to smelt the iron. Succeeding development was interrupted by Scythian invasion of nomadic tribes from Iranian territory. The oldest mention about them we could find in Assyrian cuneiforms (клинописях) related to the 7th century B.C. in the middle- second half of 6th century B.C. steppe Crimea became the center of Scythian State. In 5th century B.C. "father of history", Herodotus visited Scythia and described its population.
Scythian culture had some characteristic features: ceramic with geometrical ornaments; in painting there was specific style (animalistic style). Among main animals that Scythian artists presented there were: deer, sheep, horse, wild cat, fantastic gryphon, rock he-goat. Ukrainians inherited from Scythian culture: white blouse, boots, acute-top Cossack hat, some details of armament (sagaidak, pirnach), some words "sobaka" (dog), "topor" (axe, in Ukrainian "sokyra"), "chara" (goblet),
"zvaty" (call), "boyatysya" (afraid of), "horonyty" (tumulate), "slovo" (word), "zlo"
(evil), "vyna" (guilty), "mogyla" (grave).
Sarmatic tribes occupied and assimilated Scythian ones. Sarmatian people accepted some Scythian traditions. Both these Asiatic nomads were from Iranian territory. They became the ethnic material for Ukrainians.
In the middle of 7th century B.C. Greek colonization of Northern seaside of the Black Sea started. Greeks founded at this region many city-states: Tira, Olvia, Hersones, Pantikapei, and Theodosia. These city states had been existed for about 1 millennium. Spread of Greek culture accompanied by using of written language. Literature, theatre, music, painting and sculpture played an important role in cultural life of Greek settlers. Up to nowadays came antique sculptures, wall decoration, jewelry, graveside reliefs, and marmoreal carved sarcophaguses. From the 1st century B.C.- 3rd century A.D. Greek city-states submitted Rome, because of that we could find the influence of Roman antiquity for Ukrainian culture.
At this period Slavonic tribes started to form like ethnic community. First written information about them (Veneds or Venets) we could find in Roman sources. Pliny the elder, Tacitus, and Ptolemy gave the information about them. Later, Byzantine historians Jordan, Procopius Caesarean, and Johann Ephesian also mentioned of Slavonic tribes.
Tacitus underlined that Veneds were people with high level of culture, they built nice houses, knew military order and discipline, they were well-equipped and brave in the struggle with enemies.
Procopii Caesarean told about culture of Antes (tribes that lived between Bug and Dniester). He was sure that Sclavines and Antes were the parts of one people. From the 3rd century B.C. up to the 2nd century A.D. pre-Slavonic culture was formed. One of the settlements of this culture archaeologists had found not far from the village Zarubyntsi (Pereyaslav region). Zarubynetska culture accepted a lot of achievements of Eastern people.
Settlements and burial grounds were the main categories of this culture: settlements had no precise plan of building; wooden houses were clayed, sometimes houses were rebuilt; people of this culture were settled peasants and had domestic animals; they were skillful in handicrafts; they knew fusing of iron and blacksmith's
affair; had loom and produced linen and woolen clothes; they made earthenware with the help of potter's wheel.
In the 2nd century A.D. Zarubynetska culture stopped to exist. It was changed by new one, so called Chernyahivska culture (it received the name from the village Chernyahiv, which is not far from Kyiv). Famous archaeologist Vikentii Hvoika in 1899 investigated this culture. It existed up to the 5th century. Representatives of Chernyahivska culture also were peasants, stock-raising and handicrafts were among their everyday activities. Before burial ceremony they usually cremated died person.
Agricultural character of their economic affected Slavonic way of life and their calendar is the evidence of this (I mean names of months): "sichen'" (January) was connected with the specific activity for preparing the land for cultivation, cleaning it from trees and bushes; "berezen'" or "berezozol" (March), month, when Slavs burnt trees for fertilization of soil, "kviten'" (April), month, when all fruit trees are blossoming; "traven'" (May), month of grass; "serpen'" (August) season of harvest. "Serp" means sickle, one of the main tools of peasants.
In the second half of 1st millennium in different regions of Ukraine have been existed Volynska (7-8th centuries), Luka-Raikovetska (8-9th centuries), Romenska (810th centuries) and other cultures. People here united in tribal unities. According to old chronicle here there were: Duliby, Volynyany, Drevlyany, Polyany, Dregovychy, Ulychy, Tyvertsi, White Croatians, Siveryany, etc.
Early Slavs knew the nature of their region well. Agriculture needed knowledge of flora and fauna, basic elements of meteorology and astronomy. But people could not explain different phenomena because of that they have a lot of Gods, who "patronized" different sides of their life. The main God of Eastern Slavs was Perun (God of thunder and lightning), Dazhbog - solar god, cared of the harvest, Strybog -god of wind and weather, Svarog - was blackmith's god, Lado - godess of home fire, Veles - god of animals, Yarylo and Kolyada were also respected by Eastern Slavs. With the help of gods Slavs cognized the world, understood changes of seasons, and relations with nature.
The basis of heathen was worshipping to nature, the Sun accepted like a source of life, land like wet-nurse of all alive organisms. At that time children should bow touching the ground - it meant that they wish the person, who they have met - health, strength and generosity of mother-nature. Slavs cultivated in children sensitive attitude to the environment from the childhood. It was forbidden to hit the ground by stick.
Anthropotheocentrism was the main feature of Slavonic outlook. It means that all spheres of human, divine and natural understanding of the world are closely connected and parts of the Universe.
Before the baptizing of Rus' the monumental architecture developed. Heathen cut wooden churches were built. In Kyiv there was a Prince's stone palace. Archaeologists proved that this palace was decorated by frescoes, mosaic, inlays (инкрустациями). Heathen religion like Christian one worked out specific culture and values. Christianity spread slowly, painfully, and violently for the majority of people... May be because of that heathen beliefs were strong and people did not forget them absolutely. For a long time people worshipped to their heathen gods and Christianity here should be adapted to this situation. Many heathen celebrations left in our culture (Maslyana (end of winter), Ivan Kupala (top of summer), etc.). Actually, it was specific syncretic faith like a result of russification of Christianity. It was very original Russian variant of Christianity.
«ИСТОРИЯ УКРАИНСКОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ» ДЛЯ АНГЛОЯЗЫЧНЫХ СТУДЕНТОВ. ТЕМА ВТОРАЯ
Автор статьи анализирует источники украинской культуры и предлагает матеріал для нормативного курса «История украинской культуры» для англоязычных студентов первого курса неисторических специальностей.
Ключевые слова: источники украинской культуры, неолитическая революция, Трипольская культура, этно-генетическая связь, киммерийцы, скифы, сарматы, греческая колонизация, славянская этническая общность, восточные славяне, антропоцентризм, языческая культура.
УДК 378-057.875-054.62:39(=161.2) (091) Martynenko N.M.
«HISTORY OF UKRAINIAN CULTURE» FOR ENGLISH-SPEAKING
STUDENTS. SECOND TOPIC
Author of the article analyses sources of Ukrainian culture and offers the material in teaching of normative course "History of Ukrainian Culture" for the first-year English-speaking students of non-historic specialties.
Key words: sources of Ukrainian culture, Neolithic revolution, Trypillian culture, ethno-genetic connection, Cimmerians, Scythian and Sarmatic tribes, Greek colonization, Slavonic ethnic community, East Slavs, anthropocentrism, heathen culture.