Н Мартиненко - Історія української культури для англомовних студентів - страница 1
УДК 378-057.875-054.62:39(=161.2) (091) Мартиненко Н.М.
«ІСТОРІЯ УКРАЇНСЬКОЇ КУЛЬТУРИ» ДЛЯ АНГЛОМОВНИХ
СТУДЕНТІВ. ТЕМА СЬОМА
Автор статті аналізує особливості розвитку культури України 20-го
сторіччя і пропонує матеріал для викладання нормативного курсу «Історія
української культури» для англомовних студентів першого курсу
Ключові слова: просвіти, українізація, національна самосвідомість, культурна політика, боротьба з неписьменністю, русифікація, лібералізація.
Актуальність теми лекції є очевидною. Студенти-іноземці, які вивчають нормативний курс «Історії української культури» в результаті вивчення матеріалу лекції розуміють, яку роль відігравали революційні змагання у культурному становленні незалежної України.
Вивчаючи історію розвитку української культури за радянської доби студенти-іноземці мають нагоду оцінити переваги і недоліки культурної політики радянської держави у різні періоди її існування. Українська культура зазнавала значних культурних впливів і перепон на шляху формування національної самосвідомості але при цьому не втратила оригінального національного колориту. І за доби незалежності прагнула вибудовувати власну культуру.
Отже, метою даної статті є композиція матеріалу до проведення сьомої теми курсу, присвяченої розвиткові української культури 20-го сторіччя.
Авторка врахувала специфіку базової мовної та загальноосвітньої підготовки іноземних студентів. Надано текст, з яким студенти і викладачі можуть працювати на лекційних та практичних заняттях.
Topic 7: Culture of Ukraine (20th century)
1. Culture of Ukraine (early 20th century- before 1917).
2. Periods of Ukrainian cultural development after the revolutions of
3. Culture of independent Ukraine.
The development of Ukrainian culture in 20th century we could characterize like a period of its national-state revival (third, political sub-period). The first democratic revolution in Russian empire (1905-1907) had shown that the national problem in this country was very sharp. Ukrainian community struggled against national oppression for the right to study in native language, to use it for edition of national literature, in theatres, in state (official) organs. Ukrainian press started to develop in 1906 (there were 18 edited Ukrainian newspapers and magazines in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odesa, Lubny, Petersburg, and Moscow). At this period "Prosvitas" started to form. "Prosvitas" were Ukrainian amateur cultural-educational organizations. Democratic and liberal public figures became the heads of them. These organizations had at the aim the development of national self-consciousness. For the realization of this aim they founded libraries; reading-rooms; edited scientific-popular literature, organized lectures and plays in Ukrainian language; opened Ukrainian schools. Tzarist government counteracted to the activity of these national organizations. In 1905 students of Ukrainian universities started to demand to teach them in native language by registration order. In 1906 professor M.S. Hrushevs'kyi moved from Lviv to Kyiv. He resumed the edition of "Literary-scientific herald". The best Ukrainian writers got around this magazine. M. Hrushevs'kyi edited "The Outline of History of Ukrainian People" (in 1904, 1906, and 1911). This work was very important for understanding of Ukrainian question.
News about the beginning of democratic revolution in Russian empire (1905) caused demonstrations, meetings and strikes of international solidarity in Halychyna, Bukovyna, and Transcarpathia. 2,5 thousand people ran from Russia to East Halychyna and Bukovyna. They formed "The Group of Contribution". This group sent through the border the revolutionary literature and weapon, organized
demonstrations and meetings for support of revolutionary movement in Russia. There were 211 strikes in West-Ukrainian lands between 1905-1907 years. Peasants demanded lands, suffrage, and refused to collect the harvest in landlords' lands. Ukrainians wanted secondary schools and Ukrainian universities with native language of teaching. They dreamt of united sovereign democratic state. Austrian-Hungarian government started to use repressions. 12 thousand peasants were imprisoned and 3 additional military corps at the border. Government ignored Ukrainian demands.
In spite of events happened between 1917 and 1921 years all political regimes governed in Ukraine did their best to develop national culture. New public cultural organizations united best representatives of Ukrainian intellectuals. In period of Ukrainian National Republic only during the 1917-1918 educational year 30 Ukrainian gymnasiums started to work in the country. Study of Ukrainian language, literature and history was obligatory in secondary schools and gymnasiums. It was allowed to form the classes with Russian language of teaching in Ukrainian schools (according to parents' wish) and in Russian gymnasiums to form Ukrainian classes.
Ukrainian democratic revolution renewed the activity of "Prosvitas". In summer of 1917 the central and eastern part of Ukraine had the network of reading rooms. "Prosvity" had their own theatrical companies, choral collectives, orchestras, publishing houses, libraries, and folk houses. In September, 1917, in Kyiv, the first All-Ukrainian Congress of "Prosvit" was held. There were representatives from 952 organizations. In summer of 1921 there were 4227 ones. Bolsheviks would like to control them, but unsuccessfully. Because of that in 1921 they liquidated these organizations.
Elementary and secondary education. Tsentral'na Rada (Ukrainian government) had founded 53 Ukrainian schools (gymnasiums).
Ukrainization of the education had been continuing by Hetman's government and Dyrectoriya. Soviet power paid the most attention to the social reformation of school to the main tasks of communist upbringing.
In June 1919 Sovnarcom (Soviet government) adopted the instruction about labour school, according to which proclaimed the obligatory free education for children (7-16 years). In a year Narcompros (Ministry of education) created 7-year schools of 2 levels (elementary 1-4 classes and secondary 5-7 classes).
In 1920 Soviet government formed in Ukraine special commission for the struggle against illiteracy (H. Petrovs'kyi became the Head of this commission). The result of liquidation an illiteracy was amazing: before the revolution there was 27,9% of literate population, and by the end of 1920 - 51,9%.
High education. Tsentral'na Rada worked out the plan of foundation of universities with Ukrainian language of education. Partly this plan was fulfilled by Hetman's government.
According to the decision of General Secretary of Tsentral'na Rada in October, 5, 1917, Kyiv Ukrainian National University was opened. There were historical-philological, physical-mathematic and judicial faculties in it. At that period the decision about opening of Kamyanets'-Podil'skyi University was also adopted (but it was opened later, in a year).
Science. There were many outstanding scientists, who had been working in the universities, institutes and scientific-research centers: O. Pysarzhevs'kyi (chemist), Y. Paton (bridge builder), O. Kryms'kyi (philologist, historian, and orientalist), D. Bagaliy (historian), H. Proscura (hydromechanics), etc. Many Russian scientists emigrated.
Hetman's government supported the foundation of Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, with V.I. Vernads'kyi at its head. This academy had 3 main departments: historical-philological, physical-mathematical, and social-economic.
Literature. In sphere of literature old generation of writers have been continuing their work (P. Myrnyi, V. Stephanyk, O. Kobylyans'ka, V. Vynnychenko, and O. Kryms'kyi). But new formations in the poetry started to develop: romanticism (V. Sosiura with his collection of verses "The Red Winter"), V. Chumak (collection "Zaspiv"), P. Tychyna (with his poem "Zolotyi gomin" and the collection of verses "Sonyachni clarinets", etc.); "new classics" united around
the magazine "Knygar" - P. Phylypovych, M. Ryl'skyi, etc.; symbolism - Y. Savchenko, D Zagul; panfuturism - M. Semenko. The new generation of writers started to create their masterpieces: A. Holovko, O. Vyshnya, and S. Sclyarenko.
Theatre and music. That was the period of experiments, so at that time (in 1917) appeared "The Young Theatre" of Les' Kurbas; in 1918 - Ukrainian theatre of drama and opera; in 1920, the new dramatic theatre named after I.Franko was opened in Vinnytsya (in 1923 it moved to Kharkiv, and later - to Kyiv).
In 1918 the State symphonic orchestra under a guidance of O. Horelyi in the Soviet time became the republican symphonic orchestra named after M. Lysenko; the Ukrainian state chapel under a guidance of A.Koshyts' in 1919 became the Ukrainian republican chapel. Kyiv musical-dramatic institute started to teach students. At that period in Ukraine worked prominent composers: Y. Stepovyi, A. Revuts'kyi, H. Veryovka, and B. Lyatoshyns'kyi.
Fine arts. In December, 1917, Tsentral'na Rada founded the Ukrainian Academy of Arts (among the first academicians there were M. Boichuk, he was a rector, H. Burachek, M.Zhuk, H. Narbut, and others). This academy in Soviet time was reorganized into Institute of Arts.
Generally speaking, cultural processes in 1917-1920 played an important role in history of Ukrainian people. This was a dramatic period in the life of Ukraine, which influenced a lot on the future development of Ukrainian culture.
Historical conditions for the development of culture in Ukraine (1920s-1930s). Leaders of the Soviet state tried to realize their plan of "cultural revolution". They would like to change the outlook of people:
- Through the schools, institutes, and public organizations they would like to form the skills of Marxist-Leninist outlook;
- Formed in the "soviet people" principles of socialist society (collectivism, internationalism, etc.);
- To form the soviet intelligentsia (in opposition to the bourgeois specialists);
- Liquidate illiteracy.
The new economic policy (NEP) gave the chance for the development of Ukrainian language, national Ukrainian literature, and culture. But 1930s demonstrated the changing of the cultural course of the Soviet power and Stalin dictatorship and the internal policy of Ukrainian government directed their efforts to the struggle against Ukrainian nationalism and Ukrainian culture.
Education. In 1920s 2/3 of adults were illiterate. Because of that a special all-Ukrainian extraordinary commission for struggle against illiteracy was formed in 1921. Later, in 1923 a society "Down with illiteracy!" was created. This society formed a network of special organizations for liquidation of illiteracy, mobilized tens of thousands of teachers, doctors, students and pupils for education. The development of the new economic policy helped to find the financial support for schools (building of new schools, publication of textbooks, etc.).
The majority of population became literate. There were three types of schools: primary school (4 years), short secondary school (7 years), and full secondary school (10 years). A.S. Makarenko founded the school for children-orphans. The main weakness of school education at that time we could see in the dominance of political subjects, manufacturing orientation instead of general educational subjects, law level of teacher's salary, deficit of teachers, especially in villages, in 1932-1933 shortage of population (because of collectivization, ejections, famine and migration to cities).
Attitude to Ukrainian language. In 1920s 12th Congress of Russian Communist party (1923) adopted a decision of necessity of "corenization" policy. It was necessary to have at the highest positions in national republics representatives of aboriginal nationality (it is not a secret that the majority of Soviet leaders were Jewry and Russian). This policy in Ukraine received the name "Ukrainization". In frames of it 4/5 of schools, V of colleges and XA of institutes gave the education in Ukrainian language. 90% of newspapers, V of books, all films and broadcasting, and 2/3 of workflow were Ukrainian. Soviet government in 1920s created the conditions for the development of national minorities (there were
defined 13 national regions, hundreds of schools with Hungarian, Moldavian, German, Polish, Jewish, and Bulgarian languages of teaching).
In 1930s the struggle against Ukrainian language and culture started. Russian language slowly replaced Ukrainian (70% of newspapers, films and broadcasting became Russian, national schools changed the language of education for Russian).
Main peculiarities of literary and arts' development. In 1920s there were many creative organizations of writers, poets and artists ("Pluh", "Gart", and "Vanguard"). Free academy of proletarian arts was opened in 1920. The ideological leader of it became I. Hvylyovyi and the first president V. Yalovyi. They would like to protect new literature from administrative interference.
In 1934 Soviet power formed the Union of writers and offered the material privileges for "faithful" members.
There were many literary styles in 1920s: revolutionary-romantic (P. Tychyna, V. Sosiura, I. Bazhan); pamphlets of I. Hvylyovyi; satire and humour of O. Vyshnya.
In 1930s a method of social realism became dominative, and other methods in arts were repressed. The main topic of literary and artistic works was devoted to historical-revolutionary events and labour deeds of Soviet people.
Publishing outfits. There were many state and private publishing outfits in 1920s that gave the chance for publication of authors, who belonged to the different trends and styles.
In 1930s the Soviet power started to control the publishing outfits and realized severe censorship of all publications.
Cultural and educational activity. The wide network of clubs, reading-houses, and public libraries was created. They should organize readership conferences, political information and realize other social and political activity. Government supported the reconstruction of old and building of new museums (historical-revolutionary, local, and antireligious ones).
This was the time of Soviet intelligentsia formation. Intelligentsia was the specific social group of people, who professionally fulfill the intellectual activity (in sphere of science and technique, engineers, teachers, and doctors). Soviet power needed specialists, because of that it opened a big number of institutes, colleges and technical lyceums. Children from the families of workers and peasants had advantages for admission (especially for them worker's faculties (preparative departments) were created). Each year communists and members of communist youth organization (comsomol) were relegated to the institutes and universities. The majority of educational enterprises opened the postal tuition and evening department in-service education. The role of communist party in institutes became higher.
Repressions. In 1921-1923, professors and scientists, who were against domination of political subjects, communist party organizations, and advantages for students-communists with low basic educational level, were imprisoned or deported. In 1928, there was a "miner's cause" directed against "bourgeois specialists" and engineers. Ordinary people were absolutely sure that these specialists tried to do bad things for Soviet power. In 1930s started the period of persecution of intelligentsia. Soviet power afraid of it influence on the minds of growing generation. Academicians Yavors'kyi, Landau, historian Hrushevs'kyi, philosopher Demchuk, geologist Svitals'kyi and many others became the victims of mass repressions.
So, we could say that in spite of anything 1920s were the time of heyday for Ukrainian culture, but 1930s became the period of persecution of intelligentsia and deukrainization.
First half of 1940s was the period of war and only after the end of it cultural processes started to develop. In post-war time the cultural building was an important part of reconstruction. In system of public education there was the transition from obligatory primary education to the obligatory 7-years education for all children. After the war renew their activity universities in Kyiv, Kharkiv and
Odesa. Opened its doors Uzhhorod university. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences started its work after the war.
Ukrainian poets and writers devoted their works to the heroic deeds and life of people during and after the war. The most famous among them were poets P. Tychyna, V. Sosiura, M. Ryls'kyi, writers Y. Yanovs'kyi and O. Vyshnya, artists O. Shovkunenko, M. Derehuz, T. Yablons'ka, composer K. Dan'kevych. Theatre and cinema were also very popular. There were three feature films' studios in Kyiv, Odesa and Yalta.
Unfortunately, Ukrainian literature and arts suffered from political conjuncture, because of specific phenomena "Zhdanivschyna". A. Zhdanov was the person, who had to "clean the Ukrainian society from non-Soviet influence". Party leaders criticized M. Ryls'kyi (for his poems), Y. Yanovs'kyi (for his novel "Zhiva voda"), V. Sosiura (for his poem "Let's love Ukraine!"), composer K. Dan'kevych (for his opera "Bohdan Khmel'nyts'kyi") and others. Magazines "Perets'" ("Pepper") and "Vitchyzna" ("Motherland") also were among the victims of ideological repressions. Later, in March of 1947, when L. Kahanovych became a Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (bolsheviks) of Ukraine. He carried on the struggle with intelligentsia. He inspired chase of artists and composers, battered the Institute of Ukrainian History existed in frames of Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Only after changing of this Secretary (in December, 1947), repressions stopped for a while.
In such situation writers and artists could not realize their mission. Creative activity of intelligentsia was paralyzed.
After Stalin's death in March, 1953, new Soviet leader M. Khrushchev gave the chance for liberalization of social, political and spiritual life. The new generation of scientists, activists in sphere of culture and arts was formed. V. Symonenko, L. Kostenko, Y. Sverstiuk, I. Dziuba, I. Drach, D. Pavlychko and others demanded the correction of folds, caused by Stalinism. They demanded guarantees for free cultural development of Ukraine and its language. The main reason for these demands were the threaten symptoms in cultural life of Ukrainian
republic. Central committee of CPSU adopted the act about "The strengthening of ties between school and life". This act opened wide facilities for Russification (policy of domination of Russian language in culture and education). In 1959 the Supreme Council of USSR adopted new school law, according to which parents had the right to choose the language of education for their children. The result of this policy: in regional centers of Ukraine and in Kyiv 28% of schools were Ukrainian and 72% - Russian ones. The number of Ukrainian newspapers was limited. In 1963 from 2366 Ukrainian newspapers left 765.
Khrushchev reforms contented positive moments, but they did not change the basis of command-administrative system and economic transformations did not accompanied by democratization of society. National economy developed by extensive way.
Khrushchev's displacement meant the refuse from reforms and liberalization. In Ukraine, like in all Soviet republics started the period of domination of conservative tendencies.
In 1960s-1980s scientists, specialized in humanities edited many fundamental works in history of Ukraine, history of Ukrainian state and law, archaeology, philosophy, literature and arts. The essential part of these works was "class approach" and critique of bourgeois and nationalistic conceptions.
Leaders of communist party paid special attention to the education. It was an important link in the ideological system. From 1966 the full 10-year secondary education became obligatory. The network of high educational enterprises widened. In 1964, Donets'k state university started its activity, in 1972 -Simpheropil, in 1985 - Zaporizhian, later - Carpathian and Volynian universities opened their doors for students.
Academic science also developed. Ukrainian mathematicians presented a lot of researches and discoveries without analogues. Institute of cybernetics became the main organization in the creation and projection of computers.
In 1991 Ukraine became an independent state. National and cultural revival processes started. For educational system adopted perspective plan "Ukraine of 21st
century". Main principles of this programme was based on the unity of education, science and culture. System of high educational enterprises and colleges reorganized. Ukraine slowly directed to the European educational space. In 1997 Ukraine signed Lisbon Declaration of Education. According to this declaration Ukraine trains different levels' specialists (bachelors, specialists and masters). Educational plans of universities adopted and take into account such differentiation. Bachelor receives basic high education, specialist - more practical training, and master - deeper scientific knowledge.
System of science also reorganized. In 1994 Academy of Sciences became National. Ministry of Science and technologies, Ukrainian Scientific Association, Academy of Medical Sciences, Academy of Agricultural sciences, Academy of Arts, Academy of Judicial Sciences were founded. But low level of financial support from the government caused a lot of problems for the development of science. Without material, information and moral support scientists started commercial activity or left Ukraine. Only from Academy of Sciences 2800 young scientists went abroad. 254 doctors of sciences left Ukraine in 1991-1994.
Pluralism and new forms of arts were realized in cultural life of the state. Vanguard styles in music, monumental painting gave new names.
Big number of festivals and musical competitions (opera, organ and piano music) supported the creative activity of young talents.
In spiritual rebirth of Ukrainian people the important role played religion and church. They preserved human and moral values. There are 105 churches, confessions, trends and directions. 96,7% among them are Christian. Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox and Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Churches renew their activity. It is still a problem the existence of three Orthodox Churches subordinated to different centers (Moscow and Kyiv patriarch, and Autocephalous (national) Church). All over the Ukraine building of new churches started.
In 1998 Ukrainian state adopted the programme of reconstruction of historical monuments and national symbols of Ukrainians. Mykhailiv Church in Kyiv and Assumption cathedral of Kyiv-Pechers'k lavra were reconstructed.
In conditions of transitional economics we should understand that commercialization of true arts is impossible. Market economy ruins classical culture. State should protect culture, takes care of it and give enough money for its development. Without culture we will not have the future.
УДК 378-057.875-054.62:39(=161.2) (091) Мартыненко Н.Н.
«ИСТОРИЯ УКРАИНСКОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ» ДЛЯ АНГЛОЯЗЫЧНЫХ
СТУДЕНТОВ. ТЕМА СЕДЬМАЯ
Автор статьи анализирует особенности развития культуры Украины 20-го столетия и предлагает материал для преподавания нормативного курса «История украинской культуры» для англоязычных студентов первого курса неисторических специальностей.
Ключевые слова: просвиты, украинизация, национальное самосознание, культурная политика, борьба с неграмотностью, русификация, либерализация.
УДК 378-057.875-054.62:39(=161.2) (091) МаНупепко 1Ч.М.
«HISTORY OF UKRAINIAN CULTURE» FOR ENGLISH-SPEAKING STUDENTS. SEVENTH TOPIC
Author of the article analyses peculiarities of Ukrainian cultural development in 20th century and offers the material in teaching of normative course "History of Ukrainian Culture" for the first-year English-speaking students of non-historic specialties.
Key words: prosvity, Ukrainization, national self-consciousness, cultural policy, struggle with illiteracy, Russification, liberalization.