V Vladymyrov - Availability of data for the black sea climate change research - страница 1

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AVAILABILITY OF DATA FOR THE BLACK SEA CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH

V. VLADYMYROV

Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, 2, Nakhimov av., Sevastopol, 99011 Ukraine

E-mail: v.vladymyrov@ibss.org.ua

Abstract. This review presents a brief analysis and sources (including URLs for the Internet sources) of the most interesting and informative Black Sea oceanographic data sets (excluding satellite data) that are now available for the scientific community with the main attention on the long term data sets. The results of the analysis show that a number of the available Black Sea datasets is growing permanently. However, this process is still rather slow and insufficient. One can hope that new international projects that cover the Black Sea region will drastically improve the situation in nearest years. The attempts should be made as well to create the united reliable quality checked data time series especially for biological data for which long time series do not exist yet.

Keywords: Black Sea, data, database, climate change, Internet

AIMS AND BACKGROUND

The Black Sea is a rather well investigated region of the World Ocean although there are not too many environmental data available for researchers willing to investigate long term trends and climate change in the region. The data available can be found in two main sources: (1) Internet, (2) Data sets and data bases distributed on the CDs/DVDs. For the first time a review of the available Black Sea data sets was prepared by us in 1999 and it was presented at the International seminar "Monitoring Systems for Marine Environment" in Sevastopol, Ukraine [1]. At this time the oceanographic data on the Black Sea were very rare at the Internet and mostly one could find only different kinds of metadata and information. Second review was done in 2002 and it was presented at the International Conference "Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea: similarities and differences of two interconnected basins" in Ankara, Turkey [2]. The third review was done in 2007 and its results we presented at the NATO-ARW "Challenges before the Black Sea operational oceanography to increase the regional environmental security" held in September 2007 in Balchik, Bulgaria. This paper presents a brief analysis and sources (including URLs for the Internet sources) of the most interesting and informative Black Sea oceanographic data sets (excluding satellite data) that are available for the scientific community now with the main attention on the long term data sets.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

There is a number of interesting sources of in situ data for the Black Sea available at the Internet now. First of them appeared in 1999. It was so called Black Sea Environment Internet Node (BSEIN) organized by the Black Sea Environment Programme Coordination Unit on the basis of the

Internet server of the Marine Hydrophysical Institute (Sevastopol, Ukraine). Among other data and information the BSEIN contained as well some historical physical and chemical Black Sea data sets obtained from the World Data Center and integrated and intercalibrated data sets of the Black Sea basin wide expeditions organized in 1991-1993. Part of this web site is still available at the BSEIN mirror web site (http://www.grid.unep.ch/bsein/). The data that are not available there can be requested from the MHI (E-mail: database@alpha.mhi.iuf.net).

One of the most interesting and valuable Black Sea data sets available via Internet is a web site of the NATO SfP Black Sea ODBMS project

(http://sfp1.ims.metu.edu.tr/ODBMSDB/) supported by Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University (IMS-METU, Erdemli, Turkey). A comprehensive multidisciplinary database of the Black Sea presented at this web site was created first within the frameworks of the NATO-TU Black Sea project [3] and was then updated within the NATO SfP Black Sea ODBMS project. Spatial Distribution of stations included in the database is shown on Fig.1. and the web interface of the database is shown on Fig. 2.

Black Sea Database Map

Fig. 1. Spatial distribution of stations for the NATO ODBMS database

The Database covers the most crucial period in the history of the Black Sea ecosystem starting from the "background" situation in 1960 till the drastic changes occurred in recent years. It includes data from all main regional and international sources. All data included into the database were quality checked by qualified groups of regional experts, well acquainted with the Black Sea data. Each value of physical, chemical and bio-optical data is accompanied with the quality flag (the same as in the MEDAR/MEDATLAS project (http://www.ifremer.fr/medar/), that provides the regional compatibility. The Database includes data on 152 variables that are grouped into three sections: physics - 17 variables, chemistry - 46 variables, and biology - 89 variables.

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Fig. 2. Web interface of the NATO ODBMS Project database

As the result of a US project starting in 1981, available global surface marine data from the late 18th century to date have been assembled, quality controlled, and made widely available to the international research community in products of the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS). A new name, International COADS (ICOADS), was agreed in 2002 to recognize the multinational input to the blended observational database and other benefits gained from extensive international collaboration, while maintaining continuity of identity with COADS, which has been widely used and referenced (http://icoads.noaa.gov/status.html). ICOADS data are made available in two primary forms:

Observations: Surface marine reports from ships, buoys, and other platform types. Each report contains individual observations of meteorological and oceanographic variables, such as sea surface and air temperatures, wind, pressure, humidity, and cloudiness.

• Monthly summary statistics: Ten statistics (such as the mean and median) are calculated for each of 22 observed and derived variables, using 2° latitude x 2° longitude boxes back to 1800 (and 1°x1° boxes since 1960).

Currently (Release 2.4), the observations are available for 1784-May 2007 (238 million individual marine reports), monthly summaries for 1800-May 2007, and 1° summaries for 1960-May 2007. These data and summary products are drawn from two separate archives:

•   Less    fully    processed    observations,    limited    to Global Telecommunications System (GTS) data, are from the real-time (ICOADS.RT) archive, covering March 1997-May 2007. The observations and monthly summary products currently offered to users are all from ICOADS.DM through the end of 2004, and subsequently from the ICOADS.RT archive.

A number of other hydrometeorological datasets with the around Word coverage (including the Black Sea basin) is being provided as well by the US National Climatic Data Center and by the Data Support Section of the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (http://dss.ucar.edu/datasets/).

A Global Plankton Database: An Inventory and Data from the Former Soviet Union Expeditions. This database

(http://web.pml.ac.uk/globec/data/plankton/Information/) and inventory in on-line version were released in 2005 and it is fully corresponded the version released on CD at the same year. The updated version of this product was released on CD in 2007. Some small errors were removed in the last version, however, they do not relate to the Black Sea data. The Black Sea data in this database are the same as in the NATO SfP Black Sea ODBMS project database described above but here they are provided in a form of Excel files and not as a preloaded database.

The World-wide Ocean Optics Database (WOOD, version 4.6) is available on the web: http://wood.jhuapl.edu/wood/. Since its inception over 10 years ago, the WOOD has grown to be the most comprehensive publicly-available oceanographic bio-optical database in the world. It includes very a few optical data for the Black Sea including some Secchi disk measurements

(126 values for 1925 - 1976).

The World Ocean Database 2005 is maintained by the Ocean Climate Laboratory (OCL) that is a division of the USA National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). The OCL directs the international Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue (GODAR) Project. Initiated by the NODC and WDC, this project was subsequently endorsed by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. The GODAR Project has resulted in an increase of over six million historical ocean temperature profiles, 140,000 chlorophyll profiles, as well as many other data, that is the basis of the World Ocean Database. The WODselect interface allows a user to search World Ocean Database 2005 using the user-specified search criteria. A distribution map and station count of these search criteria will give the user the option to have the data extracted and placed on the NODC FTP site. The results of the overall search for data for the Black Sea region are shown on Fig.3. For the Black Sea WOD 2005 contains at the moment 42071 stations with a number of physical and chemical variables.

Climatic Atlas of the Sea of Azov was released in 2006 and that exists both on the Web (www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/AZOV2006/start.html) and on CD and supported by the US NODC Ocean Climate Laboratory. It contains data on temperature and salinity and some hydrometeorological data from 14,289

stations collected in the Sea of Azov and the adjacent part of the Black Sea

during 1913 - 2004.

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Fig.3. Spatial distribution of stations in the Black Sea for WOD 2005

Data on the Black Sea can be found as well through the web site of the World Data Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (WDC-MARE) hosted by Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) Bremerhaven, Germany and Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (MARUM) University of Bremen, Germany. WDC-MARE uses the information system PANGAEA - Publishing Network for Geoscientific & Environmental Data as its long-term archive and publication system. WDC-MARE contains 45516 data sets within the Black Sea region with the different multidisciplinary data, mostly data on salinity and temperature provided by the MEDAR/MEDATLAS group. However, to our opinion the search and especially data extraction tools of PANGEA system are not user friendly and it takes a lot of efforts to extract the necessary data and to use them then.

The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) is the information component of the Census of Marine Life (CoML), a growing network of researchers in more than 45 nations engaged in a 10-year initiative to assess and explain the diversity, distribution, and abundance of life in the oceans -past, present, and future (www.iobis.org). OBIS is a marine biogeographic information system, meaning that it concentrates on datasets that record particular species (or higher taxonomic group) from particular marine locations, at particular times. At the moment (August 2008) OBIS contains 2037 records for the Black Sea basin. Unfortunately, only one of them contains date that makes these data unusable for temporal analysis.

There are several datasets available on the CDs/DVDs. Mostly they are accessible for everybody on request free of charge or for a small price covered the producer expenses, but some of them are accessible only for scientific groups/organizations prepared the particular dataset (usually the restriction is limited in time for several years).

The Database on the Bioluminescence Field of the World Ocean released on CD in 2003 contains among data on another regions a valuable set of bioluminescence data for the Black Sea provided by the IBSS (2496 stations for 1974-1999) accompany with some data on biological, chemical and physical variables. More information on these data can be found at the IBSS web side (http://www.ibss.org.ua/Default.aspx?tabid=324).

A big multivariable data set for the Black Sea was created within the MEDAR/MEDATLAS II project. The overall objective of this project was to make available a comprehensive data product of temperature, salinity and bio-chemical data in the Mediterranean and Black Sea, through a wide co­operation of the Mediterranean countries (http://www.ifremer.fr/medar/). The integrated database on CD-ROM contains the most comprehensive data set currently available (as for 2002 and not for all variables - author's remark) for the Mediterranean and the Black seas for the following parameters: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, silicate, ammonium, alkalinity, pH, chlorophyll, hydrogen sulphide, total nitrogen, total phosphorus. Data from 41554 oceanographic stations are included. All the parameters have been visually and automatically checked for quality according to a common protocol based on the international IOC, ICES and MAST recommendations. The CD-ROM is available for purchase through the IFREMER web site (http://www.ifremer.fr/anglais/produits/editions/).

The initial Black Sea database released after NATO TU Black Sea and

NATO SfP ODBMS Black Sea Projects, was extended within the NATO

Linkage Grant #980494 in 2004-2005 with 812 datasets and includes the quality checked data for 148 variables from 1,117 data sets, including 14,147,397 data values for 74,532 oceanographic stations. The created third version of the Black Sea Database includes:

• Main ODBMS database

Data of recent R/V "Akvanavt" expeditions (2001-2002 years)

The last R/V "Knor" Black Sea cruises (April - May, 2003)

• Some data from Medar/Medatlas-II project database (Black Sea data for 1890 - 1998, that were not included in the ODBMS database)

This version of the Database was released on CD ROM in May 2005. At the moment using of this CD ROM is restricted to the ODBMS Project and NATO Linkage Grant #980494 participants only.

A comprehensive data set on the Black Sea oceanographic data (temperature and salinity) was prepared by the Marine Hydrophysical Institute ( MHI NASU, Sevastopol, Ukraine) jointly with the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML, Miami, Florida) in the framework ofthe CRDF UG0-1270 Project "Rescue of Black Sea Hydrological Data, Creation digital Atlas and Studies of Seasonal and

Interannual Variability of Black Sea". The data set was released on CD in 2003. The dataset contains 104,000 stations done from 1890 till 2001. The CD is available on request from the MHI NASU (khaliulin@mhi-mist.sevsky.net).

CONCLUSIONS

A number of the available Black Sea datasets is growing permanently. However, this process is still rather slow and insufficient. One can hope that new international projects that cover the Black Sea region will drastically improve the situation in nearest years. First roles in this should be played by the EC SeaDataNet Project (http://www.seadatanet.org/) and by the IOC/IODE ODIN Black Sea Project

(http://www.iode.org/index.php?option=com content&task=view&id=36&I temid=76). The attempts should be made as well to create the united reliable quality checked data time series especially for biological data for which long time series do not exist yet.

Acknowledgements. This work was supported in part by the EC 6-th Framework

Project Black Sea SCENE and OCEAN-UKRAINE, a project Supported by the

Flemish Government - Department of Foreign Affairs. REFERENCES

1. V. L. VLADYMYROV, O. V. SERGEYEVA. Internet resources for the Black Sea: sources of data and information. In: Monitoring Systems for Marine Environment, Published by MHI NASU, Sevastopol, pp.181-183 - in Russian, (1999).

2. O. V. SERGEYEVA, V. L. VLADYMYROV. Sources of data and

information for the Black Sea: Web-based resources. In: Second International Conference "Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea: similarities and differences of two interconnected basins", Abstracts, 14-18 October 2002, METU, Ankara, Turkey, p.203

(2002).

3. V. VLADIMIROV, S. BESIKTEPE, D. AUBREY. Database and

Database Management System of the TU Black Sea Project. In: S.T. Besiktepe, U. Unluata, A.S. Bologa (Eds.)"Environmental Degradation of the Black Sea: Challenges and Remedies." Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, NATO Science Series, pp.291-302 (1999).


[1] The most complete and highly processed observations are from the delayed-mode (ICOADS.Dm) archive, covering 1784-2004. (Note

[2] The most complete and highly processed observations are from the delayed-mode (ICOADS.Dm) archive, covering 1784-2004. (Note

that data from 1784 through the early 1800s are extremely sparse -based on scattered ship voyages.)

[4] The most complete and highly processed observations are from the delayed-mode (ICOADS.Dm) archive, covering 1784-2004. (Note

[5] The most complete and highly processed observations are from the delayed-mode (ICOADS.Dm) archive, covering 1784-2004. (Note

[6] The most complete and highly processed observations are from the delayed-mode (ICOADS.Dm) archive, covering 1784-2004. (Note

[7] The most complete and highly processed observations are from the delayed-mode (ICOADS.Dm) archive, covering 1784-2004. (Note

[8] The most complete and highly processed observations are from the delayed-mode (ICOADS.Dm) archive, covering 1784-2004. (Note

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V Vladymyrov - Availability of data for the black sea climate change research