Автор неизвестен - International civil aviation organizations - страница 1
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONS
Look through and remember the following words.
to adopt - приймати
legislative - законодавчий
preamble - передмова, преамбула
to state - говорити, викладати
greatly - значно
to preserve - оберігати
representative - представник
authority - влада
participant - учасник
to award - присуджувати
honoured - почесний
voluntary - добровільний
Contracting States - країни, що домовляються
solution - рішення
вeyond - над, поза
to knit - зв'язувати
despite - незважаючи на
headquarters - головне управління, штаб-квартира
to facilitate - полегшувати, сприяти
implementation - виконання
prescribe - приписувати
amend - виправляти, вносити поправки
annex - додаток (до документу)
emergence - непередбачений випадок
unlawful - протизаконний
interference - втручання
occur - траплятися
abuse - зловживання
threat - загроза
to avoid - уникати, ухилятися
friction - незгоди, розходження
smooth - спокійний
Read and remember.
United Nations (UN) - Об' єднані Нації
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) - Міжнародна організація цивільної авіації
European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) - Європейська конференція з питань цивільної авіації
International Air Transportation Organization (IATA) - Міжнародна організація повітряного транспорту
Air Cargo Forwarders Association - Асоціація авіавантажних відправників
International Air Traffic Controllers Association - Міжнародна асоціація авіадиспетчерів
Private Pilots Association - Асоціація приватних пілотів Women in Aviation - Жінки в авіації
Read the text.
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONS
There exists a good number of different international official and professional organizations such as the International Air Traffic Controllers Association, the Air Cargo Forwarders Association, the Private Pilot Association, the Women in Aviation and the like. For example, the International Air Transportation Organization (IATA) is a voluntary, non-political and democratic organization that is open to any operators licensed to promote air services by a government of any Contracting States - members of the ICAO. The IATA helps all airlines to find joint solution to problems beyond the resources of a single company. It knits individual networks into a worldwide public service system, despite differences of language, currencies, laws and measurement items.
Among these organizations there is one international organization which works within the framework of the United Nations and consists of 187 Contracting States. This is the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO for short). It was founded in 1944 at the Conference of 52 countries that was held in Chicago. This Conference
adopted the Convention on International Civil Aviation that became the main legislative basis for the development of international civil aviation.
The Preamble to the Convention states: "WHEREAS the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to create and preserve friendship and understanding among the nations and peoples of the world, yet its abuse can become a threat to the general security; and
"WHEREAS it is desirable to avoid friction and to promote that cooperation between nations and peoples upon which the peace of the world depends;
"THEREFORE, the undersigned governments having agreed on certain principles and arrangements in order that international civil aviation may be developed in a safe and orderly manner and that international air transport services may be established on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and economically; "Have accordingly concluded this Convention to that end."
Part II of the Chicago Convention describes the principles of the ICAO structure and operations. The countries, members of the ICAO, are called Contracting States. The highest legislative power belongs to the Assembly that meets every three years and representatives of aviation authorities of all Contracting States take part as equal active voting participants. In the period between Assemblies the highest executive power is in the hands of the Council which is headed by the President. During more than 20 years Dr Assad Kotaite is the President of the Council. In 1998 Dr Assad Kotaite was awarded the title of Honoured Doctor of the Kyiv International University of Civil Aviation. The Secretary General manages the daily work of the Secretariat. The Headquarters of the ICAO is in Montreal, Canada.
The specific branches of activities are under the authority of the Commissions (Navigation, Legislative, Personnel Training and Licensing, Financial and others). The ICAO has established 6 regional offices in different parts of the world in order to facilitate smooth and effective activities. In Europe the ICAO branch is called the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) which is responsible for the
implementation of the prescribed International Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs).
The Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation has been amended by 18 Annexes that contain the regulatory information on specific problems. For example, Aircraft Operation. In recent years the aviation industry has seen the emergence of worldwide attacks against the safety and security of the travelling public, airlines and aircraft. Acts of unlawful interference have also occurred at airports and airline facilities.
The ICAO publishes "ICAO Bulletin" (a monthly journal) which contains necessary information for aviation specialists.
Ukraine joined the International Civil Aviation Organization in 1991 and ratified all main legislative and regulatory documents of the
1. Suffixes are used to form different parts of speech. Form nouns with the help of the suffixes -tion, -ency, -ence, -er, -ment, -ity, -ance, -e. Translate the nouns.
a) to associate
b) to forward
c) to fond
d) to develop
e) to state
f) to create
g) to establish
h) to govern
i) to arrange j) to describe k) to manage
l) to implement
m) to conclude
n) to emerge
o) to interfere association - асоціація
x) to promote
2. Underline the suffixes. Translate the nouns.
Governor, understanding, activist, politician, officialdom, structure, gratefulness, internationalism, width, voluntarism, certainty, democracy, operator, responsibility, safeness, participant, professorship, periodicity, signature, emergency, brotherhood, voyage, employee, participant, independence, management, manager, manageress, performance, permission, convention, conference.
Complete the rule
We can form nouns from the different parts of speech with the help of suffixes_
3. Form adjectives with the help of suffixes. Don't use any suffixes twice.
a) to practice
b) to desire
c) to abuse
h) to accord
демократичний відповідний -
i) to exist
n) response o) child
p) branch q) trouble гіллястий -_
Complete the rule.
We can form adjectives from the different parts of speech with the help of suffixes_
4. Translate the pairs of words. Underline the prefixes.
a) political - non-political_
b) possible - impossible_
c) lawful - unlawful_
d) responsible - irresponsible_
e) practical - impracticability_
f) agreement - disagreement_
g) understanding - misunderstanding_
h) dependence - independence_
i) regular - irregular_
j) durable - non-durable_
k) legal - illegal_
l) differently - indifferently_
m) to associate - to disassociate_
n) to agree - to disagree_
o) to use - to misuse_
p) sense - nonsense_
Complete the rule.
the words into their opposites.
Most derivative adverbs are formed by adding -ly to adjectives.
5. There are 4 adverbs with -ly at the end. Find them in the text and write out.
Note: Although the words orderly and soundly have -ly at the end they are adjectives.
6. Translate the groups of words. Mark the stress. Define the part of speech.
a) necessary - necessarity - necessitate - necessarily;
b) publish - publicly - publicize - publicity;
c) difference - different - differently - differentiate;
d) accordance - accord - accordingly - accordant;
e) response - responsible - responsibility - responsive;
f) special - specialize - specific - specialist.
1. Match a line in A with a line in B.
2. Look again at the text. Find the expressions that mean the same as the ones below. The first is done for you.
A lot of - a good number
to work like a specialized agency -_
to make and keep -_
to vote and accept a convention -_
so as to -_
that is why -_
in an organized way -_
to promote passenger and cargo handling -_
to consolidate airlines to work together -_
a head office -_
to promote peaceful and efficient work -_
3. Complete the word grid. Each line represents one letter. The first letters make the title of an association._
what a person does to earn money
a group of people, departments or institutions that work together
a person or company belongs to an organization
the state of being the same as someone or something else
closely linked group of people or organizations that work together
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
not allowed by law, unlawful
symbol or word indicating a quantity of units, used to count
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
a business that operates regular flights for passengers and cargo
the formal expression of a choice or opinion
involving two or more countries
to correct or change something
the movement of goods or people from one place to another
act of intervention
to ask for something to be made, supplied or delivered
to try to reach an agreement through discussion
1. Put the prepositions into the gaps.
a) The ICAO is one and only aviation organization that works_
the framework_the United Nations.
b) The ICAO consists_187 Contracting States.
c) The IATA is open _ any operators licensed to provide air
services _a government_any Contracting States-members
d) The IATA helps all airlines to find joint solutions_problems
_the resourses_a single company.
e) The IATA knits individual networks _ a worldwide public
service system, _differences of language, currencies, laws and
f) The Convention _ International Civil Aviation was adopted
_the Conference_52 countries.
g) It's very important to create and preserve friendship and understanding_the nations and peoples_the world.
h) _ 1944 _ Chicago the governments _ 52 countries
agreed_certain principles and arrangements.
i) The international air services should be established_the basis
_ equality _ opportunity and operated soundly and
j) The specific branches _ activities are _ the authority
k) The European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) is responsible
_ the implementation _ the prescribed the International
Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs).
l) The Chicago Convention_Civil Aviation has been amended
_ 18 Annexes which contain the regulatory information _
m) In recent years the aviation industry has seen the emergence_
world-wide attacks_the safety and security_the travelling
public, airlines and aircraft.
2. There are 47 verbs in the text. Put them into the correct columns. Present Simple (17)__Past Simple (4)__Present Perfect (4)
Infinitive (with or without to) (13)
3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
The IATA_(to serve) four groups interested in the smooth
operation of the world air transport system: airlines, governments, third parties such as travel and cargo agents or equipment suppliers - and the general public.
For the airlines, joint solution to the exoloitation of opportunities or solving problems - beyond the resources of any single company - can _(to find) within the IATA.
For governments, the IATA_(to serve) much effort and
expense that would othrwise have _(to expend) in bilateral
negotiations - particularly for traffic. Industry working standards
_(to develop) within the IATA. It_(to be) thus the most
effective source of airline experience and expertise, upon which
governments can _(to draw). In fostering sefe and efficient
international air transport, the IATA_(to serve) the stated policy
of most of the world's governments.
For third parties, the IATA _(to be) a collective link
between themselves and the airlines. Passenger and cargo agents
_(to be able) to make representations to the industry through the
IATA and_(to derive) the benifit of neutrally applied agency
service standards and levels of professional skill. Equipment
manufacturers and other are able_(to join) the very meetings
which_(to define) the way air transport_(to go) about its
For the general public, the IATA_(to simplify) the travelling
process. Thanks to airline cooperation through the IATA, individual passengers can, by making one telephone call and paying in a single
currency,_(to arrange) journeys including many countries and
the services of several airlines.
4. Change the following sentences, active to passive, passive to active.
a) The Conference adopted the Convention on International Civil Aviation.
b) The IATA helps the airlines to knit their individual networks into a worldwide public service system.
c) The government has licensed the operator to provide air services.
d) Annex 18 related dangerous goods transportation.
e) Ukraine has ratified all main legislative and regulatory documents of the ICAO.
f) For five weeks the delegates of 52 nations considered the problems of international civil aviation.
g) National training centres have been established by the ICAO technical co-operation mission.
h) Nationals of many countries have received the ICAO fellowship for study abroad.
5. Give short answers to the following questions.
a) Are there many international civil aviation organizations?_
b) Does the IATA work within the framework of the Unated Nations?
c) Was the ICAO founded in 1945?_
d) Did the Chicago Conference adopt the Convention on International Civil Aviation?_
e) Has the ICAO establish ten regional offices?_
f) Can the future development of international civil aviation help to create and preserve friendship and understanding among the nations and peoples of the world?_
g) Has the Chicago Convention amended by 28 Annexes?_
h) Is the ECAC responsible for the implementation of the prescribed International Standards and Recommended Practices?_
i) Have any acts of unlawful interference occured at airports and airline facilities?_
j) Are the specific branches of activities under the authority of the Commissions?_
k) May the civil aviation be developed in a safe and orderly manner?
l) Do the Annexes contain the regulatory information on specific branches?_
6. Work in pairs. You have some more information about the IATA, but you don't have the same information as your partner. Ask and answer What-questions to complete the information.
The basic source of authority in the IATA is (What?)_
in which all the Active Members have an equal vote. Year-round policy
direction is provided by (What?)_ (all airline chief
executives) and its creative work is largerly carried out by its Traffic, Technical, Financial and Legal Commettees. Coordination of fares and
rates agreements is entrusted (What?)_.Members of the IATA
commettees are nominated by individual airlines and subject to (What?)
_, serve as experts on behalf of the entire industry. In the
Tariff Conferences, however, delegates act as representatives of their individual companies.
The IATA has two main offices, one in Montreal and the other in Geneva. The IATA budget is financed from (What?)_.
The basic source of authority in the IATA is the Annual General