V I Pencheva - Analysis of the development of international road freight in bulgaria - страница 1
Pencheva V.I., GagovaP.V.
ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ROAD FREIGHT IN BULGARIA
The article analyzes the situation and has traced the development of international road freight in Bulgaria in line with developments in other EU countries. Based on made a research of statistical data are analyzed and monitored the development of international freight transport in Bulgaria. Described is carried transport work (in t and tkm) of the Bulgarian companies for international road of freight.
Keywords: road freight international transport, cargo turnover, transport work, transportation.
During the period 1957-1959 years for Bulgaria in the first steps in international road transport. In 1960 it became a separate entity called (SO MAT). It has established itself as one of the most prestigious large firms for international road transport, particularly in traffic between Europe and the Middle East, working in cooperation with over 60 foreign companies and transported to 35 countries. In exports include: machinery, metals, electronics, chemical and pharmaceutical products, industrial products are leading exports. It also exported commodities, and textiles, carpets, minerals, ferrous metals, chemical fertilizers. It imports machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, solid fuels, chemicals, industrial consumer goods, food products and raw materials for food production in key areas to be on to commit international freight are CIS countries, former Russian republics and other. In the period from 1990 to 1996. - SO MAT turns from fully state-owned company in a much smaller private companies for international freight. Creating a lot companies for international freight and open new markets for the transport industry. Over the past 10 years in Bulgaria, several changes have occurred that directly affected the international carriage of goods. Bulgarian carriers increased quality of service by modernizing its vehicle fleet. After Bulgaria enters the EU in 1997 have changed and simplified the number of operations in the organization of international road transport when crossing the state borders and through the territory of a country (Fig. 1). By road in the country today is shipped 98% of food and 100% of chemicals and 93% of goods such as machinery, plant products and other miscellaneous goods. Road transport dominates at the transport of agricultural products, construction products and plant protection and fertilizers (68%, 67% and 60%).
Fig. 1. Performed transport work in international road freight transport for the period 2000 2009 in the EU and
Results and discussion
Development of trade between EU member countries led to the creation of effective and relatively dense complex network of transport links combining different transport modes. Common Transport Policy of the Community is governed by the "Treaties of Rome" in 1957, however the second half of the 80s of the 20th century, the common transport policy marks a little progress, although the "Treaties of Rome" made possible the elimination of customs barriers and the establishment of Community a common customs tariff applicable to goods from non-EEC countries (01. July 1968). The elimination of duties is not enough there are many other trade barriers that hinder the development of the common market. These are physical, technical and tax barriers that restrict the free movement of goods, including transport performance. Published in 1985 White Paper sets barriers to free movement within the Community to be removed. The total European market after 1992 is a fact and is beneficial for the development of the transport industry in Europe. The EU created a significant volume of traffic law, which represents 10% of Community law. These are several hundred regulations, directives and decisions. Law relating to road transport covers a wide area of social, technical, financial, environmental requirements and safety requirements and accounts for 70% of all transport legislation. Market integration of road transport is one of the most sensitive
issues in the accession countries to the EU. Today in the EU have 27 Member (Fig. 2), including Bulgaria, applying the general transport law of the Community common transport policy. This leads to the development of transport system of Europe and in the internal borders and with other countries.
Fig. 2. Geographical location of member countries and candidate countries of EU
Volume of transport work in the domestic international road transport in Europe
The total volume of domestic work for Europe's road freight transport in 2009 is 2.293 billion tkm . Road freight transport in Europe is constantly evolving. For the period 1995 to 2009 performed transport work has grown by 31.3% (from 1.289 billion tkm in 1995 to 1.691 billion tkm in 2009), ie average growth rate per year is 2%. Road transport is particularly important for the EU because it carried 74% of the total volume transport operation (Fig. 3). Main competitor - railways carried only 16% of the workload. Volume of transport work in the domestic international road transport in Europe. The total volume of domestic work for Europe's road freight transport in 2009 is 2.293 billion tkm volume. Road freight transport in Europe is constantly evolving. For the period 1995 to 2009 performed transport work has grown by 31.3% (from 1.289 billion tkm in 1995 to 1.691 billion tkm in 2009), ie average growth rate per year is 2%. Road transport is particularly important for the EU because it carried 74% of the total volume transport operation (Fig. 3). Main competitor - railways carried only 16% of the volume work.
All in EU member countries road transport is the dominant mode excluding Estonia and Latvia where rail transport is by about 2 and 20% more volume of work compared to road.
In 2009, four countries made 51.6 percent of total EU transport job: Germany -18.18%, Spain, 12.53, 10.69, Poland and France 10.26%.
International road freight accounts for about 1/3 (537.14 billion tkm) of the total work of road transport for 2009 (Fig. 4), the national road is the other 2/3-1154.3 billion tkm.
□ Oil Pipeline
Fig. 3. Percentage of transport modes operating in international freight transport within the EU in 2009
25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00
National and International
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Fig. 4. Dynamics of the development of road freight transport in EU
In 2000-2006 the growth of international road freight is higher than that of national (domestic transport) due to a general increase in trade, facilitated by the expansion and liberalization of road transport.
An important technical performance index the operation of road transport is the length of the carriage. There is a significant difference in this indicator for domestic and international transport (Fig. 5 and 6). 46% of all the road freight shipping for distances over 300km are over 500 km in international road freight, while inner there are only 2%.
□ from 0 to 50 km
□ from 50 to 150 km
□ from 150 to 500 km
□ more than 500 km
Fig. 5. Distribution of freight for inner shipments according to their length.
□ from 0 to 50 km
□ from 50 to 150 km
□ from 150 to 500 km
□ more than 500 km
Fig. 6. Distribution of freight in international transportation according to their length
International road freight transport is an important factor for the development of the Common Market of the EU, 95% of international transportations in the Community.
Volume transport work in international road transport with non-eu countries
Road transport plays a key role in ensuring that trade flows with neighboring countries that have land borders (the Western Balkans, Macedonia, Serbia, Croatia, the countries of East, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova and Turkey, Norway, Switzerland) .
Fig. 7 and 8 shows the distribution of the transport operation by carriers registered in the EU, respectively according to country of unloading and loading state (2006).
Fig. 7. Percentage of transport operating from carriers registered in EU with third countries according to country of unloading
Fig. 8. Percentage of transport operating from carriers registered in EU with third countries according to country of loading
Difficult administrative and customs barriers are responsible for ensuring effective freight loadability to the east. Assessment of the International Road Union (IRU) 40% of the total transport time is lost due to administrative inconsistencies. The main task is working on facilitating border crossing procedures to reduce time and cost of transport. It is customs cooperation. Low levels of road safety and poor road infrastructure in the eastern EU countries are also the cause of inefficient road transport relations.
There have made small steps toward opening the transport markets in neighboring countries and they are more bilateral and regional initiatives. These agreements ensure reciprocal market access based on a quota basis. Quotas based on the multilateral level are awarded by the Conference of Ministers of Transport but they are providing only about 5% of all transport operations. Some countries neighboring the EU are interested in increasing market access for road transport. This can be achieved through progressive elimination of quantitative restrictions in exchange for implementation of standards that ensure the quality of road transport services between the EU and neighboring countries. An example is the agreement the UN on driving and the rules on rest periods in international road transport (AETR), which oblige EU member country and neighboring countries (joined AETR) to implement mandatory digital tafografi in newly registered vehicles.
On 07.07.2011 the Commission published a plan of the EU, which has more than 20 actions to strengthen transport relations with neighboring countries, including road transport.
Volume of transport work in international road transport in bulgaria
International road freight transport carried 81% of the total volume of work modes of international communications (Fig. 9), which is 7% higher than the EU (see Figure 2.) And was developed at the expense of other modes of transport .
□ Inland Waterway
□ Oil Pipeline
Fig. 9. Percentage of transport work in Bulgaria in international transport by modes in 2010
Fig. 10 shows the dynamics of transport in tkm work in domestic and international traffic for the period 2000-2010. The average growth rate during the year, respectively with 10 and 29.9%, which was significantly higher than that of Europe (2% average growth rate of international freight). The high rate of growth in international road freight transport is due to the liberalized market and increase the average vehicle distance.
Fig. 10. Dynamics of development of road freight transport in Bulgaria
In 2010 the volume of transport work performed in innter services is 6.12 billion tkm, while in international almost twice the 13.33 billion tkm. Such excess is typical of small countries, where if you compare the work done as the amount of transported cargo in innter shipments, it is higher (compared with domestic shipments in 2010 were transported 117.27 million tons cargo, and in international 12 74 2000 tons). Reduced workload in tkm in the international trucking 2005-2008 can be explained by the preparation and adoption of Bulgaria for EU membership and the reorganization of work for transport companies to meet Community requirements.
Volume transport operations by country of loading and unloading
Fig. 11 and 12 shows the percentage of the volume of transport work in 2010 respectively by the side of the unloading and loading. The main transportation work for 88% (3 979.9 million. tkm) and 80% (1 940.50 million. tkm) is to and from EU countries who are gradually established as a major trading partner of Bulgaria, leading to corresponding shift of transport flows.
The greatest amount of cargo is unloaded in Greece (1 061.1 thousand tons), Romania (643.9 thousand tons) and Germany (542.1 thousand tons). The largest volume of transport operation is done unloading of goods in Germany (1 293.6 million. tkm), Italy (649.1 million. tkm) and Greece (66.5 million. tkm).
The greatest amount of cargo loaded in Greece (920.5 thousand tons), Romania (348.5 thousand tons) and Germany (149.6 thousand tons). The largest volume of transport operation is done unloading of cargo in Greece (million 557.4. tkm), Germany (290.5 million. tkm) and France (252.7 million. tkm).
Demand for transport services in international traffic shall be determined by the country's foreign trade and transit flows, and the competitiveness of the Bulgarian transport companies. Growth and changing geographical structure of exports and imports are the main external factors shaping developments in the transport sector in Bulgaria.
Tuikey and the Other
Fig. 11. Percentage distribution of the volume of transport work of unloading in 2010
Turkey and the
Fig. 12. Percentage distribution of the volume of transport work of loading in 2010
■ General EU transport policy and transport legislation are a good prerequisite for the development of the European internal market for transport.
■ International road freight transport is an important factor for the development of the Common Market of the EU, 95% of international transportation in the Community.
■ Road transport plays a key role in ensuring that trade flows with neighboring countries that share land borders. Strengthen transport relations with these countries is an important task for the EU and is part of his current policy.
■ The proportion in international shipments for 2010 on road freight transport in Bulgaria is 81% compared with 14%, 3% and 2% for rail, inland waterway and pipeline transport.
■ In the period 2000-2010 the growth rate per year in volume of transport operations in tkm in Bulgaria is much higher (5 times at home and 15 times in international freight) higher than that of the EU.
■ EU members country is now established as a major trading partner of Bulgaria, which is associated with the development of transport links to and from these countries.
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The study was supported by contract № BG051PO001-3.3.04/28, "Support for the scientific staff development in the field of engineering research and innovation". The project is funded with support from the Operational Program "Human Resources Development" 2007-2013, financed by the European Social Fund of the European Union.
Статья посвящена анализу ситуации и развитию международных грузовых автомобильных перевозок в Болгарии в соответствии с подобным развитием в других странах ЕС. На этой основе проведено исследование статистических данных, в котором анализируется и отслеживается развитие международного грузового транспорта в Болгарии. Описаны выполненные транспортные работы (в т и ткм) болгарских компаний на международной грузовой дороге.
Ключевые слова: дорога, грузовой международный транспорт, грузооборот, транспортная работа, перевозка
Стаття присвячена аналізу ситуації й розвитку міжнародних вантажних автомобільних перевезень у Болгарії відповідно до подібного розвитку в інших країнах ЄС. На цій основі проведене дослідження статистичних даних, у якому аналізується й відслідковується розвиток міжнародного вантажного транспорту в Болгарії. Описано виконані транспортні роботи (у т і ткм) болгарських компаній на міжнародній вантажній дорозі.
Ключові слова: дорога, вантажний міжнародний транспорт, вантажообіг, транспортна робота, перевезення
Pencheva V. I. Gagova P. V.
Associate professor, PhD, University of Ruse, Ruse, Bulgaria. PhD student, University of Ruse, Ruse, Bulgaria.
Doctor of Engineering, Professor D. G. Simeonov